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The Introduction of bumblebees into New Zealand a few years ago, to secure the fertilization of the red clover, and the remarkable success of this venture are matters of record.

Mr. George M. Thomson, in the New Zealand Journal of Science, presents an interesting article on the introduced bumble-bees in New Zealand, giving also a list of the plants and flowers which are visited by these bees.

He makes the interesting statement tbat, with a few exceptions, he has never heard of these bees visiting the vers of indigenous plants, but states that they have become so extraordinarily abundant that the question has even arisen in his mind as to whether they would not become as serious a pest to the a piarist, as the rabbits have proved to be to the farmer and cultivator, on account of their absorbing so much of the nectar of the flowers.

He also points out the remarkable fact in connection with the life of the bumble-bee in New Zealand, that in many parts of the colony it is to be seen daily on flowers all the year round.

programme are ever needed.” And that is the key to the situation.

If the President is thoroughly capable of being the programme himself-if he is “full and running over ” with subjectmatter-if he is so well acquainted with the members as to grasp instantly their individual opinions and views, so

as to call out a full discussion, by continually suggesting that Mr. So-and-so “ holds a different view and we would like to hear from him on the subject,” or words to that effect—then neither programme or essay has any place in such a meeting.

President Miller is so much at home as chairman of a bee-keepers' assembly, that he knows how long to carry on a discussion-in what channel to direct it, when to stop, so as not to weary the members, and has a happy manner of saying so—that he is a whole convention in himself, including essays and programme.

The Doctor's extreme modesty led him into this “exposure,” and he must not now complain. So far as the item in Gleanings was concerned, it did not represent ús correctly without the last sentence--and so it was necessary for us to correct it.

Dr. J. W. Vance wisely remarks thus in the Wisconsin Farmer, on this subject:

The AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL says there were no essays read at the recent meeting of the Northwestern Bee-Keepers' Association, and yet there was no lack of subject-matter for discussion, nor want of enthusiasm. The convention an eminent success.

The editor adds: “ With such a President as Dr. Miller, no essays or programme are needed."

I am inclined to think too many or too lengthy essays are not good for our annual meetings. Generally we have had good essays, but the greatest interest of the meeting has centered upon the discussions, which often had to be cut short when at the most interesting point.

Essays should only lead far enough to suggest points for discussion, and in that way they are very good. they overpower and crowd out discussion, they are worse than useless.

Essays at conventions are sometimes quite unnecessary, as they were at the late convention at Chicago. At some conventions, we know that they are not only desirable, but very necessary.

Dr. Miller, in the last Gleanings, in his usual happy vein, writes thus on this subject:

When Newman, of the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, changes his mind, he makes no bones of saying so. Formerly he argued that essays at a convention were essential. Now he says, in the most unreserved manner : “ The Norlhwestern was a convention without essays, and it was a charming success. There was no want of subject-matter to discuss, and no lack of enthusiasm."

was

It was

only the Doctor's extreme modesty which prevented him from quoting the whole item. The rest of it, on page 709, reads thus : With such a President as Dr. Miller, no essays or

But if

Importing Bees is a very precarious business. Walter S. Pouder sent by mail a queen to Australia, and the result is detailed in the following interesting reply :

I received your letter on Oct. 16, and the accompanying queen-cage, but I regret to have to state that everything was dead, and had apparently been so for some time.

By the same mail I had two others sent me-one from Mr. Doolittle and one from Mr. Michael, of Ohio. Mr. Doolittle's queen was the sole survivor, the attendants having perished en route; while Mr. Michael managed to get through four workers, with

a dead queen-38 days would therefore appear to be about the limit of time the bees can stand the confinement. However, it is evident that queens can be sent here from America.

Three of my neighbors have sent orders, and they have each been successful, and I have not heard of any failure except in my own case.

I have had 12 cages altogether sent me, but only 3 live queens—in 2 other cages there were live workers. But even this is better than my first shipment of queens from Italy, where in the 8 boxes sent me, I got nothing but a magnificent collection of fine large, beautifully developed moths.

I have had improved success since, and last month I had 7 out of 8 come through all right. (It seems that our Italian friends had provisioned their cages with comb-honey, and this comb proved to be a breeding pen for the moth.)

ANEAS WALKER. Redland Bay, Australia, Oct. 30, 1891.

official organ ?” election of officers ; question drawer, etc.

7 p.m.-Essay by R. H. Myers, on Rendering Old Comb ;" address by J. B. Hall, on “Comb or Extracted-Honey -Which ?” Jan. 7, 9 a.m.-Other

essays and unfinished discussions.

Arrangements have been made with the Canadian Pacific and Grand Trunk railroads for reduced rates, as follows:

Persons going to London will ask the railway agent at starting point for a certificate, which he will fill in, certifying that they have purchased a firstclass single ticket to London. If there are 50 persons attending the convention, and holding these certificates, the return ticket will be given at one-third single first-class fare; but if there are less than 50 persons holding certificates, the return fare will be two-thirds single fare.

All persons traveling by rail should be sure to get these certificates filled out. It takes the agents a few minutes to fill them in, and they should be asked for 15 minutes before train time. If you require to travel over more than one railway you will require a certificate for each road.

Arrangements have been made with the Grigg House and the City Hotel for the accommodation of persons attending the convention-the former at $1.50 per day, and the latter at 80 cents to $1.00.

Our Thanks are due to the Nebraska Bee-Keeper for kind notice. We appreciate the fraternal feeling which prompted the kind words.

Michigan bee-keepers are now in session at Grand Rapids. We hope that it will be a pleasant gathering.

The Programme of the annual meeting of the Ontario Bee-Keepers’ Association, to be held at London, Ont., on Jan. 5, 6 and 7, 1892, is as follows:

Jan. 5, 2 p.m.-Reading of minutes; Secretary's report; Treasurer's report; other official reports; President's address.

7 p.m.-Report from Mr. Corneil, delegate to North American Bee-Keepers' Association ; essay by D. Chalmers on " Hives and Wintering;” essay by R. H. Smith, of Bracebridge, on "Apiarian Exhibits."

Jan. 6, 9 a.m.-Affiliated society's report; foul-brood-Inspector's report ;

2 p.m.-Essay by F. A. Gemmell on, "Shall we have a new bee journal or

The Nebraska State Bee-Keepers' Association, at its late meeting, by vote, made the Nebraska Bee-Keeper its official organ. Now let every bee-keeper in that State help to make it a success. We will furnish it and the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL one year for $1.35.

Dr. Miller was also prevented from attending the Convention at Albany, by another attack of La Grippe,

Queries and Replies.

Convention Notices.

The annual meeting of the Colorado State Bee-Keepers’ Association will be held in Denver, Jan. 18 and 19, 1892.

H. KNIGHT, Sec., Littleton, Colo.

Best Floor for a Bee-Cellar.

QUERY 799.—My cellar is damp on the bottom, what kind of a floor is best in such a case ?-Iowa.

The Indiana State Bee-Keepers' Association will convene in the agricultural room of the State House, at Indianapolis, Jan. 8, 1892, at 1 p.m. All bee-keepers are invited to attend.

GEO. C. THOMPSON, Sec., Southport, Ind.

Be The annual meeting of the Ontario BeeKeepers' Association will be held in the City Hall, London, Ont., Jan. 5, 6 and 7, 1892. Å good programme is being prepared. The usual reduced rates have been secured with the Grand Trunk and Canadian Pacific railways. Also special hotel rates at the Grigg House at $1.50 per day, and at the City Hotel from 80 cents to $1.00 per day. All persons interested in bee-keeping are cordially invited to attend.

W. COUSE, Sec., Streetsville, Ont.

A special session of the California BeeKeepers' Association, in honor of the visit of Prof. A. J. Cook and A. J. Root, will be held in Los Angeles, Calif., at the Chamber of Commerce, Jan. 6 and 7, 1892. The California permanent exhibit in an adjoining room, will no doubt be of interest to all.

C. W. ABBOTT, Prest. G. W. BRODBECK, Sec.

Cement.-J. M. HAMBAUGH. I do not know.-J. E. POND. Cement.-EUGENE SECOR. Cement.—MRS. L. HARRISON. I would place plenty of lime on the ottom.-J. P. H. BROWN.

Water-proof cement, extending up the walls as far as the dampness extends.M. MAHIN.

A good gravel-cement is as good as any.-G. L. TINKER.

I think the natural earth floor is the best.-R. L. TAYLOR.

I should have the natural earth. I see no use of any special floor.-A. J. COOK.

I have never tried anyth better than brick and cement.-G.W.DEMAREE.

Possibly cement-possibly earth. Find out first whether bees Winter well just as it is.-C. C. MILLER.

Good dry sand. A box of lime is an excellent thing in a bee-cellar-use about one bushel.-H. D. CUTTING.

Put the hives on something one foot from the cellar bottom, and the dampness will do no harm.-G. M. DOOLITTLE.

Nothing is better than a well-cemented floor. Mix the mortar one-half sand and one-half cement.-C. H. DIBBERN.

If you have no floor of any kind-not even stone or cement, lay down boards, and on top put 4 inches of dry sawdust. If cement, then the sawdust on that.-JAMES HEDDON.

A good, thick cement floor is good in all kinds of cellars. I have used it in both wet and dry.-A. B. MASON.

Dampness is not particularly objectionable to the bees. If the bees have not wintered well in the cellar as it is, then use cement or dry sawdust, or both. -THE EDITOR.

Be The Minnesota Bee-Keepers' Association will meet in Owatonna, Minn., on Jan. 20 and 21, 1892. Free entertainment will be provided for those attending by the citizens of Owatonna, and it is expected that the railroads

will carry those attending, at reduced rates. The State Horticultural Society hold their annual meeting at the same time.

WM. DANFORTH, Sec., Red Wing, Minn.

The Ohio State Bee-Keepers' Association will hold its next annual meeting at the West-End Turner Hall, on Freeman Avenue, Cincinnati, O., from Feb. 10 to 12 inclusive, 1892, beginning at 10 a.m. Wednesday, Feb. 10. All local associations should endeavor to meet with us or send their delegates. Those intending to be present, will please send their names to the Secretary, at their earliest convenience. The President will endeavor to get reduced railroad rates, and also reduced rates at hotels. The programme will soon be issued, and all particulars published.

C. F. MUTH, Pres., Cincinnati, O. S. R. MORRIS, Sec., Bloomingburg, O.

Winter Problem in bee-keeping; by G. R. Pierce, of Iowa, who has had 25 years' experience in bee-keeping, and for the past 5 years has devoted all his time and energies to the pursuit. Price, 50 cents. For sale at this office.

Get a Binder, and always have your BEE JOURNALS ready for reference. We will mail you one for 50 cents.

12 The sewing machine I got of you still gives excellent satisfaction--W. J PATTERSON, Sullivan, Ills.

Topics of Interest.

Eastern Iowa Convention.

FRANK COVERDALE.

H. Stewart-Düring, the past Summer I have visited over 100 bee-keepers, and where these deeper,frames were used, the a piarist was not as successful in the production of comb-honey.

Prevention of Swarming. Mr. Hines, of Anamosa, had on exhibit a hive which he invented for the purpose. A twin bee hive. He manipulated the hive and frames, so as to keep down the swarming fever.

F. Coverdale-I let the bees swarm during the past Summer, and moved the old hive to one side, and about 14 inches forward. I bored a one-inch hole in the center of the old hive, and about 12 inch from the bottom-board. I placed a cone in the auger hole, then fastened up the entrance, and put the swarm on the old stand. All were elevated nearly as fast as the young bees became old enough to fly. When nearly all were hatched, part of the entrance was removed, the cone taken out, and the hole fastened up.

EVENING SESSION.

The bee-keepers of Eastern Iowa convened at DeWitt, on Dec. 2, with VicePresident H, S. Bowman in the chair. After roll call and routine business the convention adjourned until 1 p.m., when the regular programme was begun, the first subject for discussion being “ Bees and the Farm.”

H. S. owman said I consider it profitable to keep bees in connection with farming.

W. S. Rice-I think that bee-keeping alone is the most profitable, for the busy time for the farm and the bees come at the same time.

Frank Coverdale-For the past two years it would be rather a light income, if one bee-yard should be depended upon to meet all expenses.

H. S. Bowman-I would not tolerate a pursuit that was not able to stand alone.

F. Coverdale-While I consider beekeeping as an important branch of agriculture, it has, when in the hands of the specialist, been abundantly able to stand alone.

Spring Dwindling. L. J. Pierce-Keeping them in the cellar until late in the Spring will help very much.

D. Benton-My bees that are wintered out-doors, in chaff hives, do not dwindle. I prefer cellar wintering, and would leave them in until late in the Spring.

H. S. Bowman-The life of the worker bee, when kept confined, is about six months, and much of the Spring dwindling is caused by the natural decadence of the colony.

H. Stewart-Bees should not be allowed a flight, when wintered in the cellar, until settled warm weather comes.

Brood-Frames. H. Stewart was of the opinion that quite shallow frames were as good as any for brood-rearing-even Mr. Heddon's divisible hive.

H. S. Bowman-When Father Langstroth invented the movable-frame hive, he hit the happy medium, for with all attempts to improve it, no one has been successful. Wm. Kimble-I want a frame 2 inches

The evening session was very enjoyable. As those who were on the programme for the evening were not there, the time was occupied by discussions.

MORNING SESSION-DEC. 3. There was a heavy rain during the whole day, but the attendance was good.

Question Box. Will it pay to melt up combs, or should they be saved for hiving swarms ?

T. Hines—When such combs were used for swarms, they did not do as well as where nothing but starters were given them.

Mr. Bowman-I would use the surplus combs in new hives, and in building up worker-comb in old hives.

Mr. Kuebler-I agree with Mr. Bowman in a general way.

Mr. Bowman-I like 2 or 3 empty combs to hive swarms on.

A Member—Whenever the bees get their work ahead of the queen, look out for drone-comb. These 2 or 3 empty combs will do it.

D. Benton-Whenever my bees are hived on a full set of combs, or full sheets of foundation, much of the honey will be stored in the brood-chamber, crowding out the brood, making the colonies weaker to gather the Fall crop.

Mr. Hines offered several strong arguments to prove that bees cannot control the secretion of wax, though it was opposed by many.

deeper.

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as I am somewhat bulky, and anticipated him by leaving. We soon ceeded in finding a seat together, and the time flew faster than we passed the telegraph poles, as we talked bees, hives, etc., “for when pleasure and profit can be combined, time runs swift and the heart is glad." Mr. Taylor said that he had been a bee-keeper for forty-five years, that his enthusiasm was yearly on the increase, and that if he did not •make anything from them for ten years he would keep on.

AUTOMATIC HIVER.

Is Careful Breeding Necessary ?

H. S. Bowman-Careful breeding is necessary in order to secure the best results.

Mr. Kuebler-I want well-bred Italians, for they protect themselves better, and gather more honey.

G. Jacobs—My 40 colonies are hybrids, and I like them better than pure Italians.

H. Stewart-Go where you will, and you will find advocates of scrub cattle and scrub horses, but he who breeds for the higher points, reaps his reward.

A premium was given for a machine that would put together one-piece sections the best and quickest. C. Kuebler won the first, and W. S. Rice the second. Adjourned until 1 p.m.

AFTERNOON SESSION. The meeting was called to order by President Kimble. A letter was read from the State Secretary, asking the co-operation of the Eastern Iowa beekeepers in securing an appropriation for an exhibit at the World's Fair.

Three delegates were appointed to attend the next annual meeting of the State association. They were H. S. Bowman, Frank Coverdale, and Wm. Kimble.

The election of officers then took place, and resulted as follows:

President-H. S. Bowman, Maquoketa, Iowa.

Vice-President-Henry Stewart, Prophetstown, Ills.

Secretary-Frank Coverdale, Welton, Iowa.

Treasurer-L. J. Pierce, DeWitt, Iowa.

Maquoketa was chosen as the place to hold the next meeting at the call of the President. FRANK COVERDALE, Sec.

Welton, Iowa.

Mr. Taylor's countenance beamed with delight as he reached for a small hand-satchel and opened it. I imagined that he carried some pets in there, and was not disappointed. He thought that it was the best part of a convention to have hives and fixtures brought there so that a comparison could be made, and their good and bad points discussed.

He handed me a photograph, cabinet size, and I soon saw that it did not contain his pleasant shadow, but that of a hive with an automatic hiver attachment. I will not try to describe this hiver, as I may not be able to describe it intelligibly to my readers, but will try to explain the principle of it:

All self-hivers that I ever heard about before, conducted the bees by a passageway into a hive placed by the side of a colony, but Mr. Taylor said that as the queen and bees fly upward, his passageway is constructed so that the bees follow this inclination and go upward. This passageway is of the width of the hive, and as tall again. On the top of this towering way a light box, with two sides of wire gauze, is fastened with Van Deusen

clasps. There is strong draught of air out of the hive while the bees are swarming, and this is utilized to close a door in the passageway, which shuts the bees in, and they go up into the hiver with the queen. Those that flew out before the door closed would gather on the outside of the wire gauze.

What a bonanza this hiver would be for the women-put on a hiver, knead the bread, mind the baby, and cook the good man's dinner, without fear of the bees going to the woods. No need of hurry to hive them, either. They can be put into the cellar for forty-eight hours, and when hived there will be no danger of their turning up their nose and escaping to the woods-emigrating West.

If this hiver never comes into general use, the inventor has had deal of comfort and satisfaction in manufacturing it

a

Automatic Hiyer, Bee-Escape, Etc.

MRS. L. HARRISON.

As I was returning from the Chicago Bee Convention I saw a tall man, clothed in fur, enter the car. I took him to be B. Taylor, of Forestville, Minn., but I was not sure, as there was so little of him to be seen on account of the fur. But the temptation of having an intelligent bee-keeper to talk with overcome my timidity, and leaving my seat I went to where he sat and found that I had been correct in my surmises.

I stood' in the
aisle talking for awhile

, i

when I saw by the eye of the conductor that I was obstructing the passageway,

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