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be nectar in a flower one year, and none | ing. As I am situated, I find it necesthe next; that there may be nectar in sary to be a specialist. the flowers in one field, and none in the J. E. Crane-I see no reason why beenext field to it, in the same season; and

keeping need not be a success. In Verthat there may be nectar in a part of a

mont, bee-keepers are as successful as field, and not any, or very little, in the

the farmers. I think specialty ought remainder of it; that a field may get

not to be discouraged, yet it is well to poor and “run out,” as it is called, and

have something in connection with beenot produce any honey, the same as a

keeping, as it is sometimes a failure. wheat field that has been sowed too

J. E. Hetherington-I think I ought often to wheat; that the richer the land

to qualify my remarks. Mr. Crane says is, the more honey it gives ; that the

that bee-keeping pays in Addison County, first crop of the clover is the best; that

Vt. That is a good location. The same black bees will work on red clover in

is true of Central New York. The this locality as well as Italians, and that

trouble is that bee-keepers are not neither will work on it in some seasons.

positive enough in their methods to sucThe colony that had the most drones in

ceed as specialists. So many think that my yard last season, had the most sur

a colony has a good queen; that it has plus, but it was the strongest colony I

enough honey for Winter ; that its combs had. The AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL is

are good enough, etc. The trouble is cheaper by half than any of the month

they do not know; and that is why so lies. There are as many pages, and as

many fail. large, and you get four in a month to only one of the others. There need be

G. M. Doolittle-I was a farmer's boy, no more contention over the Punic bees ; and “took to bee-keeping" much they simply are not in it. Apis niger is against my father's wishes. I once overburied in oblivion, and we shall hear of heard my father telling a man how them no more.

anxious he was that I should be a Richland Centre, Wis.

farmer. Said he: “I have prayed that Gilbert would make a failure of beekeeping, but it looks now as thongh he was going to succeed in spite of my prayers.” I worked the farm on shares

until I saw my way clear to make a livW. Z. HUTCHINSON.

ing from bees. I have lived to see that

farm decline in value from $75 to $40 [Continued from page 21.]

per acre. Where would I have been if I Should Bee-Keeping be Made a had remained on the farm ? I should Specialty ?

have been barely making a living. I

have been told that a man who could This was the next topic taken up for successfully manage 100 colonies of discussion. Mr. McKnight said that is bees, possessed ability that would comhe wished to make a grand success of mand an annual salary of $1,000. But bee-keeping, he should make it a salaried positions are uncertain. I have specialty. Bees can be kept in connec a home, the fresh air and freedom of the tion with other pursuits. He scarcely country, and a comfortable living. It is knew whether he would be called a true that I am not now a honey-prospecialist or not. He certainly gave. ducing specialist. I have been thrown special attention to bee-keeping.

into queen-rearing, but I look back with • J. E. Hetherington-In connection regret to the time when I made money with this topic, I may say I remember

from honey alone. In 1874 I drew all a letter that I wrote to Mr. Quinby, my honey (several tons) to Syracuse, when I was a young man, asking him if

and sold it for 2812 cents a pound. Now he would advise a young man to make a

it would not bring half that, and, for specialty of bee-keeping. Mr. Quinby me, there is more money in queensaid no. Later in life I referred him to rearing. this letter, and asked him how he would N. D. West- In my opinion, it is not now answer it; and he said that his an best for a young man to start out as a swer would still be the same. Just look specialist. If a man gets a few bees, over the list of those who kept bees 20 and likes bee-keeping, the next thing years ago, and have succeeded so well you know he will be neglecting his that they are still content to follow the regular business for the bees. Then he business. How few they are! Mr. | will soon become a bee-keeper, and the Quinby advised Winter school-teaching, other business will be dropped. dairying, or some kind of manufactur- Next W. Z. Hutchinson read an essay

North American Bee-Keepers' Association.

written by Wm. F. Clarke, on the “ Pre any danger of again getting the swarmvention of Swarming."

ing fever, the season is over. All the

cells are cut out, if there are any, when [This was published last week on page

the queen-cell is given. The cell must 17.-ED.]

be protected with a queen-cell protecH. S. Stewart-I think Mr. Clarke tor when given, or it would be destroyed gives some good points; one is that of before the bees had discovered their giving plenty of room, but that is con queenless condition, and were ready to siderable work. Removing the queen is accept a young queen. I use hives with one way.

considerable room in the brood-chamber, J. E. Crane-I have tried several and shade the hives. With a contracted methods, and I must confess I do not brood-chamber this plan might not be know how to prevent the disposition to so successful. swarm. Blacks have a greater disposi J. E. Crane--I have tried putting in a tion to swarm than have the Italians. I cell, but the bees would always swarm. tried introducing young queens, but it I have been more successful by introfailed. I have given it up in disgust,

ducing virgin queens. and decided to let them swarm, and then

Next came an essay by G. H. Knickerso manage them as so get the best work

bocker, entitled : 6. The Italian Beeout of them by manipulation.

What are the principal points of exF. H. Cyrenius—I raise brood into the

cellence, and to which qualities should upper story, put a queen-excluder be

we give the preference, with a scale of tween the two stories, and the bees in

markings as for neat stock ?” the upper story rear a queen, and the bees do not swarm. I work for ex [This was published last week on tracted-honey. In producing comb page 20.-ED.] honey I cannot prevent swarming.

G. M. Doolittle-I am satisfied that G. M. Doolittle-In producing comb

the Italian bee is a hybrid. We might honey I have never succeeded satisfac

adopt a standard for thoroughbreds, but torily in preventing swarming. If a

I cannot see how it can be done, and yet colony is kept from swarming, it is

to do no injustice. thrown into an abnormal condition.

Mr. Leonard-I see that some are adThis is unprofitable. It is better to let

vertising five-banded bees. I would like them swarm, and then so manage as to

to know if they are more than thoroughmake the most out of them.

breds ? S. Corneil-I know of a bee-keeper in

J. M. Hambaugh-I would like to Canada who puts 4 colonies on a revolv

have Mr. Doolittle tell why he calls ing platform, or rather a colony at each

Italian bees hybrids ? end of a cross that may be revolved. Each day the cross is given a quarter

G. M. Doolittle-Black bees are alturn. This mixes the bees, and the

ways black. They are a fixed type. mixing seems to disconcert their plans

They do not sport. When brought for swarming.

from Italy, Italian bees may produce P. H. Elwood—I do not know as I

two-banded or three-banded bees. After have anything new to offer on this point,

awhile we find some of them showing It is the same old system that I have

four bands. By selection and care in used so long—that of removing the

breeding the four-banded bees we now queen. I will say, however, that there

have produced the five-banded bees, and is a difference in strains of bees.

I expect that we shall yet have bees Ira Barber-What do you do with the

that are all yellow. As Italians do not queen when you remove her?

have a fixedness in their markings, I say P. H. Elwood-If she is old we kill

that they are hybrids. her. If we wish to keep her, we take C. P. Dadant-Black bees do differ. with her a frame or two of bees and We have the black, the gray and the brood.

brown, all called black or German bees. A Member-I have tried to prevent Bees from Italy differ in color. The swarming by introducing young queens, bands may not always be just so bright, but it did not work this year.

but they are there. N. D. West-I remove the queen just E. R. Root-We have imported many about as the bees are ready to swarm, queens from Italy, and their progeny and put in a queen-cell that will hatch always shows the three bands. in two or three days. The queen G. M. Doolittle-There is no such hatches, and becomes fertile, and the thing as a one-banded or two-banded bees do not swarm. By the time the bee. If a bee shows any yellow, it shows queen is ready to lay, and the colony in 1 yellow on three bands.

E. R. Root-To a certain extent I will have made their visit. We migit agree with Mr. Doolittle. I will say have extracted-honey on exhibition this much: If we look at a bee care early, and then change to comb-honey lessly, or, perhaps, I should say casually, after the new crop had been harvested. we would say that it was one or two J. E. Hetherington—That would be banded, when the same bee filled with

all right. Let us show honey and imhoney and placed upon a window would

plements, and then make a grand show show three bands.

of honey at one particular time, but all C. P. Dadant-The bee-keepers' asso this can be arranged and looked after ciation of Italy asserts most emphatically by a committee. that all the bees of Italy are yellow.

J. M. Hambaugh-I think it would be J. E. Crane-We know that many better and grander to have all the three-banded bees “sport,” but, for all honey show, from all the States, in one that, I see no objection to the adoption grand display. of a “standard of excellence.”

It was finally moved and carried that 0. L. Hershiser-Have imported bees a committee of three, with Dr. A. B. ever shown more than three bands ? Mason as chairman, be appointed to

C. P. Dadant-I believe we were the look after the apiarian interests at the first to import Carniolans, but we quit | coming Columbian Exposition. By vote importing them, and said nothing about

it was decided that P. H. Elwood and J. it, because we found out that we were M. Hambaugh should be the other two getting nothing but black bees. The members of the committee. bees from the other side of the mountains were of a different brown. This proves what I told Mr. Doolittle, that The question was asked, through the black bees do differ.

question box, does the use of separators To save time a committee was ap pay for the loss of honey caused by their pointed to draft a standard of excellence use ? The committee appointed to anfor Italian bees, to be laid before the swer these questions replied that it is convention for its consideration. The not admitted that there is a loss attendfollowing were appointed: G. H. Knick ing their use, but even if a loss did erbocker, G. M. Doolittle, C. P. Dadant, occur, they ought to be used. and J. E. Crane.

J. E. Crane-I have had sections filled Next came a communication from Dr.

in which a bee-space had been allowed A. B. Mason, on “ The Outlook for Api

around the outside of the sections. The culture at the Columbian Exposition."

combs were well attached, much better The Doctor was unable to be present.

than when no such space was given. His duties as postmaster were such that

Combs are more travel-stained when no he could not leave at this time. W. Z.

separators are used. I secure no more Hutchinson read the communication.

honey by abandoning the use of separa[This was published on page 19.-ED.] tors.

N. D. West-I can get more honey J. E. Hetherington-At the Centen

with less trouble by using separators. nial we were allowed to enter our honey as late as September; yet there were

Place of Holding the Next Meeting. only four exhibitors. It is difficult to keep honey over, and have it look well. Buffalo, New York, Toledo, Cleveland, I think it should be so managed that we Denver, and two or three other places can have at least until the first of were mentioned as being desirable places August before placing honey on exhi for holding the next convention, but the bition.

choice finally fell upon Washington, S. Corneil-I think bee-keepers should D. C. overwhelm them at Chicago with letters stating what is wanted. Unless space is

Election of Officers. granted in advance, when the time

The election of officers resulted as comes for it to be used, it will be occu

follows: pied with something else.

President-Eugene Secor, Forest City, J. E. Hetherington-There should be | Iowa. a committee appointed that will attend Vice-President-Capt. J. E. Hetherto this matter from now until the ington, Cherry Valley, N. Y. World's Fair opens.

Secretary-W. Z. Hutchinson, Flint, O. L. Hershiser-By July half the Mich. number of visitors to the World's Fair Treasurer-E. R. Root, Medina, 0.

Spraying of Fruit Trees. the poison from such-and-such an or

chard ? Bee-keepers never have good, After the election of officers, Prof. J.

strong, healthy colonies die during A. Lintner, State Entomologist for New

apple bloom. It is a thing unheard of, York, asked to be allowed to say a few

except where trees have been sprayed, words in regard to the practice of spray

during bloom, in the neighborhood. ing fruit trees with Paris green or London purple, or any arsenical poison. In

J. E. Crane-I know of a man who substance, he said that this practice had

sprayed his trees during bloom, and rebecome indispensable to success in fruit

ported finding large quantities of dead growing. The egg of the codling-moth bees under his trees. is laid just as the blossom falls, and a R. McKnight-I think many bees are short time after this is the time to spray killed by the use of Paris green on the trees in order to destroy the just potato vines. hatched larva; but spraying is also re

G. H. Knickerbocker-Many use the sorted to in order to destroy the curculio

poison too strong. and other insects, and it would be an

C. P. Dadant-If the poison used is advantage, so far as the destruction of some insects is concerned, if spraying

strong enough to kill the insects that

feed upon the blossoms, why will not the could be resorted to previous to and during the bloom. I have always ad

bees that gather the nectar suffer in a vised against spraying during the time

like manner? In our locality, spraying of blooming, although I think experi

during bloom has been dropped. ments are needed to prove that spraying

P. H. Elwood-I saw a statement by the bloom is injurious to bees. I would Prof. Cook, saying that he had fed bees like to know if any one present knows

a solution of arsenic of the standard that bees have been injured by the

strength for killing insects, and it killed spraying of trees in bloom.

the bees. Now, if the poison kills one

insect, why not another ? C. P. Dadant-Mr. J. G. Smith, of New Canton, Pike County, Ills., lost 60

Prof. Lintner-The insects killed are colonies of bees from the heavy spraying

so small that the poison used for the of trees before, during and after the

work need not be strong enough to injure the bees.

G. M. Doolittle-I should not like to Prof. Lintner-I would ask if there

have it go out that the spraying of potato was any examination made of the honey

vines causes more damage than the to see if a trace of arsenic could be de

spraying of fruit bloom. We do not lose tected ? Unless this was done, or there bees at the time of the year when potaare other similar cases, I must beg leave toes are being sprayed, but at the time to doubt if bees were killed by the poison.

of spraying during fruit bloom. There are other injurious insects besides the codling moth; and, in fighting some

E. R. Root-In the great mass of corof these, it is necessary to spray before

respondence that passes through our and during the bloom, but, as I have

hands, I notice that many complain of already said, I have advised against

the loss of bees from the spraying of spraying during bloom, because there

fruit trees, but no such complaints come have been reports that bees have been

at the season of the year when potatoes killed thereby. I think it is in Illinois

are sprayed. Only where legislation has been attempt

The Society decided by vote that at ed upon this point.

“the present state of our knowledge, the

spraying of fruit trees while in bloom is I. L. Scofield-We had a large number of healthy colonies when spraying

condemned. began, and many colonies were dead

A vote of thanks was given Prof. when the spraying season was at an

Lintner. end.

It was thought that a committee Prof. Lintner-There need be no

ought to be appointed to make or look question upon this matter, as an analysis

after experiments made with a view to of the honey gathered, or of the honey

proving whether the spraying of trees in the sacs of the bees that die, would

while in bloom actually does lead to the set the matter at rest.

destruction of bees. The following gen

tlemen were appointed : S. Corneil, C. P. Dadant-That would not answer, Lindsay, Ont., J. E. Crane, Middleburg, as the bees that eat the poison may not | Vt., and I. L. Scofield, of Chenango reach their home. Then, again, how | Bridge, N. Y. This committee was to are we to prove that the bees obtained 1 act with Prof. Lintner.

bloom.

Killed by the - Sting of a Bee.

The following from Mr. R. F. Holter wax in it, stronger than that built from "mann was read, on

the average beeswax for comb-founda

tion. I can assign no other reason for Some Facts not Generally Known

this than that already given. You will about Rendering Beeswax.

all be able to understand what this has The subject to which I am about to

to do with the foul-brood question. refer I shall not attempt to clothe in

Instances of foul-brood, although never much language, but it is important, and

in my own a piary, have come under my particularly so in view of recent discus

notice, and I do not feel inclined to besions upon the spread of foul-brood

lieve that the disease is spread through through wax, and how it is to be pre

beeswax after melting. Yet we should vented.

use every precaution until we are sure We know that there is scarcely any, if it is not so spread. any, natural produce, be it in the ani- | If we have to injure our beeswax by mal or vegetable kingdom, which can be using such a precaution, it is certainly heated to any material degree above

time steps were taken to find out if the that in which it was produced, and re

disease of foul-brood can be spread as tain the same properties of nature as it |

ties of nature as it | indicated, and that arrangements were did before so heated, yet we appear to

made to properly test the matter. ignore the fact in the melting of bees

R. F. HOLTERMANN. wax.

The general bee-keeping public do not appear to be aware that wax can be injured by heating almost to the boiling point, or by long and continuous heat

DR. J. W. VANCE. ing at a somewhat lower temperature. Is such the fact ? I am convinced that

We read not long since in a medical whilst the average wax is rendered with

journal the statement that a young man, less injury now than in former years, | Wm. H. Danley, of Williamsport, Pa., the average wax has lost a portion of

died from the sting of a bee in 15 minthe valuable properties which it pos utes from the time he received the sessed when first generated by the bee. i sting. Mr. D. complained of excruciat

Of course, you have a right to ask, Is | ing pain ; his hand at once began to this a suggestion upon the line of which swell rapidly, and in a few minutes his I wish you to experiment and observe in whole system was affected. Ten minthe future, or have I proof? Well, it is utes after being stung, he fell into a both. I believe it will only require care comatose condition, and before aid could ful reflection and a few arguments in be summoned, he was dead. favor of my-call it theory, if you like, There were some surmises as to the to lead many of you to at least reflect. why and wherefore, but it is idle to

Wax produced in countries consider attempt to explain why a bee-sting will ably south of us, should surely, if any kill a robust young man, when so many thing, be stronger and better able to delicate people are stung hundreds of resist a high temperature, and yet the times every Summer with no poisonous average beeswax from the South will effects, except a slight local inflammabreak more easily in the hive than our tion. We were somewhatamused by the own. After months of reflection, I can query of the writer in the medical jouronly come to the conclusion that the nal, that the bee that stung the deceased reason is, that in these localities the might have imbibed some virulent methods of rendering are more crude, poison. and it is more liable to injury from over It caused us to ask, whence do bees heating in that process.

imbibe the ordinary poison with which Again, I know and have seen, comb they charge their stings ? foundation made from wax rendered in About all we know of the nature of the solar wax extractor, put in the hive the poison is that it is similar to formic much thinner than ordinarily, and yet acid, but what its relative component not sag or break down. I could assign ingredients of carbon, hydrogen and no other reason for this, than that by oxygen are, we have not yet found out. the rendering it received less injury, as It is a secretion of certain glands that is it had not likely reached the same tem gathered into a receptacle called the perature as that rendered by different poison sac. Usually, when the bee inmethods.

flicts a sting, the poison sac is lost with Observation has led me to conclude the sting, which becomes fixed in the that natural comb is, for the amount of l skin, by the minute barbs with which

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