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long enough to cover the hive crosswise around, and as much as you wish above. of the frames; 5/16 of an inch on one The bottom fits inside to allow the sides edge of those is bent to a right angle to to run any water over; the siding lies

horizontally, the joints are bevelled or should be just one bee-space below the ship-lapped, it is shanty roofed, and level of the top of the hive, the flat edge the roof is shingled.

The siding for the front and back is edge of the hive, and each succeeding nailed to two narrow strips that do not piece rests on the one previously placed quite extend to the bottom or top. When until the last is reached, when it is re the clamp is constructed, they stand on versed, and is supported the same as the the bottom, while they require to be first one.

short of reaching the top to allow the By using this zinc in some such man rafters a rest inside. By using strips in 1 ner, the upper frames are within two the corner, the clamp is much stronger, bee-spaces of the lower ones. While in and no care need be used to break joints, using it by the Heddon-Tinker plan they and should you wish to knock them are three bee-spaces a part, and a bee down in Summer there would not be so space in the hive I use contains fully 50 | many pieces, but it is quite unnecessary cubic inches, while in the Langstroth it to do so, as no better sunshade could be is about 70, which means that amount provided. of space to be filled with bees for noth There are three boards in each bottom, ing, as there is not, or should not be, the two outer ones being nailed to two any comb there.

strips for the hive to rest on, while the

center board is left loose, to be removed SUPER FOR COMB-HONEY.

in Summer to allow a current of air to As it is very desirable for comb-honey

pass through the clamps. producers to have well-devised supers, I

The front of the roof requires to be will show and explain to you a super

raised a little to give sufficient ventilawhich I brought to light on June 18,

tion, and there are just two rafters 1891. [See page 377.] .

which are fitted inside of the ends to A matter of no little importance in a

hold the roof in place. A board of bee-hive is to have the comb-frames

proper width is placed between the inspread to a proper distance a part; they

terior of the clamp and front of the hive, can, we confess, be spaced considerably

to allow the bees an opening through wider in the surplus hives than in the

the packing; this board is nailed to two brood-chamber-in the latter 1 5/16 inches from center to center is sufficient,

the entrance. There are two tin slides, while in the former 14 inches is not too much. Care should be used in suspend

with a hole punched in each, to afford a ing the frames to have as small a por

catch in opening or contracting the en

trance. tion of them touch the hives as possible.

Before closing the hive, the clamp is All hives, of course, require a bee

filled to the level of the bottom pieces, entrance at the bottom, and a board or

with ashes, cork-dust, chaff, or any other covering.

other packing, and when the hive and This brings us to the exterior of the hive where there is nothing very ma

entrance fixtures are in position, fill in

all around with packing, but not over terial to note, other than if the hive was to stand the weather it is better to be

the top until you see that provision is

made for the moisture to escape through well painted, but if protected by an outer case, it is better without paint,

the covering of the hive.

I trust that my explanations have and costs that much less. I feel convinced that a colony of bees will winter

been sufficiently explicit, and of benefit better in an unpainted hive than in a

to you.—Read at the Ontario Bee-Keep

ers' Convention. painted one.

Poole, Ont. : WINTERING BEES. This brings me to the second part of my essay, or wintering. On this subject I will be brief, and as I have discarded cellar or indoor wintering I have concluded to merely describe the clamp I

WM. BOONE. use.

It is built to accommodate two hives My 10 colonies of bees are in good deep in Summer, that is by tiering, condition, many of them having their while in Winter it affords three inches central combs one-third full of eggs and of packing under the hive, four inches brood in all stages. My bees are hybrids,

Bee-Keeping in Kentucky.

season.

--but I intend to have Italians during the | get to it at any time they may need it. coming season. I consider them the best Cluster them on as few frames as posfor this country.

sible, cover the frames well on top, give I use the Langstroth hive, which I | the hive a reasonable amount of upward believe the best, all things considered, | ventilation, and disturb the bees as little especially for extracted-honey and large | as possible. With the foregoing, I beswarms. I have sometimes thought lieve you will have all that is necessary that if the Langstroth frame was but 2 to carry them safely until the next inches shorter and 1 inch less in depth, it might be a better Winter hive, thus In 1883 and 1884 I had 40 colonies putting the bees in a more compact clus of bees in Langstroth hives. (This is ter, and so economize space and heat in almost the only hive that is used in this Winter. We winter our bees on the part of the country.) I work almost ensummer stands here.

tirely for extracted-honey. My 40 coloThere has of late been a great deal nies averaged in 1883 and 1884 100 said about spacing frames and having pounds of extracted-honey per colony. them stationary in the hives. I have The best yield I have ever been able to always had frames 136 incbes from cen get from any given number of colonies, ter to center, the top-bar 1% inches was from 7 colonies of Italians, which wide, taking 10 frames in the lower gave me 2,100 pounds of extractedstory, and 11 in the upper.

honey, in each of the two seasons of Much has been written about the bee- 1883 and 1884. These two were the space within the hive. All the space I best seasons we have had in Kentucky want in the hive is just space enough for many years. We have had none since for the bees to travel all around the half as good. frames-bottom, sides, ends and tops of Our only honey resources in this part frames-in fact, I want the bees to be of the country are locust bloom and white complete masters of the inside of the

clover. None of us ever sow any crops hive, for unless they have full control of for honey, but depend upon the natural the frames and hive on the inside, there resources for our honey. None in Kenwill always be a lurking place for moths tucky make a specialty of honey or bees, and worms.

and while there are a great many here If the bees have just space enough to that have bees, yet very few can be travel around all the combs with their called successful bee-men. heavy loads, and no more, we will not We sell nearly all of our honey at be troubled with burr-combs. Ever since home, but the prices are too low. Combkeeping bees I have had some trouble honey is worth 15 cents per pound, and with burr-combs, but in working with extracted 10 cents, with sales slow. my bees during the honey season, I How shall we create a better market ? always watch burrs and knots, and keep I cannot see how, so long as there are them all trimmed with a sharp knife, so so many half-way bee-men here. They that they really give very little trouble. bring their honey to town and sell it for I always want the combs so straight

anything they can get-trade, sell or and even, that I can lift them out of the swap for anything they may need, and hive at any time without crushing or thus they destroy the honey-trade. Such killing a single bee. From my own ex persons ought to go to the mountains perience, which is about 15 years with and stay there. bees, to succeed in any part of our coun It is a hard Winter here. To-day try in the bee-business, is to study the snow is 10 inches deep-a thing unusual bees well; have good, dry hives, plenty here this late in the Spring; but we of room inside for the bees to store all often have “tempest and sunshine" as the honey they can find, and never open well. the hive unless for some very necessary Lexington, Ky., March 18, 1892. work within the hive.

For bees to winter well, and safely pass through until the next honey season, is to have them go into winter quarters strong in numbers, in good, dry hives, the bees kept in the lower story

JOHN D. A. FISHER. with something to keep the cold wind from blowing against the hives, and I want to say a word to those who are with some kind of cover to keep the rain just starting in the business of producoff the hive, so that it can be kept per ing comb-honey ; also to farmers who fectly dry. Let the bees have 30 pounds wish to produce their own honey for of good capped honey, where they can | family use.

Putting on Surplus Arrangements in Time

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the sections at once, and you will get honey, if there is any for the bees to gather.

Mr. Caleb Canupp first called my attention to the fact that we let our bees get the start of us in the Spring, and that we did not put on our supers early enough. I have found that he was correct.

Woodside, N. C.

We have been taught by bee-books that the right time to put on surplus arrangements is when the bees began to build small burr-combs-little bits of white comb about the top of the frames.

My experience has taught me that that is a little too late here in our Sunny South. Do not wait until the bees begin to build these bits of comb, but just as soon as you find that they are building up rapidly, and the queen is filling the brood-chamber, put on the sections, or whatever surplus arrangements you intend to use. Do not wait until the queen has the brood-chamber full, for if you do the bees will swarm instead of going into the sections.

If your hives are good ones, and well protected, there is not much danger of getting the surplus arrangements on too early-better two weeks too early than one week too late.

Bees make preparations to swarm here in the South very early-a great deal

German or Black Bees vs. Italians.

H. C. FARNUM.

that keep bees think they do. Hence, we hear such a large per cent. of them say they get no honey, that their bees do not pay, etc.

Some say their bees will do nothing but swarm. If you get the surplus arrangements ready, sections all put up, and foundation starters in the sections before the bees think about swarming (by all means keep ahead of your bees),then, as stated above, when the bees begin to build up fast in numbers, put on the surplus arrangements, tuck them down tight, cover up well, leave no cracks for the heat to escape, or the wind to blow in, nine cases out of ten you will get the bees to work in the supers, and secure a nice lot honey. To make it more sure, fill two or three sections in the center with nice white comb.

If, after the surplus arrangements have been on the hive two or three weeks, you find that the bees have not gone to work in the sections, take a frame that has brood in it, cut out enough to fill two or three sections, then put them in the center of the surplus arrangement, and the bees will go right up and work.

Do not let the bees get the start of you, and swarnı ; if you do, the honey crop will be short. The only hope will be in prime swarms.

Should the bees get the start of you and go to swarming-what then ? Why, have the hives in readiness, also supers to go on the hives. Hive the prime swarm, remove the old stand, put the swarm where the old hive stood, put on

Since Mr. Ellingwood first took up what he calls the "cudgel” in defense of the German or black bees, it has excited quite a number, and caused them to give their opinions also.

Although I am in favor of the black race of bees, and decidedly so, I must say that some writers go to extremes trying to defend their sides of the story. On page 253 is John H. Blanken's defense of the black race of bees, in which he says: They are tough, and can stand the cold weather better than any other race; need no double-walled hives, or cellar wintering; will gather more surplus honey, are busier, and are not as cross as the other races.

I am afraid Mr. Blanken would have bee-keepers think that no other race except the blacks are good for anything; and also would make us think that if we had black bees we would need no doublewalled hives, or cellar wintering. But I am sure that my black bees need as much protection in Winter as do the Italians, and the Italians certainly are not as cross as the blacks.

It is quite evident that Mr. B. has never had much direct experience with the Italians, or he certainly would not class them as an inferior race of bees. Even Mr. Ellingwood does not class the Italians with the inferior races of bees, but says: “I am thoroughly convinced that the black race of bees is a very valuable one, and that with the same care and attention that is given the Italians, they will give good results.”

In my experience with Italians, I find they are not an inferior race of beesfar from it; but I do say that the blacks are ahead in honey-gathering in my location, especially when honey is scarce; as last season my Italian bees did scarcely anything. Also a neighbor beekeeper, who had nothing else but Italians, did not get any honey, and had to feed some of his bees; while my black

Directions for Shipping Bees.

The "Lightning " Bee-Escape.

bees stored, on an average, about 10 pounds per colony. In view of this, I think the qualities of the black bees should be defended.

MRS. L. HARRISON. Transit Bridge, N. Y.

Spring is the best time to purchase bees, and although it is advisable to patronize one's own neighborhood, it is not always practicable. The choice

among the varieties of bees, or the deM. E. HASTINGS.

sirable hive, may not be there to be ob

tained, and colonies can be shipped long The engraving below is a sectional distances, and arrive at their destination picture of the "lightning” bee-escape. in good condition, provided they are

Figure 1 shows the escape complete, started right. ready for the board. C is the perforated

It is very important that the frames top, which allows free ventilation from do not knock together, killing the queen the hive to the supers. A is the top

| or bees, or breaking the combs from the opening which the bees enter on leaving

frames. Bees that are shipped in early the supers.

Spring, which have not had their frames Figure 2 shows the escape with the

lifted during the Winter or Spring, need top removed. A is an outline of top en no other fastening than that which the

bees have already done. Where the frames rest on metal, so they will not be thus fastened, they should be spaced above and below with a piece of notched board. No bee-keeper, who has a reputation to sustain, can afford to ship any colony but a good healthy one, with the frames fastened with wire nails, or spaced as described.

Whether little or much ventilation is needed while bees are in transportation, depends in a great measure upon the time of the year, the weather, also the

size of the colony. Good sense would The LightningBee-Escape. seem to teach us that a hive that was

full to overflowing with bees would retrance. B, B, B, B are the outlets from quire more air than a hive with a very the escape to the hive. C is an outline small colony in it. Colonies that are of top plate. D, D are side walls, and shipped in early Spring when there are E, E are circular end walls.

but few bees, need little ventilation. It The ground plan shows the bees pass is not best to ship bees until all danger ing out tbrough the four passages from severe freezing weather is past, toward B, each bee pushing against the as the cold makes the comb brittle, and spring as it passes out. It is impossible it will break easily from the frames. for them to return, there being only

If you send bees by public carriers, space enough for a drone to leave be

make this resolve, that you will do your tween the ends of E, E, and the side

work faithfully and well, and that nothwalls, D, D; and the springs hang in

ing less than a railway accident or the center between the above mentioned steamboat explosion will let those bees walls.

out. By simply placing a suitable board,

Where bees were covered with new with a bee-space top and bottom, having muslin last Fall, and the upper story an escape in the center, between the

shut down it, it might be safe to ship the supers and the hive, the escape will

thus, as far as the bees are concerned ; do the work that was most dreaded

but suppose a meddlesome fellow comes that of harvesting the surplus honey,

along and pulls up a corner of the with neither the taint of smoke nor the muslin, or cuts a hole in it, what then ? capping injured, leaving the honey in

Either nail a board of the right dimenperfect condition for market.

sions to fit down nicely over the broodIt will clear the supers in from 2 to 4 | frames, and nail it well so that no jackhours. One super containing 27 one knife can pry it up, or nail the upper pound sections was cleared of every bee story to the lower, and the cover upon in 1 hour and 43 minutes.

| it. If it is very warm weather it might be necessary to give ventilation above, article of exhibit, the best scoring should but we are now talking of shipping bees be given the nucleus that comes nearest in early Spring.

that. When the hives are all secure at the As to markings of the bees, I am glad top, look at the entrances, and see how Mr. Hutchinson has spoken. I hope a small amount of air can be admitted, others will speak also. On that point, I and at the same time not let the bees did not then, and do not now, know escape.

what to say. If premiums are to be Our hives are the eight-frame Lang awarded on nuclei of bees at all, there stroth with portico, and one Spring I should be some standard of judgment, fastened them in this way: I fitted a but what the standard or standards piece of pine board, so that it would ex .shall be, is too hard a problem for me.. actly fit in the entrance, and then cut At the Sangamon Fair, of 1891, the little grooves in it on the sides next to darkest Italians took the premium, while the body and bottom of the hive. I the yellowest and most beautiful were learned subsequently that the bees ar "left out in the cold.” rived at their destination all right.

P. S.-At the time of writing the foreLater in the season I fitted a block going, I had failed to notice the cominto the entrance as before, using an munications of Messrs. Michael and empty hive, as all the hives in the apiary Kildow, on page 391. All these corresare of the same size, and placing a piece pondents pretty much agree. Well, let of wire mesh over the entrance, drove in them come. That is what I want. But the block, which molded it into the right while tearing my rules, or standard, to shape. When I wanted to fasten a col prices, can someone construct something ony in, I slipped the mesh in, and nailed better? over the edges little strips of wood.

Mechanicsburg, Ills. In shipping 4 colonies of bees at one time to the same party, the report came

How to Introduce Virgin Queens. back that the smallest colonies were all right, but a large one had many dead bees, for the bees had crowded together

MRS. JENNIE ATCHLEY. trying to get through the mesh, and smothered. When bees are put into a

I will try to tell how I introduce virgin car for transit, the frames should run queens. the long way of the car.-Prairie Farmer. First, take a cage without wire cloth,

that is, a tight cage .except the side next

to the comb. Cage the queen over some Rules for Judging Bees at Fairs,

brood hatching, or nearly so, using a cage large enough to cover 100 cells, or

more; and, by no means, or under any GEO. F. ROBBINS.

circumstances, allow the bees to see the

queen, or smell her through the cage. I wish to thank Mr. Hutchinson for

If the colony is queenless, the virgin his commendation and criticisms of my

will be as safely introduced as any fertile effort toward a code of rules for judging

queen. bees and honey at fairs, on page 382.

When I have a valuable queen of any The remarks on judging bees deserve kind, I introduce in the above way. some attention.

If I have lost a single queen in three It was not designed that a nucleus of

years, I do not remember it. It does bees should contain more than one

not matter what age, or how wild the frame, as should, I think, be inferred

virgin is ; but if she is not received just from the text of rules and remarks as

the same as if hatched there, why, your given, but there should, perhaps, be a

bees do not act like mine. rule covering that ground. I suppose it

I find that one great cause of queens was not advisable, as he says, to have a

of any kind being rejected, is on account large quantity of bees thus caged up.

of the bees gnawing and throwing The same may be said of brood; and “sting poison” at the queen through if fairs were held at the height of the the cage. You know that you can take breeding season, that item would be a queen from a colony of bees, and let better left out. But, in fact, they gen one strange bee sting at her, and get erally come at a time when it is difficult “sting poison" on her, then turn her to find much or any brood in the hive, loose again in her own hive, and her hence all that one can find at that time bees will “ball ” her. The reader is of value. As brood in all stages | doubtless sees the point. would add to the interest of such an Floyd, Tex.

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