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means of a positive lever motion. The commences the bees are obliged to put levers radiating from the center shaft the honey in the sections. work in a slot in the bottom of the If we use a small brood-chamber, it comb pockets.

will be seen that the brood comes clear Reversing the crank reverses the cen

to the tops of the frames or hive, and ter shaft, which in turn revolves the

consequently very close to the sections, levers a little way, and thus causes the

hence the bees readily enter the sections, pockets to be swung around.

while with a large brood-chamber the Unlike the Stanley extractor, when bees store the comb the queen does not one pocket reverses, all must reverse. occupy, with honey at the beginning of This is a great advantage.

harvest, so that the sections are exThe extractor has been in the hands cluded from the brood by several inches of Goold & Co. for over a year, their ob of sealed honey, and they do not readily ject being to thoroughly perfect it before fill them, or refuse to go in at all.-0. J. giving it to the public. It was carefully | Farmer.

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A Little Girl's Wishes.

E. BENTLEY.

I wish I were as busy

As the cunning little bee ; I wish I were a sparrow brown,

To fly from bush to tree.

I wish I were the sunlight,

To sparkle every day ; I wish I were the the roses, So fragrant, bright and gay.

I wish I were the silver moon

That's gleaming up on high ; I wish I were the tiny stars

Those flowers of the sky.

1. Not quite the same way, and I almost wish they did not carry propolis at all.–A. B. MASON.

1. Yes. 2. No other way, only in the pollen baskets. She might carry it in her mouth or fore-paws, if she thought about it.-MRS. JENNIE ATCHLEY.

1. I have never noticed this matter at all, but have always assumed they did; and can only ask, myself, “If not, how do they carry it ?”—J. E. POND.

1. Yes. The Cyprian bees, I had some years since, were seen to gather vermillion paint, that was partially dried, and pack it on their legs as they do pollen.-G. L. TINKER.

1. Yes. I have often seen them collecting propolis from old discarded beequilts, and from hives that had been occupied by bees, and I have seen them packing it in pellets on their legs, just like they load up with pollen. When their load is completed, their appearance is exactly the same as that of other workers loaded with dark-colored pollen. -G. W. DEMAREE.

Yes.—THE EDITOR.

Queries and Repliesi

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Convention Notices.

inconvenience How Bees Carry Propolis. . QUERY 812.-1. Do bees carry propolis on their legs as they do pollen? 2. If not, how do they carry it ?-W.

1. Yes.-A. J. COOK.
1. Yes.-J. A. GREEN.
1. Yes.-C. C. MILLER.
1. Yes.-R. L. TAYLOR.
1. Yes.-H. D. CUTTING.
1. Yes.-DADANT & Son.
1. Yes.-S. I. FREEBORN.
1. Yes.-JAMES HEDDON.
1. Yes.-J. P. H. BROWN.
1. Yes.—G. M. DOOLITTLE.

1. Yes, just the same.—MRS. J. N. HEATER.

1 and 2. I do not know.-J. M. HAMBAUGH.

1. They do, and in no other way.-M. MAHIN.

1. I think they do. 2. I know of no other way.-C. H. DIBBERN.

1. They carry it on their legs.EUGENE SECOR.

1. Yes, they carry propolis on their legs, the same as pollen.-E. FRANCE.

1. Our best authorities say so. I have not observed any difference.-P. H. ELWOOD.

1. No. 2. In their sac or stomach. In applying it, they seem to eject it.MRS. L. HARRISON.

UTAH.-The Utah Bee-Keepers' Association will hold its annual convention in Salt Lake City, Utah, on April 7, 1899.

JOHN C. SWANER, Sec. Salt Lake City, Utah.

COLORADO.-The Spring meeting of the Colorado State Bee-Keepers' Association will be held in Golden, Colo., on April 21, 1892.

E. B. PORTER, Pres. H. KNIGHT, Sec., Littleton, Colo.

ILLINOIS.–The Spring meeting of the Northern Illinois Bee-Keepers' Association will be held at 0. Taylor's, at Harlem, Ill., on May 17, 1892. All are cordially invited.

Cherry Valley, Ill. D. A. FULLER, Sec. TEXAS.-The 14th annual meeting of the Texas State Bee-Keepers' Association will be held at Greenville, Hunt Co., Tex., on Wednesday and Thursday, April 6 and 7, 1892. All interested are invited. A. H. JONES, Sec.

Golden, Wood Co., Tex. • PENNSYLVANIA.-The tenth semi-annual meeting of the Susquehanna Co. Bee-Keepers Association will be held at Bullard's Hotel in Brooklyn, Pa., on Thursday, May 5, 1892, at 10 a.m. All are cordially invited. Harford, Pa.

H. M. SEELEY, Sec. MISSOURI.-The 6th semi-annual convention of the Missouri State Bee-Keepers' Association will be held at Perrle Spring, Warrensburg, Mo., on April 7 and 8, 1892, in the par. lors of the Minnewawa Hotel-the finest hotel at one of the grandest summer resorts in the State. A good room has been secured for ex: hibits. A rate of $1.00 per day is promised by the proprietor of the hotel, to all bee-keepers attending. An interesting programme is being prepared.

W, S. DORN BLASER, Sec. Higginsville, Mo,

Topics of Interest.
Shipping Queen-Bees by Mail.

with powdered sugar stirred and kneaded into it, until a stiff dough is formed, which proves to be all that is required in the shape of food. This food required a remodeling of shipping cages, and they have grown from the old, rough cage,

made by nailing up pieces of sections, to G. M. DOOLITTLE.

the handsome cages on the Benton prin

ciples, of the present, with their differNo one can go back over the past

ent compartments, and many little decade, and especially over the past

windows and doors for ventilation. quarter of a century, without noting the

With the former cages and food, I great strides our pursuit, bee-keeping,

succeeded in sending queens to all near has made. It would be very interesting

and direct points, with a loss of only to dwell on many of the features covered

about 5 per cent. ; but when it came to by this advance, but as this would take

sending queens to Texas, California, many articles, I only propose at this

Oregon and such distant States, my loss time to speak of the progress made in

would be fully one-half of all queens sending queen-bees by mail.

sent out. These losses were hard to be Those familiar with the pages of the

reconciled to, and many a time have I AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL during the im

resolved that I would send no inore mediate past, know that the honor of

queens to such remote parts and guaransending the first queen by mail belongs

tee safe arrival. to Mr. C. J. Robinson, as per his state Skipping the intervening years, with ments alluded to. The first queen was all their minutia of detail, I will say that sent only a few hundred miles; this dis

in shipping queens, last year was a tance not being encumbered by any of decided success with me, where the the slow, tedious stage routes which have

queens were not destined beyond the to be encountered when sending queens

bounds of North America. I have sent into some of the newer portions of our queens to the Northwest Territory and country.

Florida, and to Quebec, Nova Scotia and To have a queen reach her destination

to Texas, with a loss not to exceed one alive, where she travels over only a few

per cent. ; while the loss has not been hundred miles, on our fastest railroad

greater than 25 per cent. in sending trains, is a very different thing from

them to the British Isles and the West what it is to place a queen in a casto Indies. mer's hands who lives thousands of miles Some of the older readers of the BEE away, where the last part of the route

JOURNAL will doubtless remember that has to be taken in a stage coach; or, some ten or twelve years ago I was the worse still, where the queen is allowed

first one to successfully mail queens to to stay in a mail bag, which is left for

Scotland, and from the report which I hours in the sun of some tropical clime. gave of this successful mailing, came an

I commenced to send queens by mail order from New Zealand for queens by when the only food known or used was mail, to that place at that time. honey in the comb. Later, honey in a This I tried, and actually succeeded in sponge was used, but the sending of getting one queen over there alive, queens in the mails, with honey as food, although she only lived a few minutes as then used, became a nuisance to after the cage was opened. This queen those handling the mails, in that it was was only 37 days en route, owing to my liable to daub much of the contents of starting her at just the right time to the mail-bag in which such food and take an out-going steamer without dequeens went.

lay. Not knowing the dates on which For this reason the postal authorities the steamers sailed, the next one sent "sat down" on us, and we had to look was 72 days en route, when, of course, for something as a substitute in the line everything was dead, and I became disof food. This brought forward hard couraged, giving up the project until the candy, tin water bottles, cream candy, past season. The food used with these etc., all of which proved inefficient, and queens was honey in the comb. hundreds, if not thousands, of queens Last season I mailed 15 queens to perished, unless their destination was Australia, from 11 of which reports reached within a few days after they have been received. Of this number 7 were started.

reached there alive. One of the 7 was But bee-keepers are a persistent set, very weak when she arrived, and and through this trait was brought the although she lived for nearly two weeks, food that we now use, namely; honey! she never laid an egg. The other 6 are

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reported to be doing finely, and their daughters are reported as “filling their brood-frames from side to side and from top to bottom, leaving only a small margin of about a half-inch for honey along the top-bars of the frames.”

less than a miracle, that six out of eleven queens should prove valuable after traveling, in round numbers, more than 10,000 miles; the larger part of this route being through the tropical region, where the heat must be very hard to bear, confined for weeks at a time in mail-bags without opening.

While I say "little less than a miracle,” yet as we look over the past and see how, step by step, we have acquired this, we can only see in it the outgrowth of the persistence and energy of our American people, who leave no stone unturned to secure the success of the thing desired.

It would seem that there is no limit to the possibilities of the future, still I am not yet ready to indorse the idea expressed by some, that queens can be successfully sent around the world. There is a limit to the life of the worker bee, and I find by comparing the reports from those receiving these shipments of queens to Australia, that it is very evident that the queen does not live long after all the workers die, and also that the life of the worker bee, while in a shipping cage, is limited to about 40 days.

Borodino, N. Y.

managed them so they have not swarmed excessively, and one year ago found me with 15 colonies, all but 2 in fine condition, which the past season produced for me 800 pounds of white honey ; 300 pounds of comb, and 500 pounds of extracted, which is a good yield for this section any year, and much larger than any one else got here.

I also had 19 colonies in prime condition as to strength and stores, excepting about 4, which I fed early (syrup from granulated sugar) until they had plenty. All went into Winter on the summer stands-on Dec. 29; all had a splendid flight, and there has not been 24 hours since, when the thermometer was below zero, neither has there been a time when they could fly until Feb. 24 and 25, when they were out again, only being closed in about eight weeks.

Now I find 5 colonies of dead bees-3 colonies being pure Italians (all I had), 1 colony hybrids, and 1 black. The 3 colonies of Italians, and the blacks, were in hives exactly alike, and all were on stores of the very best of honey, except one colony of Italians, which I fed about 8 pounds of syrup.

They were all in telescope hives, with a frame over the top to give a chance to pass over the top-bars, covered with. burlap, and the space over that stuffed with excelsior.

On examination on Feb. 25, I found the black colony had starved to death. I had miscalculated as to their amount of stores. The 3 colonies of Italians had each from 15 to 20 pounds of sealed honey (basswood and clover), except one which I fed syrup, and that was sealed. Every comb in hives was dry, with not a sign of mold or moisture in any; and, what is more, every frame contained some honey, not one being empty.

These 3 colonies of Italians all had young queens, which I had purchased last Summer.

The colony of hybrids were in a hive constructed differently, and died with 30 pounds of first-class honey over them, while I have 2 colonies of blacks in similar hives that are in fine condition at this writing, as are all, including one colony of dark Carniolans, the queen of which I purchased two years ago..

Now the question arises, why should I lose all of those Italians, while my black bees are wintering finely under exactly like circumstances, and situated the same in every respect-all being in hives alike except those mentioned, and receiving the same care in every way?

I will say before I close, the entrance to all hives are left open their entire

Some of My Experiences.

M. B. NICHOLS.

I notice there has been of late some discussion in regard to the desirable qualities of the different strains of bees, especially of the black and Italian races, and some are inclined to rather ridicule Mr. Ellingwood when defending the black race. Now, I do not profess to

to solve all of the knotty problems that arise in its connection, and in this article I only wish to present a few facts rather than draw any conclusions. But whatever I do, I want to use that amount of intelligence necessary to success.

Four years ago I purchased 2 colonies of black bees. I bought “ Langstroth's Revised ;" subscribed for the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, also the Apiculturist, and am now taking the American Bee-Keeper. My bees have done fairly well. I have

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length, and all have been kept from by 12% inches wide, and 12 inches snow and ice. I leave the conclusions deep. This gives a hive containing to be drawn from the facts, to the wise 2,000 cubic inches; but a shorter hive men of the profession.

by %4 of an inch to suit closed-end Hall's Corners, N. Y.

frames with equal comb space, gives us a hive which we might term “Anno

Domini 1892,” as that is the number of Bee-Hives and Wintering,

cubic inches it would contain.

But while many besides myself favor

a hive of this description, others again D. CHALMERS.

advocate a much longer, and consider

ably shallower hive. However, we Mr. President and Fellow Bee-Keepers:

should all aim at getting a hive of just -In presenting an essay on this subject,

the right capacity, and, taking it for it is not my intention to try to determine any particular style of hives, but I will

correct, or nearly so, for a hive for breeddwell more particularly on the requisites

ing and wintering purposes, yet we have in and about a properly constructed bee

to admit that there is not room enough domicile.

in it for a strong colony of bees during The first thing then to be considered

the honey harvest. is the capacity of a hive. It is very

We then have to resort to “tiering generally conceded that that has been

up,” as bee-men term it, or, in other carefully tested and properly demon

words, place another hive above, or a

case of sections. This is where we get Father Langstroth, the lamented Moses

our surplus. The former is used if we Quinby and others, when they placed

purpose extracting, but if honey is the area of the brood-chamber at about

wanted in the comb, then the latter is 2,000 cubic inches. This estimate,

more convenient. In either case, the however, allowed the bees passage-ways

top of the lower frames must be at some between the ends of the frames and the

distance from the bottom of the upper interior of the hive—a feature which

frames, or sections, otherwise the bees weighs heavily against open-end frames.

would glue the one to the other. Take, for instance, a hive with closed We should aim, too, at bringing such end frames, which will give you as much parts of the interior as closely together comb space as an open-end frame would as circumstances will permit. Wheredo, and what do we find ? We find that

ever passage-ways must of necessity be a hive 12 inches wide, and 12 inches

left between any two parts of a hive, deep, made for the former, would not they should not be less than 14 of an require to be as large by fully 100 cubic inch, nor exceed 5/16 in depth, or we inches as a hive made for the latter. should have to contend with evils before

Although I do not use closed-end pictured. Such passage-ways we term frames myself, yet I have a strong in “bee-spaces " Between the lower and clination to believe that better results upper frames or supers, we find a double could be obtained from them than from and sometimes triple bee-space. open-end frames.

The apiarist has had to do battle in Those blank 100 cubic inches before trying to confine the queen or motherspecified, may well be classed among the bee to the brood-chamber, and yet allow leakages of the hive, and who can dis the honey-gatherers to pass to the combs pute the fact that the greater the leak above. This fight, however, has been ages the more will breeding be retarded? reduced to a mere minimum since Mr. In the use of open-end frames, the loss D. A. Jones, of Beeton, Ont., applied in this way will be less in a long frame zinc so accurately punched with oblong than a short one. But another evil here holes, that the queen is put at defiance, comes up, that is, the sagging of such her shoulder being of somewhat larger when filled, if not made of heavier ma proportions than that of the workers. terial, and if sagging takes place, you The use of this zinc over the broodall know that passage-ways under the chamber is wherein it becomes necessary frames will be contracted, while those to have a double bee-space, and any above will be widened the latter evil | contrivance there which causes the inducing the bees to build comb just queen to halt, is termed an “excluder.” where not wanted, while in the former During the past Summer I devised a the comb frames will be glued down | method of using this zinc, which I consolid.

sider the most practical form yet introTo my mind, a hive of proportionate duced, which is to cut it into narrow dimensions would be 13% inches long, I strips not exceeding four inches, and

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