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Topics of Interest.
weather, depositing dust where the
Illinois State Convention.
The Secretary's report also showed that our membership had increased to more than 50, largely through the efforts of Mr. A. N. Draper, of Upper
The Treasurer's report (A. N. Draper)
showed a balance on hand of $46.25. At this, my first spare moment, I pro Committee on by-laws, C. E. Yocom, ceed to give a kind of synopsis of the
of Sherman, A. Coppin, of Wenona, and late convention of the Illinois State
G. F. Robbins, of Mechanicsburg, reBee-Keepers' Association. The attend
ported, and by-laws were unanimously ance was not as large as we hoped for.
adopted as a whole. Some of the meinbers sent their regrets,
Hon. J. M. Hambaugh addressed the and that sickness was keeping them
convention on “ What Laws are Beeaway. And we hear from many that
Keepers in Need of?” He said that were kept away on account of La Grippe,
bee-keepers did not need many laws, etc. Though we had a fair attendance,
but that they should have justice by and an exceedingly interesting meeting.
being represented, recognized and proOur meeting was held in the Senate tected in their interests the same as all Judiciary room at the State House, and other industries are. through the kindness of the State Secre
Mrs. L. Harrison read an essay, extary, I. N. Pierson, and Chief Janitor
plained by charts, as follows, on the W. E. Savage, we received the attention that could not fail to make our visit to Fertilization of Plants by Honey-Bees the capital a pleasant one.
It appears to be the first anxiety and The meeting was called to order by
care of all animal and vegetable life, to the President, P. J. England, of Fancy
reproduce its kind. As plants cannot Prairie, and Rev. Dr. Johnson, of
walk like animals, other agents, viz : Springfield, invoked the divine blessing
wind, water, birds and insects, were -praying that we might learn lessons
appointed to carry out the requirements of industry from the habits of the little
of nature. bee.
Some families of plants grow the Mr. G. F. Robbins, of Mechanicsburg,
male and female flowers on separate gave us a very eloquent address, to
plants, as the willow and green ash. In which Mrs. L. Harrison, of Peoria, just
others they are found growing on the as eloquently responded.
same branch, as on the oak, walnut, or Each member was then requested to castor-oil plant. It is plainly seen that report as to their several apiaries, which in these two modes of growth some feature proved to be as much of a love foreign agent is necessary, to bring the feast as it was said to be at the meeting life-giving power to the embryo plant. of the Northwestern. And although
Those plants that are dependent upon none could report any light-colored the wind to bring together the agents honey, and not a great quantity of dark,
that produce life, yield pollen in great it was talked and laughed over as though abundance, as the pines, and it is carit was something to amuse rather than
ried great distances. It has been seen disappoint. Later we received a report
covering the ground so thickly that it from A. Coppin, of Wenona, stating that looked like a layer of sulphur, and it his crop of white comb-honey this year must have come from forests 400 miles was 3,000 pounds, and that they had no
distant. Currents of water convey polhoney-dew.
len from one aquatic plant to another. The Secretary, in his report, took the In some parts of the world, as in South stand that it was unjust, and prejudiced America or Australia, humming birds the minds of consumers, for us to call are the agents in conveying the pollen honey-dew bug-juice. And that honey to some species of flowers. dew was not all from the exudation of Insects are powerful agents in this the aphis; and if it was, it only differed distribution of the “father dust,” and from honey in that it was exuded by many plants have their own particular aphis, and fell upon the leaves, while insect. Dicentra spectabilis never bears honey and wax were exuded by bees in seed in this country, because its fertilizthe hive. And, further, that as the ing moth has never been introduced
from North China, its native habitat. darker, caused by the windy, dusty | Red clover, Trifolium pratense, bore no
seed in Australia, until bumble-bees, is dependent almost entirely for fertili Bombus, were introduced, and they ap zation upon honey-bees. pear to be the chief fertilizers of this
Dairynien have complained that bees valuable forage plant.
robbed the pastures of their sweetness. When Columbus discovered America
A writer in the Naturalist says, “ It is he found no honey-bees here. But when
estimated that to collect one pound of the settlers came, they brought apples,
honey from white clover, 62,000 heads pears, quince and cherry trees, and their
of clover must be deprived of their necfertilizers, the honey-bees. “Nature
tar, and that 3,750,000 visits must be detests self fertilization."
made by the bees.” If this estimate is • The apple blossom is a perfect flower, correct, the loss of sweetness is not containing both sexes in one, with the appreciable. stamens and anthers waving above the Charles Darwin experimented for germ ; why then does it need a foreign eleven years on the cross-fertilization of agent to insure fertilization ? On a close plants, and has given to the world some examination we find that when the germ very valuable results, proving the very is in season for the fertilizing powder, great value of cross-fertilization, as it is the anthers waving above have not performed by insects. He found by burst. When the germ is ready, nature experiments from 20 heads of white spreads a rich feast of delicious, fra clover, protected from insects, one grant nectar, and invites the bees to the aborted seed was the only result, while nuptials. They come, like millers, with 20 heads on the plants outside the net, flour on their bodies, and their pollen and visited by bees, yielded by count baskets filled with it, kneaded into 2,290 seeds. MRs. L. HARRISON. bread, and as they load up the nectar, they leave behind them some of the fer
A resolution made by Mrs. Harrison tilizing powder in exchange.
was adopted, viz: “That the thanks of Five distinct fertilizations must take
this association are due to all the memplace to produce a perfect apple; if the
bers of the State Legislature, who by seeds on one side are fertilized, and
voice or vote aided in placing our assothose opposite are not, it will be
ciation upon a solid foundation; and in
particular to the Hon. J. M. Hambaugh, shrunken, or one-sided.
of Spring, for his untiring efforts in beNature has so ordered that only a limited number of insects shall survive
half of our industry, and our Society.” the Winter's cold; only the queens of A vote of thanks was also given to some species, as bumble-bees and wasps; Mrs. L. Harrison for her efforts in behalf but bees dwelling in communities have of the cause of bee-keepers throughout survived by the thousands.
the State. It has been found, “by actual count A resolution was adopted, and a comin time of fruit in May, that the bees
mittee appointed to prepare and report outnumber all other insects twenty to
a premium list. Committee-Mrs. L. one, upon the bloom ; and on cool days,
Harrison, Peoria, G. F. Robbins, S. N. hundreds of bees are seen on the fruit
Black, W. J. Finch, Jr., and A. N. blossoms, while not a single other insect Draper can be found." Thus we see, that the A resolution was adopted, and a comhoney-bees are exceedingly important in mittee of three appointed to prepare a the economy of vegetable growth and
code of rules to govern the awards of fruitage, especially of all such plants as
premiums at fairs. Committee-Geo. F. blossom early in the season.
Robbins, Mechanicsburg, D. D. Cooper," In England, a fruit grower was sur.
and Chas. Becker. prised to find that the trees near one
A motion was carried that when we corner of his grounds, in which were
adjourn, it be to meet at 7:30 p.m. for : placed colonies of bees, were heavily
a night session. laden with fruit, while those more re
The question box was opened, and
discussions followed which were particimote, had set very sparingly. Then he called to mind the fact of its being very
pated in with much animation. dark and foggy during the blooming of
Adjourned. the trees, so the bees flew but a short The night session met at 7:30 p.m., distance from their hives.
for a sort of " love feast.” Among Fruit and bees are inseparable. Horti- other questions that came up, that of culturists and a piarists are, like the the adulteration of honey, caused a long American Union, one, and inseparable. continued discussion; the arguments White clover, Trifolium repens, and its generally favoring the passage of a law relative, Alsike clover, Trifolium hybrida, | for its prevention.
son, Secretary of State, and W. E.
Savage, Chief Janitor, for the use of On Thursday at 9 a.m., the conven the Senate Judiciary room, and for the tion was called to order, with President
kind treatment received during our most P. J. England in the chair.
pleasant sessions. An address by Col. Chas. F. Mills was A vote of thanks was also given to the first in order. Subject -“Bee-Keeping St. Nicholas Hotel, for its kind hospifor the Average Farmer."
tality. Among the many things of importance By motion a committee of three was of which he spoke were, of making fine appointed to visit the different bee-keepexbibits at fairs, of advertising in ers' societies of the State. The commitpapers, of the good results of agitation, tee are: A. N. Draper, Upper Alton; and of honey for medicinal purposes. W. J. Finch, Jr., Chesterfield; and C.
Mr. Hambaugh moved a vote of | E. Yocom, Sherman. thanks to Col. Mills for his usefulness to A motion by A. N. Dra per prevailed, this association, and his assistance ren that a committee of three be appointed dered in numerous ways.
to ascertain from the State Board as to On motion of S. N. Black, of Clayton, the value for honey of alfalfa, and other & committee of three were appointed on
plants foreign to our soil, and have it legislation, and on the gathering of
inserted in our published report. The statistics, consisting of J. M. Hambaugh,
committee are Geo. Poindexter, of KenMrs. L. Harrison, and Dr. C. C. Miller.
ney ; S. N. Black, of Clayton; and L. Dr. C. C. Miller, though absent, had
Mason, of Auburn. The committee re
ported unfavorably on alfalfa. previously sent in an excellent esssay, which was read with good effect. Sub
The election of officers resulted as ject, “The Future of the Illinois State
follows : Bee-Keepers' Association.” He favored
President-Hon. J. M. Hambaugh, the union of this and the Northwestern Spring, Ills. Association. He spoke of the impor
Vice-Presidents-1st, Mrs. L. Harritance of a large membership; of the
son, Peoria ; 2nd, Mr. P. J. England, privileges of bee-keepers in some coun
Fancy Prairie ; 3rd, Dr. C. C. Miller, tries, such as receiving bee-papers free,
Marengo ; 4th, C. P. Dadant, Hamilton; or for special rates, and of his faith in
5th, S. N. Black, Clayton. the future of this association, because
Secretary-Jas. A. Stone, Bradfordof his faith in Illinois bee-keepers.
Treasurer-A. N. Draper, Upper A resolution by S. N. Black was
Alton. adopted as follows:
Following the election of officers an Resolved, That the Illinois State Bee
essay by A. C. Hammond, Secretary of Keepers' Association endorse and accept
the State Horticultural Society was read the action of the Northwestern BeeKeepers’ Association as to joining this
as follows: association, and that the President be
Bees in Horticulture. hereby directed to call one meeting each Fear in Chicago, at such time as the In the economy of Nature it was orExecutive Committee may direct.
dered that the “little busy bee " should A resolution was adopted, that the be an important factor in making fruit Secretary be authorized to invite, in growing successful. Many a man has behalf of this association, all the other planted and carefully cultivated, pruned associations of the State to affiliate and trained, but when he looked for with us.
fruit, found “ nothing but leaves,” and C. E. Yocom offered the following res has therefore concluded that he is not a olution, which was adopted:
born horticulturist, or that this is not a Resolved, That the Illinois State Bee fruit country-when a little investigaKeepers' Association most earnestly tion would have shown him that the protest against the opening of the failure was caused by lack of fertilizaWorld's Columbian Exposition on the tion. The wild goose plum, and cressabbath.
cent strawberry are marked illustrations Resolved, That a committee be ap of this truth. pointed to prepare a memorial to be Much can be done to overcome this presented to the managers of the World's difficulty by intermixing staminate and Fair and the State Board of Agriculture pistillate varieties, so that on the wings on this subject.
of the wind the fertilizing pollen will be By a resolution the thanks of this carried from bloom to bloom. This is a association were extended to I. N. Pier- / wasteful method, and ninety-nine hundredths of it is lost, to the great disap-l as large as peas. It is about this time pointment of the planter. But let a that the eggs of the codling moth are colony of bees be put near the orchard laid and hatched, and the minute partior fruit garden, and the busy little cles of poison deposited in the calyx are workers will, while extracting honey eaten by the young larvæ, and its days from the blossoms, cover their feet and of mischief are suddenly brought to a legs with pollen, and when they go to close. the next blossom in search of its hidden If horticulturists and apiculturists treasures, leave it clinging to the deli would attend each others' conventions, cate organs, and its influence will be and discuss these questions of mutual seen in the large crops of fruit.
interest, it would be found to be very It will, therefore, be readily seen that profitable to both; it is a great satisfac the apiary is a valuable addition to the tion to know that they are becoming plant of the horticulturist, not only for better acquainted, and beginning to see the honey it may yield, but as a means that there is no antagonism between of increasing the yield and quality of their interests. A. C. HAMMOND. his fruit (imperfect fertilization often causes imperfect fruit), and therefore
The following resolution, offered by increases his profits.
Hon. J. M. Hambaugh, was adopted : On the other hand, the orchard, vine Resolved, That each member of the yard and garden afford excellent pastur Illinois State Bee-Keepers' Association age during several weeks in the Spring ; be transformed into an Information and during the entire season, from the Bureau, with the object of giving the first-ripening strawberries to that of Secretary such information as would cherries, plums, peaches, grapes, pears, enhance the interests of the pursuit, and and apples; they also gather up the make the first report a model, and of exuding juices from those that have incalculable benefit to the public. been punctured by birds, grasshoppers Adjourned sine die. and other insects.
JAMES A. STONE, Sec. “O! yes,” says the man ever ready to jump at conclusions, “I have seen them
P. S.--Any bee-keepers wishing to puncturing and sucking the juices from
have their names go into the first report my grapes, peaches and plums, and
of the Illinois State Bee-Keepers’ Assosometimes even the apples, and I think
tion as members of the same, must send they do great injury.”
in their names (and $1.00) within the Half the world go through life with
next 30 days to the Secretary. Other their eyes shut; at least, without mak
bee-papers are requested to copy this ing any careful investigations, and these
Jas. A. STONE. heedless people, when they see the bees
Bradfordton, Ills. gathering up this wasting sweetness, thoughtlessly conclude that they have punctured the fruit to get the juice, while every entomologist and horticul
Chilled Brood and Foul-Brood. turist knows that they never injure perfect fruit.
C. J. ROBINSON. It is therefore evident that these two industries are very nearly related, and Dr. C. C. Miller says that “ chilled that every horticulturist should be a | brood never made foul-brood," and asks: bee-keeper, and to a certain extent “Does anyone really believe that it ever every bee-keeper should be a horticul did ? Do they not rather hold this view ? turist.
The spores of foul-brood are so plentiful There is, in some minds, an idea that that they are floating around everyspraying trees and plants to destroy where, and a lot of chilled brood is just insects, is necessarily a blow at the life the right soil for them to take root in, of the bee, as well as dangerous to just as white clover seems to come up of human life and health. If done while itself.” trees are in bloom, I think there is no Dr. Miller's assertion that chilled question as to the existence of this dan brood never made foul-brood is one of ger. But entomologists and horticul the things he “don't know.” If he turists who have made careful experi- | knows that chilled brood is the right soil ments, and watched the effect of arsenical for foul-brood spores to take root in, he sprays on fruit bloom, and leaf, are ought to know that chilled foul-brood unanimously of the opinion that it is has, in fact, made foul-brood-has worse than useless to spray until the spread it. bloom has fallen, and the young fruit is Readers are not competent-not wise
enough to catch on ” to any logical any man $200 who could prove it. I reason, in comparing the origin of foul | undertook to do this, and in Vol. XIII, brood to that of white clover coming up page 127, can be found proof enough to of itself. If there be any truth in Dr. | satisfy any reasonable, unbiased mind. M.'s teaching, it is too subtle for mortals
It is unnecessary to quote from that to perceive.
or subsequent articles-suffice it to say In another issue of Gleanings Dr. that it was generally believed, and even Miller quotes this from the AMERICAN publicly declared in one of our bee conBEE JOURNAL: "A new theory of foul ventions in Chicago, that I gave suffibrood. A. Leach says the moth-miller cient proof to sustain my assertion. lays eggs in the cells besides the queen's
But now comes forward another witeggs, which hatch out, suck the food
ness to testify, and what I consider the from the bee-larvæ, which die, causing
crowning evidence, by a native of Italy, foul-brood." Dr. Miller asserts by way an intelligent bee-keeper, and one of of comment--" this lacks confirmation."
the largest exporters of Italian queens Of course it does, as much so, almost, as in Italy (See Gleanings for Dec. 15, does Dr. Miller's theory as quoted in the
1891, page 948). Question--Did you foregoing.
ever see any black bees in Italy ? “CerThe idea that foul-brood spores “are |
tainly, in some parts of Italy the black floating around everywhere,” is an in
bee is to be found.” This coming from vention of Mr. S. Corneil, but perhaps
a gentleman who is supposed to be, and Dr. Miller may appropriate it without
doubtless is, interested in the purity of giving credit.
the Italian bee, ought to set forever at As matters of fact, live "brood is just
rest the truth that there are black bees the right soil ” for foul-brood spores to
in Italy. take root in; and if the “spores are
Geneva, Ills. floating around everywhere,” they are floating around every hive of bees, and [At the Albany convention last month, if the spores float inside and attack
Mr. C. P. Dadant stated that black bees chilled brood, certainly live brood could not escape; and if foul-brood spores
were found just over the mountains in float everywhere, all chilled brood and Carniola, and if they are there why not all bee-brood would, inevitably, be done expect to find some in Italy? While we for, by foul-brood spores.
were in Italy, in 1879, we certainly saw Learned scientists “don't know" of any bacteria or spores that commonly
some in different apiaries, which, to all float around in the atmosphere, other
appearance, were nothing but black than the so-called diplococcus pneumo bees. If they had any yellow bands, nites and the streptococcus pyogenes.
they were obscure, and it would take If Corneil-Miller is credited with truth in the matter, somebody must invent a
good feeding with honey, and active foul-brood-spore trap.
exercise on a window in a sunny day, to Richford, N. Y., Dec. 28, 1891. discover any golden bands.-ED.]
In Vol. XII, page 188, of the AMERI I have kept bees for two seasons, and CAN BEE JOURNAL, is a communication have stored away a large quantity of which I sent to the Michigan Bee-Keep bee-lore in that time. The first thing I ers' Association, on the improvement of learned was that the experts do not the Italian bee. I there stated that I agree, and in all replies to the Queries thought from the unstable character of in the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, the last our Italians, that there must be many year, none were answered unanimously. dark, and even black bees, in Italy, and I learned also that bees will swarm in pointed out the necessity of improving good seasons, and in good localities, if our drones, if we wished to improve the they had surplus room as large as a Italian bee.
barn-the assertions to the contrary In the August number, same volume, notwithstanding. I also learned that in page 205, Chas. Dadant takes me to years of scarcity, and in poor pasturage, task, and denies that there were any you cannot induce, force, or coax them black bees in Italy, and offered to pay | to swarm to any extent; that there may