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Italians vs. the Black Bees.

Bees Leaying Hiyes- Artificial Pollen.

thing-if it is only opening clams-and and it is generally asked by those who by exchange of products, we can all get have blacks. expert service in everything that goes to It is often remarked by visitors in my make up our lives. An expert bee- | apiary, that my bees work better than keeper will verify your plans, or point theirs. They say theirs are not working out the weak points in a few minutes, well. I remove the cover of the hive to and perhaps save the manufacture of show them wbat the bees are doing, and bee-keepers' supplies, or an amateur the visitors nearly always ‘say, “Hold bee-keeper thousands of dollars; but do on, until I get away !” After getting not expect his services for nothing, nor them over their scare, they are surthat he will charge by the hour. He prised, and say, “My; if I should do must have something for the time spent that with my bees, they would run me in educating himself, the same as for any off the farm." I then tell them that other profession.

mine are Italian bees, while theirs are Buffalo, N. Y.

blacks. They want to know then how I knew they were blacks.

I do not believe there is anything in the climate to make the difference, as I have had queens from a number of dif

ferent States, and their bees are about CHARLES WHITE.

the same. On page 325, Mr. Nelson finds lots of

Farmers' Valley, Nebr. fault with the Italian bees. I would like to have the address of the breeders that send out the worthless Italians that Mr. Nelson mentions—I would like to try one or two out of curiosity, as I have

A. C. BABB. never found the traitor in any I have tried, that Mr. N. speaks of.

On Feb. 22, one of my colonies came It is true that the Italians will swarm

out of the hive and flew around for earlier in the season than the blacks

sometime. I found the queen and put that is one of their redeeming traits, for

her at the entrance, and in a few minif they are properly handled that will do

utes the bees were all in. While the them for the season, while the blacks

bees were out I examined the combs, and will get strong enough to swarm about found plenty of honey and some brood, the time they should be working in the

but no bee-bread. The next day they sections, and if there is any flow of

came out again, and flew as they did the honey they will surely swarm, and keep

day before. I managed to secure the swarming as long as the honey-flow

queen again, clipped one wing, and put lasts. I will admit that they can be kept

the bees were all in again, from swarming, and have buckwheat

I went to another colony and took out for them to work on; that they will go

a frame that was well supplied with into the sections ahead of Italians, but

bee-bread and honey, and gave it to the the Italians will start ten days later in

uneasy colony, which accepted it, and the sections, then catch up with the

concluded to stay at home and be conblacks, if the flow lasts two weeks

tented. The next day they went to longer. If the flow should be cut short,

work on the pollen substitute described and you take what surplus the blacks

below. have put into the sections, then they

I have had the grippe since Jan. 15, will starve before Spring. That is one

and have not done any work the past of their traits, to have a hive full of two weeks, nor been out except when in brood when they should have it full of

the warm sunshine. I have not given honey.

my bees the attention that they should

have had, but they have all wintered As for the stinging qualities of the blacks, there is nothing that will beat

nicely so far. They have stores suffi

cient until the peach bloom opens, exthem except the hybrids, and they have the energy of the Italians and the wick

cepting the colony above described. It

will not be long before the elms and edness of the blacks. I can nearly

peach-bloom will afford abundant pollen always tell what kind of bees a man has

for the bees. as soon as he tells me how they act.

I have been using a substitute for I am often asked how I get rid of the pollen, made of equal parts of wheat and moths. My reply is, “Get Italians ;" | oats ground together. I sifted the bran

Bees Selecting a Home-Wintering.

Rendering Wax from Old Combs.

out, then put the flour on a plank 18 cut.for the purpose, so as to give an eninches wide and 6 feet long, with strips trance. I then put up posts at each nailed on the sides and ends to hold the end, and nailed on a plank 16 feet long, flour. I put this out on warm days, only letting the first come down on the boards when the bees could fly freely.

over the alighting-boards. When boarded Greenville, Tenn., March 1, 1892. up the right distance, I put the packing

in, and covered over with boards. I think this a cheap way to pack bees for Winter, and they keep warm. But there is one trouble about it-the bees are apt

to get mixed, and kill each other. I R. A. SHULTZ.

have lost one colony with diarrhea this

Winter, but the rest seem to be in good I desire to give some of my experience

condition, with sufficient honey. They about bees selecting homes. I passed

have been gathering pollen for some through a farm about 1%, miles south of here one day in the Summer of 1888.

days, but it is cold with frost this morn

ing. There was a large clearing on the farm, and as I passed through the clearing, I

Cosby, Tenn., March 3, 1892. came to a party of men around a large white oak which was dead and dry. On approaching them, they said they had gathered there to cut a bee-tree. After looking, I told them that there was no

8. H. HARRISON. swarm in the tree, as I saw the bees did not act right. They replied that they I have tried various methods and conwould cut it anyway, and see. They trivances for rendering wax from old also had buckets to hold the honey, and combs, and the best thing I have tried å bundle of rags to smoke the bees. until now, is Doolittle's solar wax exThe day was very hot, and they chop

tractor, which I tried last Summer in ped a long time on the hard, white

Colorado; but having a small quantity oak. At last it fell, and they all rushed

of combs and fragments here that I did to where the supposed bees were. There

not wish to throw away, I began to think was about a dozen bees in the hollow of

how I could do it best, and with the that tree, but they soon flew away, and

least cost. the men took their buckets and axes and

One night after going to bed, the matwent home.

ter of a cheap wax extractor came into Dr. Robert Valentine had 30 or 40

my mind (a la Doolittle), and the

thought struck me, Why not have a tin colonies of bees in round logs, which

spout, made the shape of the tin part of were about 200 yards off. I supposed

Doolittle's extractor, only not so large, them to be cleaning to occupy that tree,

but perhaps a little longer, with a solid as it had a nice hollow, and was dry. I

head at one end, and a bar of tin across have also followed 3 or 4 swarms to

near the other to hold it in shape; then trees, which left after being hived, and

take a piece of tin about 1% inches went straight to the tree, and it seems

wide, double over both edges, leaving as if they knew where the hole was, or

the bar about 34 of an inch wide, and they could not go straight to it. They

long enough to bend in proper shape to surely have reason enough about them

form two legs, raising the end with the to swarm, find a home, and go to it, or

head in about 2 inches, and spread else it is a kind of “high grade in

enough to keep the spout right side up. stinct." Bees have some curious movements. I

Then take a piece of wire cloth, place had a second swarm to come out last

it in the spout, pressing it to the bottom, Summer about 9 o'clock in the morning,

but let one end rest on and over the bar and I hived them. At 12 o'clock they

across the lower or front end. were swarming again, and they did not Put the combs or wax in the spout, or cluster, but swarmed on until it was above the wire cloth, and (if the “better about dark, and then went back into the half” is good natured) set the whole in hive they were first put into, and the the oven of the cook-stove, placing a next day they went to work and did dish under the lower end of the spout, well.

which projects a little from the oven, to I packed my bees for Winter in a catch the wax as it runs out. It works straight row out in the yard. I first all right. Twenty-five cents is the explaced the hives close together, covered pense of mine. the alighting-boards with thin boards | Mankato, Kans.

Prevention of After-Swarms.

When to Spray Fruit-Trees.

days or two weeks, and immediately bores and eats its way to the center of

the fruit. JACOB MOORE.

Now, our object is to spray some of

the poisoned water into the cup-shaped Some time since I sent a request to

calyx, where it dries down and remains Mr. James V. Mickel, of Ionia, Mich.,

until the worm hatches, and so when it for a statement of his views on the sub

eats its first breakfast, it is also its last ject of spraying fruit trees. He has

one. sent to me the following reply, which I

In conclusion, I would say that as to think will be interesting to the readers

whether or not the spraying of fruit of the AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL, and so

trees is injurious to the honey-bee, I I send it for publication. He writes

| think I have fully answered when I say thus :

it is improper and injurious to the fruit . DEAR SIR :—Your favor requesting me crop to spray when the trees are in to write a short article giving my experi blossom.

J. V. MICKEL. ence in spraying fruit trees, is received. Ionia, Mich., Feb. 29, 1892.

Your first question, as to when is the proper time, I will have to answer there can be no date fixed, as the seasons vary so much. Some seasons would be a week or ten days later than others, and vice versa. My experience is that the

THEODORE HEISS, JR. best time is when apples or pears are about the size of a small cherry. The

I noticed in the AMERICAN BEE JOURcodling-moth does not deposit her egg

NAL that the subject of “ Prevention of until the blossom is fully opened, and I

After-Swarms” has attracted some think a large majority of them are

attention. Mr. Cronkleton claims to be deposited after the blossom has fallen

in possession of a secret modus operandi, off. I should not expect to receive

which he offers for sale, by which beemuch benent, if any, by spraying while

keepers might be benefited. Regarding the trees were in blossom, but, on the

this proposition, I venture the following other hand, I should fear injury by caus

assertion : I know of a simple procedure ing the fruit to blast.

which will produce the same effect, and

my modus operandi is offered free of It may be asked, why I recommend

charge. waiting until the fruit is as large as a

My method is the following: As soon cherry. First, because I have found that for

as a swarm issues, I mark the parent

colony, and the next day I uncover the two or three days after the blossoms

hive and introduce a virgin queen by fall, the stamens and pistils remain in

simply allowing her to run in between the calyx, which makes it difficult to

the combs. This simple transaction will force the spray into the calyx just where

prevent after-swarming, for the followit is wanted, the stamens and pistils

ing reasons: It is a well-established seeming to break the force of the spray.

fact, that by departure of the old queen, Last, but not least, we want the time

the queenless colony depends upon its as short as possible between the spray queen-cells for its future queen, and as ing and the hatching out of the egg, the first queen thus hatched destroys all because at that time of the season we the remaining queen-cells, unless sigare liable to have heavy rains, which naled by the “piping” of a second would make it necessary to do the work

queen, this new queen will take the old all over again. I am satisfied that a queen's place, hence there will be no second spraying, a week or ten days after-swarming; the queen, if signaled, later, would well pay for the expense; | will leave with part of the bees, called but in my own case it has been imprac- . an after-swarm. As the next queen ticable, on account of the work I have

(No. 2) hatches, if signaled by a third, had to do at that season of the year, another swarm will issue, and so on.“ having an orchard of nearly 3,000

By introducing a virgin queen about trees, in all my different kinds of fruit.

two days old (which every bee-keeper I would say for those not fully ac should have at that time), all queenquainted with the results obtained by cells will be destroyed by that queen, spraying, that the codling-moth deposits which will be mated in a few days, thus her eggs when the tree is in blossom, or effectually preventing after-swarming, soon after in the calyx or “blow” end and advancing brood-rearing from 10 of the fruit, where it hatches out in ten | to 15 days.

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Spraying Fruit-Trees While in Bloom.

According to my experience, bees in

Black Bees vs. the Italians. such a state of queenlessness never destroy a virgin queen introduced at the

IRVIN GROVER. top of the hive, the bees not knowing whether such queen came out of their

Statements like those of John H own cells or not. Colonies thus treated will not only dis

Blanken, on page 253, hardly need a continue swarming, but if given suffi

reply, but for those who are unacquaintcient space, will not give a swarm for

ed with other races of bees, something

more may be said. I am not a queenthe rest of the season.

breeder, but keep bees for pleasure and If this method should not happen to

profit-the more profit, the more pleasbe identical with Mr. Cronkleton's mode

ure to me. I have tested the blacks by of operation, it certainly will answer the

the side of the Italians, and have found intended purpose.

the Italians superior in every point menPanama, Iowa, March 7, 1892.

tioned by Mr. Blanken.

Last season I arranged two hives side by side for extracting, one colony was blacks, the other Italians ; very nearly

alike in strength when the honey harSAMUEL UTZ.

vest came, but at each extracting I got

more than double the honey from the On page 223 I notice an article by Italians, and had to feed them less in Mr. John G. Smith, on spraying fruit the Fall for Winter stores. It would be trees while in bloom. There is no doubt as sensible to claim the box-hives or log« in my mind that he is right. We all gums were superior to the frame hives know Paris-green is poison. My neigh as to claim that black bees are better bors and I sprayed our fruit-trees last than Italians. Spring with Paris-green-%2 pound of As for giving the blacks more smoke Paris-green to 50 gallons of water. I when handling, my experience is that it only sprayed about half of my trees, but causes them to stampede clear out of those that were sprayed were no better the hive, and that I do not like when I than the rest.

am hunting for a queen. We all did the spraying before the Most bee-keepers have the Italians, trees were in bloom, so there were and know them to be superior. no bees killed ; but now some of our Mr. L. C. Root, in “Quinby's New neighbors say that it was the wrong

Bee-Keeping,” says that a queen can time; that they will spray there trees this Spring when in full bloom. Now I

would have cost $20—the price Mr. would like to know through the AMERI

Quinby paid for his first queen. If the CAN BEE JOURNAL whether we as bee

| investment paid then, it surely must keepers must let them go on and kill our

now. bees, or is there any way to stop them

Cooperstown, N. Y. from spraying the trees while in bloom ? If not, then we as bee-keepers are in a bad condition in this part of Ohio.

Bee-Scouts Selecting a Home. I have kept bees over 40 years ; they are my pets, and if they were poisoned, I would feel very badly. I have 55 col

A. J. DUNCAN. onies, all in good condition, packed on the summer stands.. I packed some

If the subject of bee-scouts is not enwith wool cushions on two sides, and a

| tirely exhausted, I would like to give a wool cushion on top. My best Italian

little of my experience. I think it was bees are packed on four sides with wool

in the Winter of 1884-85 that was so cushions, and one on top: In this way I

disastrous to bees-nearly all the bees in have never lost any bees. One and a

this part of the country died—I lost all I fourth pounds is plenty of wool to pack

had (38 colonies). one colony.

In the Spring I succeeded in buying I notice on page 216 that Mr. Doo one colony, and took 2 on shares; being little and wife were both down with La in hollow logs I transferred them to Grippe. I can sympathize with them, movable-frame hives. Of course, about for I have been down for three weeks swarming time I watched my bees with with the same disease. I am some bet a great deal of interest. I had cleaned ter now, but not well yet.

out the hives nicely, and stacked them Kenton, Ohio, Feb. 23, 1892.

upon each other perhaps 3 feet high,


One day I noticed a few bees working mon-sized pea ; I pulverized it very fine, in one of the hives, but supposed they and put it in the egg and mixed it with had found a little honey. The next day the egg, which I then put by the hive."the number was considerably increased, After the skunk eats the egg, it will and they were working in two hives that be found dead within three rods of the were about a foot apart, the entrances hive. I have killed a number of skunks being towards each other. They kept in this way, but never had one get more getting stronger each day until the than three rods from where it ate the fourth day (I think it was about 10 .egg. I never have had one leave any o'clock a.m.) I heard a roaring, and unpleasant odor around the house. I saw a very large swarm of bees, or found one dead with the egg-shell under rather 2 swarms. They settled on these its neck, where he ate it. I have not been 2 hives, and went right in as fast as troubled with skunks for five or, six they could go. A queen was in each years. hive, and they divided fairly well. It Eldorado, Wis. might have been an accident that the queens took separate hives, but it was hardly an accident that the bees came

Mating of Queen-Bees, Etc. here. Again, last Summer I had a very large

JOHN D. A. FISHER. swarm come out. The bees clustered, and I hived them nicely in a good, clean hive, as I thought. The next forenoon

I have read and re-read with much they came out and started for the tim

interest Mr. Geo. S. Wheeler's article on ber, which was close. I followed them ;

page 106. From his stand-point, queen. they went slow, and I nearly kept up.

breeders could sell tested queens that They went straight to a squirrel-hole in

they call pure, and yet they would be a hollow limb, and went in as fast as

mismated and produce hybrid bees with they could get in. Now, did they know

three-yellow bands. From this standwhere they were going to, when they

point all a queen-breeder would have to started ?

do, would be to keep his queens very While I think a large majority of bees

yellow, and he would be sure to get the select a place to go to before they

three yellow-banded bees; whether the swarm, I think some do not, but wander

queens mated with Italian or black aimlessly around, and finally perish.

drones, the yellow bands would come all Hartford, Iowa, Feb. 20, 1892.

the same.

My experience has been very different from the above. I have bought some large and beautiful yellow Italian queens from noted queen-breeders. I have

reared young queens from these beautiWM. C. WOLCOTT.

ful mothers, and whenever one of these

young queens mated with a black drone, I notice by recent articles in the BEE she produced hybrid bees. JOURNAL, that some bee-keepers have Last June I had a very large, bright been troubled with skunks in their api yellow queen. She was the largest and aries. I think that my way of getting the prettiest virgin queen I ever saw. rid of these pests is better than those of How I did want her to mate with one of some others.

those beautiful Italian drones then flying My bees, in the Summer, are from 30 in my yard! But to my disappointment, to 60 feet from the house. I have short when her young bees began to hatch, pieces of board with one end on the about half of them had no yellow bands. ground, and the other end resting

I have two beautiful yellow Italian against the hive bottom-board, near the

queens in my yard now, that produce entrance to the hive.

bees about half of which have no yellow A few years ago my bees were some bands. what troubled with the skunks. In the I cannot agree with Mr. Wheeler, that morning, when I went out, I found an Italian queen mated with a black several boards knocked down, and some drone will produce all well marked entrance-boards on the ground.

worker bees. It would place our noted I used no trap to catch the skunks, queen-rearers in a position that they but got a bottle of strychnine and an could not guarantee a queen to be pure. egg. I broke a hole in the small end of If a man would send to me for a selected the egg, and then took strychnine enough tested queen, and I had a beautiful to make a ball about as large as a com- | yellow and large queen that had pro

Poisoning Skunks in the Apiary.

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