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MANUFACTURES AND LIBERAL ARTS BUILDING

of the World's Columbian Exposition.

Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building from South-east.

Notable for its symmetrical proportions, the Manufactures and Liberal Arts Building is the mammoth structure of the
Exposition. It measures 1,687 by 787 feet, and covers nearly 31 acres, being the largest Exposition building ever
constructed.

Within the building a gallery 50 feet wide extends around all four sides, and projecting from this are_86 smaller
galleries, 12 feet wide, from which visitors may survey the vast array of exhibits, and the busy scene below. The galleries
are approached upon the main floor by 30 great staircases, the flights of which are 12 feet wide each. “Columbia Avenue,"
50 feet wide, extends through the mammoth building longitudinally, and an avenue of like width crosses it at right angles
at the center.

The main roof is of iron and glass, and arches an area 385 by 1,400 feet, and has its ridge 150 feet from the ground.
The building, including its galleries, as about 40 acres of floor space.

There are four great entrances, one in the center of each facade. These are designed in the manner of triumphal
arches, the central archway of each being 40 feet wide and 80 feet high. Surmounting these portals is great attic story
ornamented with sculptured eagles 18 feet high, and on each side above the side arches are great panels with inscriptions,
and the spandrils are filled with sculptured figures in bas-relief.

The building occupies a most conspicuous place in the grounds. It faces the lake, with only lawns and promenades between. The building will cost $1,500,000.

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Queries and Replies.

·

Are Italian Bees a Distinct Race ?

Living and Loving.

2. I think that the majority of im

ported queens will compare favorably To live and to love is better,

with the same number of home-bred When each has its object in view ;

queens. 3. If we had full control of the To live and to love is blessed,

mating of queens, you would see very When those objects are noble and true. few “sports.-H. D. CUTTING. To live, that when mid earth's conflicts!

1. I have no doubt there is a pure · Our life is a help to some heart

race of Italian bees. 2 and 3. Do not To love all, so truly and purely

imagine that we Americans are the only Will both blessings and joys impart.

importers of bees, and it would not be

anything wonderful to receive a misThus living and loving, together,

mated queen even from Italy.-MRS. J. When wisely and well it is done,

N. HEATER. Will yield in its highest fruition

1. Our best authorities have long been A Heaven on earth begun.

-LUCILE.

of the opinion that the Italians are not a pure race. Still, it is sufficiently fixed to entitle it to the distinction it has so long held. 3. They "sport" so much · because of the admixture of some other race.-G. L. TINKER.

As I understand the matter, all bees in Italy are not yellow, but are more or

less crossed with dark bees. Our AmeriQUERY 810.-1. Is it your opinion

can breeders have taken great pains to that the Italians are a pure and distinct

breed for color, hence, as I believe, race of bees? 2. If so, why do not our

queens reared by our best breeders will imported queens produce as beautiful,

not sport as much as those that come

from Italy.-E. FRANCE. evenly and well marked bees, as some of our home-reared queens? 3. What 1. Practically speaking, yes. That is, causes the Italians to “sport” so much? they are pure in the sense that short-North Carolina.

horn cattle are pure. 2. I believe they

do, unless by in-breeding our home-bred I really do not know.-C. C. MILLER.

queens are hightened in color. 3. Every1. No. 3. Because the type is not

thing sports. Name a race of animals, thoroughly fixed.-J. A. GREEN.

or a family of plants, that all look ex1. No race at all-only a variety.

actly alike.-EUGENE SECOR.

2 and 3. Because they are not a fixed type.

1. No, not a fixed type. It takes a -J. P. H. BROWN.

long period of time and careful breeding 1. Only a thoroughbred. 2. Will you

to establish a fixed type, or race, of any tell ? 3. Because they are not a distinct

animal or insect. 2. They are not a

fixed or established type or race of bees, race.-G. M. DOOLITTLE.

hence, the disposition to "sport" or 1. Yes. 2. Because our queen-breed vary. 3. The same as No. 2.-MRS. L. ers are breeding more to beauty than HARRISON. other characteristics. 3. This is a

1. Yes, just as the Norman horses are mooted question.-J. M. HAMBAUGH.

a pure race. 2. Because our home-bred 1. Yes, if there are any pure races of queens are bred for color, while the imbees. 2. Like Dr. Miller, I must say, ported ones are not. 3. I think the so“I don't know.” 3. Ask something called sporting is caused by mixture with easy.-C. H. DIBBERN.

other races of bees.-R. L. TAYLOR. 1. Certainly it is. 2. They have not

1, I do not think they are, if we figure been bred and selected with color alone down fine ; but they may be so considin view. 3. It is true of all races of

ered practically, as their characteristics animals, and why not of bees ?-A. J.

are fixed sOpermanently that they Cook.

duplicate themselves with certainty. 2. I have just been reading Ernest | The matter of color is not a test of Heckle on evolution and the descent of purity at all; the tests are peculiar man, which convinces me that it would formation, and three rings or more, of require two pages of the BEE JOURNAL | various shades of yellow. 3. Pure and to give space to a comprehensive answer purely bred Italians do not sport to any to your questions.-JAMES HEDDON. extent, in my experience.-J. E. POND.

1. From what I have read, and judg. 1 queens take their chance among a whole ing from my own experience, I lean to apiary of Italian bees, but favor them the opinion that the Italians are a mixed with the yellowest drones. Hence, the race. 2. It is claimed for the imported bees are brightest. This is measuring queens that they produce as evenly everybody's corn by my half-bushel. 3. marked, and as good or better workers, | For some of the reasons above, and than home-bred Italians, but none as others that I do not know, but our pota

toes, cabbage, and the like, will sport can-bred.-S. I. FREEBORN.

anyhow, and for what reason I cannot 1. Yes, as much as the black or the

tell. This is a deep question.--MRS. Cyprian. 2. Because our ideal Italian

JENNIE ATCHLEY. bee is above the existing standard in 1. I think the most of the Italian bees color. 3. The same causes that make are a pure and distinct race of bees. sports in all races of animals. Black There are distinct races of men, but bees are not all alike. If they were, no they all “ sport" in color as well as in one could try to introduce varieties like other characteristics. 2. The Italian the Carniolan and the so-called Punic, bee is not so much bred for color in which evidently differ slightly from Italy. Some breeders in this country, other black bees. —DADANT & Son.

by breeding in-and-in, and by the intro1. As the word "race" is usually un

duction of Cyprian blood, have produced

very beautiful bees. This is all right if. derstood, the Italians are a pure race.

the more valuable characteristics are 2. For the same reason that some of our

preserved, which too often is not the home-reared do not “ produce as beauti

case. 3. I do not know that they sport ful, evenly and well marked bees” as some others do. 3. I suppose it is be

in color more than the general law of

variation produces in pure races.-P. H. cause they like to “sport,” but I do not

ELWOOD. believe they “sport” more than others, and then for the same reasons.-A. B.

1. Italian bees are certainly a distinct MASON.

variety, or as some call it-race. 2. 1. It is not. 2. As the type is not

Italians do not breed their bees for color, fixed, they cannot expect to be uniform.

beauty or golden-bands ; while here in I am of the opinion that all of our bees

America, that appears to be the greatest -Italians, Cyprians, Syrians, Carnio

aim of breeders. In Italy the bees are

dark, and there are black (or what aplans and Germans-are of one species,

pear to be black) bees there too. We and sprung from the same stock. Hence,

noticed this fact while there, and to it I think it an error to call the crosses

we called the attention of the gentlemen between any of these varieties “hybrids." There are no hybrid bees. 3.

who accompanied us, while “on the

spot.” 3. Italian bees do not “sport" The above answers No. 3.-M. MAHIN.

any more than any other animals or 1. No. 2. The reason is, American plants.—THE EDITOR. breeders select the finest marked specimens to breed from, and thereby increase the beauty and uniformity of the

Five-Banded Bees.-Mr. O. F. home-bred bees. 3. The Italian bees | Wilkins, of International Bridge, Ont., "sport" in breeding, because they are on March 8, 1892, asks this question : not a pure race in the sense of unmixed blood. No pure-blooded race will habit Who was the originator of that strain ually sport in breeding as do the im of Italian bees known as the “fiveported mothers from Italy. But the banded golden Italians ?” Italian bee is a distinct type or variety of bees, and there is no impropriety in

As we might not give credit to the speaking of them as pure Italians.-G. right person, and thuz do some injustice W. DEMAREE.

by answering hastily, we invite those 1. Yes. I know this will meet some interested in these bees to present their opposition, but I do believe the queens

claims to priority in private letters to and bees we get from Italy are pure Italian bees, regardless of color. There

the editor. Then an answer will be may be a slight mixture, but no history given in the BEE JOURNAL in accordthat I have read substantiates it. 2. ance with the facts ascertained in the One reason is, they strike a "sporting”

case. To publish all the letters would country when they come to America, and our fancy-minded bee-keepers are

result in confusion, and may not be not satisfied to let their home-bred | advisable. We will determine that later.

Topics of Interest.

Apis Dorsata from Ceylon.

W. P. FAYLOR.

I have just been reading an account a certain traveler gives of this famous bee in Ceylon; and the great wonder to me is why we cannot get this race of bees introduced into this country. They are described as having glossy, blue-black wings; their bodies are striped with yellow and the glossy blue-black; but the golden color largely predominates. This, for beauty, would certainly exceed

ever, that the Government is willing, but the main difficulty seems to be to find the bee-men who has the courage to go in pursuit of these bees. As there are many settlements now of the English on the island of Ceylon, the safety of visiting that country can be assured, z.

Now, since queen-bees have been safely sent to Australia from America, it is very probable that queen-bees might be sent from Ceylon to America. The question first to be agitated is, Who will go to Ceylon, start an apiary, and ship queens to this country?

It is to be remembered that queens of the above-named race mate with their drones late in the evening; hence, if once introduced, they can forever be kept a distinct, pure race without inter

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Rules for Judging Bees at Fairs.

anything we now have under domestica- | mixing with other races, as all of our tion in America.

present stock will do. Shall we let this This bee is further represented as

| matter drop, or shall we keep it before being about one-fourth to one-third

the public ? larger than the Italian or German va Mt. Auburn, Iowa. rieties. They build their combs as much as 6 feet in length, and frequently widen them out to 4 and 5 feet. Their cells are said to be about as large as the drone-cells of the common species, and

W. Z. HUTCHINSON. these cells at the tops of the combs are frequently built 3 to 4 inches deep to Taken as a whole, the code of rules

for judging bees and honey at Fairs, as gather.

given by Geo. F. Robbins, is a good one. Mr. Frank Benton, who captured 4 The rules for judging bees are not excolonies of these bees, tells us that they actly what I would advise. I would build only one size of cells for workers | limit the nuclei to only one comb each. and drones. Surely, if as represented One comb will show as much-yes, more, by Messrs. D. A. Jones, Benton, King than a greater number. With one comb, ston and others, these bees would have the queen may always be found. This fine play on the red clover of this coun is often the chief attraction to many.

Most people have seen bees, but very few in abundance from this plant, but they have seen a queen. I would not favor å would aid in the fertilization of poor large quantity of bees, because they soil.

worry more, and seem to wear themWhen I read, a year or so ago, that selves out sooner than a moderate clusthe United States Government was to ter. Another thing, a large body of appropriate $5,000 for the quest of new bees makes it more difficult to find the varieties or races of bees, I had hoped queen. Neither do I see any advantage that “ Apis dorsata,” ere this time, in a large quantity of brood. It cannot would be in our possession. In this Í | be kept in "all stages," as our friend have been disappointed. I believe, how- | suggests. Bees in confinement usually

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Apiarian Knowledge and Experience.

quit brood-rearing. At least that has | questions in bee-keeping that any fair been my experience with single-comb bee-keeper in their place could answer nuclei.

in a few minutes. They want you to Another thing to which I object, is the design a frame, a honey-board and secplacing of the three-banded bees ahead tion, and want to know how to manage of the four or five banded. If it is the bees for certain work, for a dozen differyellow bands that mark them as the ent purposes, each stating many local yellow race, the greater the number of peculiarities that materially affect the bands, the greater the perfection in this case; and whose sound judgment is direction. While my own personal necessary to insure success. preference might be for the darker One of this class wrote not long ago, strains of Italians, there are so many asking for the required sizes of frames, good men who favor the lighter varie brood-chambers, and honey apartments ties, that I hardly feel like saying in a necessary to keep bees from swarming, Code of Rules that the Premiums shall and how much more honey could be probe given to the “leather backs." I must duced by a non-swarming, wing-clipped say, however, that I have little faith in queen, etc. Now, I do know barely judging of bees by looking at them at enough about bees to get along, but Fairs.

what I know about hives is limited Flint, Mich., March 9, 1892.

something like my correspondent's information on the same subject.

I wrote him that if I were in his place, I should employ a competent man to work out the problems, and offered to

recommend a mechanical bee-engineer, J. W. TEFFT.

if he knew of none. I received a postal

card reply as follows, verbatim : Men who would not expect for a moment to ask advice of a lawyer or a

“The reeson you don't answer wright physician without paying for it, seem to

is becoss you don't know. You bee forget that the same law should hold

writers aint so smart as you pertend.” good in expert bee-keeping affairs.

The information covered by the last Apiarists and men who are about to

sentence of the rebuke, came as a great invest money in bee-keeping, or are

shock to me. But after calmly thinking

it over, I decided not to commit suicide, already in it, will walk into the home of some expert bee-keeper, and ask ques

but to struggle along as I had before, tions, get and examine plans, and even

without knowing everything.

There is another class who advertise drawings of some mechanical inventions, or seek adviee that none but an educated

for nothing. bee-keeper would be competent to give,

I answered one, giving without thinking of paying for the ser

experience, hives I have used, age, vice rendered.

recommendations, etc. The reply I re

ceived is as follows: The bee-keeper who has graduated from the A B C class in bee-culture,

"DEAR SIR :-Yours is received. We spends more money and time to get his

smiled when we read your age. In brief, education that does the lawyer or doc

bill.' Too old. We want a man to tor. If a competent bee-keeper were

work the farm, and do all kinds of labor, consulted before or after the apiary or device was started by the amateur, there

and had some liking for bees.” would be fewer failures and disappoint

I wish to say to those who want somements, and it would be a good invest thing for nothing, that out of every $10 ment to pay well for such services in paid to a competent bee-man, $1 is for any case. Men who want to use the what he does—the other $9 is for what brain and training of these competent he knows. It is knowledge that costs, bee-keepers without pay, would resent and that is valuable! The number of an impeachment of “sponging" on any hours labor is of minor importance. body, yet to the expert, making his Where salaries go into the five figures, bread and butter by using his brains and “knowing how,” is what such salaries training, they are very despicable dead are paid for—and how few there are who beats.

have the natural ability to learn how; There is another class of men, or a and he who tries to solve the problems few of the same class, who seem to in bee-keeping, will find that it takes a think that bee-periodicals exist for no | little longer than a lifetime. other purpose than to do their expert | This is an age of specialists. Each thinking for them. They will ask 1 man can learn to be an expert in one

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