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erated for what they may furnish. We

cannot be expected to work for glory square feet of space for each State alone, but pride should be a large eleexhibit.

ment in urging us to use our best efforts It has somewhat dampened my ardor to make our specialty show off to the to think that our large and growing in greatest advantage. dustry is likely to be assigned a back It seems quite desirable, if not an absoseat, as regards space in which to show lute necessity, that the Exposition man. itself. Why, the Colorado State Bee agers at once appoint some one to have Keepers' Association has already applied charge of the Apiarian Department, to to me for a thousand feet of space, and whom we could apply for space and if Colorado needs that amount of space, instructions as to what we can do, and what will be done with California, Wis what will be required of us, and it seems consin, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, New to me that this Association should take York, and other large honey-producing the matter in hand, and see to it that States ?

we are recognized, and have a repreMy idea is that the State Bee-Keepers' sentative to speak and act for us. Associations of the different States mak Would it not be well to appoint a coming an exhibit should ask their State mittee to look after this matter? And Boards of Commissioners for the Colum this same committee should have authorbian Exposition to put the matter of pre ity to act for us, and in our name, in any paring and making the exhibit in their matter needing our action, at any time hands, and that the Associations when the Association is not in session. appoint committees of one or more Should the Superintendent, through thoroughly competent persons to pre sickness or death, or any other unavoidpare and make the exhibit, and care for able cause, be incapacitated for the disit during the Exposition. The Michigan, charge of his duties as Superintendent, Ohio and Colorado State Associations the committee should have power to act have already appointed committees for for us, and recommend the appointment this work.

of some one to take his place, and the The expense of preparing and making Superintendent should be made an ex the exhibit should be provided for by the officio member of the committee. State Commissioners, in the same man I had hoped and expected to be with ner as that for other industries. It you at this “annual feast,” but circumseems to me that no special appropria stances beyond my control prevents it, tion should be asked for our especial but I send you my cordial and kindly benefit, but, as we represent one of the greeting, and wish you all a pleasant important industries of our respective and profitable time. A. B. MASON. States, we should not allow ourselves to be slighted or ignored.

The following essay by Mr. George H. As each State will have a building of

Knickerbocker, was read at the afterits own in which to exhibit its special noon session, on products, it will devolve upon the bee

Points of Excellence in Bees. keepers of each State to prepare an exhibit there, as well as in the general “The Italian bee—what the principal exhibit of all the States.

points of excellence, and to which qualiI am not sure what will be the best ties should we give the preference with plan for securing the honey, etc., for a scale of markings as for neat stock ?". exhibition. I believe the Colorado As The Italian bee, as its name implies, sociation has suggested, or asked, the is a native of Italy, and was first sucbee-keepers of the State to put aside for cessfully imported to this country in the Exposition any especially fine honey 1860. Since that time the race has they may secure during the coming sea been multiplied by American breeders son. As exhibits will have to be on the until you can scarcely find a colony of grounds by April 1,1893, it will be nec of our black, or native bees, that do not essary to do whatever is done in the way show indications of an admixture of of securing comb-honey in fanciful and Italian blood ; yet large numbers are attractive shapes during the coming sea still imported each year, which is a good

proof of their superior qualities. to put aside the very finest of their crop, Although we get two distinct types to be used at the Exposition, there will from Italy, the dark, or leather-colored be a great abundance, and an individual Italians in the north, and the smaller interest will be secured in the success of and brighter yellow in the south, the the undertaking. Of course, it will be three yellow bands have usually been expected that each one will be remun- | considered the sole test of purity.

I was also told a few years ago by a be admitted by nearly all who are presgentleman of undoubted integrity, who ent at this meeting, and it seems to me had been there several times, that there that some action can be taken at this were dark bees in Italy, those that did time, as well as at any subsequent meetnot show more that one or two yellow ing, by whch a standard can be estabbands, unless filled with honey and held lished, so that queen-breeders will have to the light. To me this was an expla something to guide them in the selection nation of the great diversity of the of their breeding stock, as the breeders markings of imported bees and queens. of domestic animals have a standard by

Let us next briefly notice some of wbich to judge every breed and race. their principal points of excellence as By way of illustration, let us imagine compared with the black or native bees. the breeders of the black-faced varieties The workers have longer tongues,

of sheep, having no model to breed from, and work on blossoms that the natives

and who did not continually reject those do not, and often store white honey animals that did not come up to the when they are working on buckwheat; standard in both form and markings ! also, quite frequently, they gather a If, after a few years of such hap-hazard little honey when the natives are con

breeding, Mr. A, who keeps Shropshires; suming their stores; and towards the

Mr. B, Hampshiredowns ; Mr. C, Oxfordclose of the honey harvest, as the work downs, and Mr. D, Southdowns, were to ers emerge from the cells, they grad turn their flocks together, what would ually fill the cells in the brood-chamber, be the result? You could not find a and, on account of this trait, no race is man who would be able to select every so well supplied with Winter stores.

sheep and put it in its proper place. This sometimes results in a less num

Are we not, as breeders of Italian bees, ber of finished sections, but where a beekeeper has a large number of colonies

in this very same predicament ? Is there

any reason why we should not have to look after, and when taking into

some standard by which the average considertion the valuable time required

bee-keeper would be able to determine in fixing the feeding the others up, to

whether or not his bees with three get them in condition to stand our

yellow bands contained an admixture of rigorous Winters, I consider it a desir

Cyprian or Syrian blood ? able characteristic.

It is now an indisputable fact that They work earlier and later, are more

these races and their crosses have active, less inclined to sting, and protect

many times been sent out for pure their stores better. The queens are

Italians, and that many of the so-called more prolific ; this, combined with the

pure Italians show at least a trace of greater activity of the workers, causes them to breed up quicker in the Spring,

Cyprian or Syrian blood.

As to a scale of markings, I have and, in consequence, they are in better

nothing to offer that I consider anycondition to take advantage of the early

where near perfect, but as a suggestion boney-flow. At least this has been my

I offer the following: experience with the dark or leather

In a scale of 100 points I would colored Italians; while with the very

divide them as follows: handsome 4 and 5-banded strain it has always been the reverse.

Honey gathering and comb-building In answering the next question, " To

qualities, 40. which qualities should we give the pref

Wintering, 25. erence," a great deal would depend upon

Breeding, 15. the bee-keeper and the circumstances.

Temperature, 10. If the apiary is run exclusively for

Color-a. Workers, 4. profit, but little attention need be paid

b. Queens, 3. to anything except working, wintering,

c. Drones, 3. and comb-building qualities; while in

I hope, after the discussion which is the apiary carried on for pleasure, as

to follow, that a committee will be well as for the dollars and cents, due

appointed, and that they will be able to

agree upon attention should be given to gentleness

some standard for the and color; and, again, if a few colonies

American Italian bee, and that it will are kept just for pleasure and recrea

be adopted by this association. tion, then docility and color may be the

GEO. H. KNICKERBOCKER. qualities largely allowed to predominate. The discussions which followed the

That it would be desirable to have a scale of markings which would be

foregoing essays cametoo late for this ubiversally accepted as a standard for

week's issue. They will appear next the American Italian bee will, I think, I week with the rest of the Report.-ED.]

CONVENTION DIRECTORY.

Time and place of meeting. 1892. Jan. 5, 6, 7.-The Ontario, at London, Ont.

W. Couse, Sec., Streetsville, Ont. Jan. 6,7.-California State, at Los Angeles.

C. W. Brodbeck, Sec., Los Angeles, Calif. Jan. 8.-Indiana State, at Indianapolis.

Geo. C. Thompson, Sec., Southport, Ind. Jan. 18, 19.-Colorado State, at Denver.

i H. Knight, Sec., Littleton, Colo. Jan. 20, 21.-The Minnesota, at Owatonna.

Wm. Danforth, Sec., Red Wing, Minn. Feb. 10, 11, 12 - Ohio State, at Cincinnati.

S. R. Morris, Sec., Bloomingburg, O.

Nectar Secretion.

The past season was the poorest for honey that I have seen in ten years. There was plenty of bloom, but for some reason that I cannot explain, nectar did not secrete freely, except for a few days, in September. I commenced the season with 40 colonies, and have 55 now packed for Winter. My surplus combhoney was 2,000 pounds, and very little of it will grade No. 1 by the new standard.

WM. SHIER. Marlette, Mich., Dec. 19, 1891.

Me In order to have this table complete, Secretaries are requested to forward full particulars of the time and the place of each future meeting.–THE EDITOR.

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North American Bee-Keepers' Association
PRESIDENT-Eugene Secor. Forest City, Iowa.
SECRETARY-W, Z. Hutchinson....Flint, Mich.

National Bee-Keepers' Union. PRESIDENT-James Heddon .. Dowagiac, Mich. SEC'Y AND MANAGBR—T. G. Newman, Chicago.

Ground Cork for Winter Packing.

I shall use ground cork for packing all my bees next year. I have used 15 pounds, and find that it is superior to all other substances for Winter packing.

Oakfield, N. Y. GEO. M. FULLER.

Bee and Honey Gossip.

Bee-Scouts Locating a Home. Rey Do not write anything for publication In reply to Mr. T. F. Kinsell, as to : on the same sheet of paper with business

whether I have seen bees cleaning out matters, unless it can be torn apart without interfering with either part of the letter.

hives placed in apple trees, I will say positively that I have seen such. The 1

reason why I know that the same bees Fair Crop of Honey.

entered the hive which cleaned it out, is The honey crop was very short in this

that I followed the stream of bees, or locality last season, but I have the

scouts, to where they were hanging on a

tree, for the scouts always keep up com- 1 advantage of having a lot of basswood

munication with the swarm. After distrees near by, and therefore have a fair

covering the swarm I went back to the crop-about 500 pounds of comb-honey from about 20 colonies. The bees were

hive and watched for the bees to come in excellent condition for the Winter.

out, which they did in about an hour. ASHER M. COE.

This was at 11 a.m. ; in the afternoon I Coe Ridge, 0., Dec. 24, 1891.

went back only to find about a quart of bees hanging there, which were left

after hunting other locations. The hive Bees Consuming Honey.

in the apple tree gave the best proof.

There the scouts were in the majority. . Bees on the summer stands are win-| Sometimes scouts will clean out a tree, tering well, as are those in cellars, in but the bees never come there, the mathis locality. Those on the summer jority of scouts having found a more stands are consuming considerable favorable location, but the minority are honey. Bees are flying this afternoon ; left, for want of knowledge of the the thermometer indicating 540 above whereabouts of the swarm. They rezero. There is good prospect for a large main where the swarm was until they crop of white clover next Spring.

dwindle away, and finally disappear, D. D. DANIHER. only to leave the limb speckled with Madison, Wis., Dec. 23, 1891. I comb, showing where a large swarm was

chasers who spend their hard-earned dollars would be better pleased with less theory, and better queens.

hanging. Will brother bee-keepers test this matter by putting a few hives next season in trees ; in the timber is a desirable place. Nail a board on the hive, and then nail the board to a stay 10 or 15 feet from the ground, or higher if convenient; go to it every day or two. Put a comb in the hive with a handful of rotten wood, and watch the scouts carry out the wood, drop it and fly back for more. In order to get the opinion of the Illinois State Bee-Keepers' Association, I put this question on paper last

Bees in Arizona.

Our bees have done very little either in swarming or honey. Cattle eat nearly every thing outside, and as there are but a few acres fenced, our prospects for the future are poor. While bees pay as well as other things, on the average, I think some claim too much for them. We make vinegar out of dark honey.

J. H. BROWN & Son. Prescott, Arizona.

land, to have it voted on. All rose to their feet, affirming that bees do locate a home, when the scouts find one.

Kenney, Ills. GEO. POINDEXTER.

Bees and Grapes. Officers for the Union.

In reading my bee-periodicals and "I don't know” but that Dr. Miller some of the local papers, I see that there has expressed my views in regard to the is considerable said from time to time National Bee-Keepers' Union as well as about bees damaging grapes, as well as I could do it myself. When I sent my some other kinds of small fruit. I claim annual dues I did not vote at all, for, that it is all “bosh," unless the fruit is said I, the majority will vote for the old first injured in some way or another. I officers, because they do not know who make this assertion from my own experielse to vote for. Now, I do feel that ence in growing grapes in the same yard the general amnagement should stay with a number of colonies of bees, at the where it is, but the other offices could | same time using the grapes as shade for be passed around, and I believe that it the bee-hives. As my attention has been would give new life to the Union. In called to this matter at different times, I carrying out friend Miller's suggestion, have given it much thought, and it is the easiest thing in the world to watched it most carefully. copy his nominations. No; that would In the last three years there has been not be carrying out his suggestion, so only two instances where the bees have here goes for more nominations: W. Z. worked on grapes in the least. Hutchinson, Hon. R. L. Taylor, Dr. A.B. In the first instance the damage was Mason, Samuel Cushman, C. W. Dayton, caused by the chickens picking and eatE. L. Pratt. These may not all be ing the lower branches, or clusters, that members of the Union, but they are were hanging low down within their good men, and ought to be.

reach. The second instance was caused GEO. E. HILTON. by a very severe hail-storm, which Fremont, Mich., Dec. 24, 1891.

bruised or punctured the grapes enough to expose their seeds, enticing the bees

to work on them. This lasted only for a Warranted Queens.

few days until the bruises became seared

over. You will observe that in both inSomething is radically wrong with the | stances the fruit was first injured before queen-breeders in this country. For the the bees would have anything to do with past two seasons I have purchased it, and I do not believe that bees will warranted and tested queens, and out of || hurt grapes or other kind of fruit unthe lot but one was prolific. Had I less it is damaged by something else. bought cheap and inferior queens, I Using them as I do for shade for beewould find no fault, but when I pay the hives, large clusters of the delicious price asked, I have the right to expect a fruit hang all around the hives—yes, and good article, and not a fungus growth. even within a few inches of the entrance The fault did not lie in the introduction to the hive. This must certainly give a of the queens, for I followed explicitly the most approved (?) methods; nor would I In conclusion I will say that I really grumble or grow “cranky" over an occa believe that the most of this complainsional loss, but an absolute failure is more ing is caused by prejudice. B. E. RICE. than flesh and blood can endure. Pur-| Boscobel, Wis., Dec. 23, 1891.

Wavelets of News.

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The Bee-Keepers' Union.

W. Brodbeck, J. A. Odell, H. C. Blaney, Glancing over the report of the Na

and many others. tional Bee-Keepers' Union, I notice that

Los Angeles, Calif. there seemed to be but a small addition to the previous membership, which I cannot understand, in view of the assertion that there are 300,000 bee-keepers in the United States. On the basis of 600 in the “Union,” and the assertion above, those who are members stand as

Where to Keep Comb-Honey. 1 to 500 to those who are not. Now, in view of this, it seems to me that the A room in which to keep comb-honey census of real bee-keepers must have | in good condition should be as dry as been terribly misrepresented, or else our possible. During pleasant weather a brother bee-keepers are holding back, | window protected by a wire screen, to not from a lack of money, but from a keep out bees and other winged insects, sense of feeling assuring them that they should furnish ventilation. When the are safe and sound individually in their weather is damp the window should not own neighborhood, and that all money be closed, but a little fire should be spent in this direction would be lost. If started in the room to drive out the there be any unphilanthropic apiarists dampness. A high temperature will not in this line, they remind me of those injure honey. If the temperature could agricolists, who, having become aged, | be continually maintained up in the refrain from planting fruit trees on the nineties, the quality of the honey would plea that they will not reap the benefits be improved. accruing therefrom. God grant that As the bees always keep their honey such selfish motives do not exist amongst in the dark, it seems to me that the bee-keepers, a class of men for whom I room should be kept dark, in which have the profoundest respect and ad-| honey is stored.-Apiculturist. miration. I am loth to believe that beekeepers would see their fellows suffer if they could avert it. I am afraid they

Skunks Eat Bees. have not as yet been touched so as to see the profound necessity of joining.

After narrowing the entrances to the Cincinnati, O. H. K. STALEY. bee-hives this season, I noticed that the

blocks used for contracting were pushed

aside from some of the hives nearly California State Association.

every morning. I first supposed that We, the undersigned, realizing the

this was due to the severe winds that

prevailed, but closer examination necessity of combined effort on the part

showed the grass in front of the hives of the honey-producers of the State of

trampled flat, which gave me the idea California, and the need of further legislation for the protection of this

that my bees were falling victims to industry, and proper representation at

skunks. the World's Fair in 1893, favor the

A few nights ago, at midnight, in organization of a California State Bee

moonlight, I caught one in the act of Keepers' Association, for the purpose set

bumping at the front of the hive and forth, and to represent the bee-keepers'

eating the bees as they came forth.

Despite the cold and frost, the colony industry of the whole State of California.

gave those peculiar cries of distress, To accomplish this object we issue this call, and urge the attendance of every

showing them to be utterly demoralized. interested person, both male and female,

When this is continued night after at a meeting to be held at the Chamber

night, an hour or two at a time, at a of Commerce, Los Angeles, on Jan. 7, season too cold for the bees to fly, the 1892, at 9:30 a.m. We purpose or- |

agitation and gorging with food would ganizing, on a liberal basis, excluding

be enough to destroy the colony, even if no proper person who is interested in the skunk got but few of the bees. apiculture. Prof. A. J. Cook and A. I From experiences I have had, I beRoot will be with us on this occasion. lieve that thousands of colonies on low Signed by J. F. McIntyre, Cyrus Ken- | stands are destroyed during the Fall and ney, R. A. Holley, R. Wilkin, L. E. | Spring (especially in mild Winters) by Mercer, G. B. Woodberry, W. A. Norton, skunks, and that they injure bees more Allen Barnett, M. H. Mendleson, Benj. than all other enemies combined.-J. H. A. Rapp, J. W. Ferree, N. Levering, G. | ANDRE, in the N. Y. Tribune.

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