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that such is the character of error, so frequent are its inconsisten, cies, and so glaring its absurdities, that a simple statement of a writer's own doctrines will sometimes produce the same effect as the most powerful strain of ridicule.

Another difficulty which editors of periodical publications experience, is that of suiting the tastes and wishes of different classes of their readers. The attempt to please all would be ridiculous. But we shall not cease to labor that our work may be as extensively useful, as it shall be within the limits of our means to render it. While we shall pay a respectful attention to intimations from any of our patrons, with regard to practicable improvements in our work, we must request them likewise to pay a similar attention to what they may presume to be the wishes of other patrons. We would always encourage the utmost fredoom in suggesting such improvements as will make the Panoplist more conducive to the purposes for which it is published--the promotion of useful knowledge and undefiled religion.

We are sorry that our subscription list will not warrant the enlargement proposed in our number for March. By the use of a smaller type in a part of the work, there will be room for some additional matter. The contemplated enlargement will still be kept in view; and will be adopted whenever an increased patronage shall authorize the additional expense. The war has so impeded transportation by water, that we fear a serious diminution of subscribers from that cause alone.

As many of our subscribers number the volumes of the Panoplist from the beginning, without making the distinction of the new series, it will be most convenient that the same mode be universally adopted. We shall therefore designate this volume as the ninth, instead of the sixth of the new series.

We conclude with beseeching the God of all grace to make our feeble efforts in some measure successful, and to impart the knowlą edge and love of the truth to all mankind.


LECTURES ON THE EVIDENCES from that general devastation of
OF DIVINE REVELATION. the world. I will now go on to

mention other testimonies, relat-
No. XV.

ing to the same great subject.

These, though blended by the In the preceding Lecture I ex- writers, and incapable in various hibited a series of testimonies instances of being separated, as from ancient heathen writers would indeed naturally be supconcerning the events, which posed, I shall yet distribute, immediately preceded the del chiefly under the following uge; the deluge itseli; and the heads: patriarch, who was preserved

The family of Noah;

The Ark;

Thamanim; which in the ancient The Mountain, on which it language of Armenia signifies rested;

Eight; and which, according to The Dove; and

him, means, We are eight.The Raven,

Elmasinus calls the city the It will not be in my power, place which Noch built, when he and indeed it must in the nature came out of the Ark. of the case be very difficult, to

William de Rubruquis says, arrange them in a perspicuous “There are two mountains on order.

which the Armenians say the 1. I shall recite some testimo- ark, mentioned by Moses, rested; nies concerning the family of and a little town, named CemainNoah.

un, (eight) which, they say, was The original gods of Egypt built, and so named, by the pere were held to be eight; the Ozdoces, sons, who came out of the Ark. celebrated by antiqnity. Of This is plain from the name, these Pan was the eldest.

which signifies eight: They call The Cabiri, the principal the mountain (that is, one of priests of heathen antiquity, are these mountains,) the Mother said by Damasis, as quoted by of the world." Photius, to have been the sons Moses Chonorensis says, that of Sadyc; the just man: the ap

this town is held in great reverpellation, given by Moses to No- ence by the Armenians; who ah. They are said to have been say, that it is the oldest town in three; and to have been the au- the world, and was built, immethors of all useful science and diately after the Deluge, by arts.

Noah. Sanchoniathon also says, They The same writer informs us, were the offspring of the just that the Armenians furnish us, man; and that they lived in the by their Poems, a far more coptime of Barith: a Hebrew word ious accoụnt of ancient things, signifying an Ark.

than any other nation. They are said to have been From these sources this res. the first, who built a ship; to pectable writer extensively dehave been the first husbandmen; rived, it would seem, his own to have built a city; and in it to accounts of antiquity. have consecrated Λειψανα Ποντε; ; Galanụs says, The natives say what was left by the ocean: i. e. concerning this town, that its what the Deluge had spared.


is Nachib-shivan; These priests are said to have which means the first place of been priests of Theba: another descent, agreeably to Josephus. Hebrew word, signifying an Ark. Berosus


That in this Diodorus Siculus says, They place the patriarch gave instrucwere universally esteemed the tions to his children, and vanishoffspring of the Ocean, accord- ed from the sight of men. ing to the traditions of the an- According to Epiphanius, the cients.

family of Noah remained here Ebn Patricius says, “After the during five generations, or six family of Noah left the Ark, they hundred and fif:y-nine years. built a city, which they called In Genesis x, 25 it is said


that the earth was divided in the on--No, by the prophets Jeredays of Peleg, the fifth genera- miah, Ezekiel, and Nahum. In tion from Noah.

Arabia, were the river Ammon, In the retreat of the Argo- the promontory Aminonium, and nauts, it is said, that Minyae the people Ammonii. In Africa retired from mount Caucasus to was the city Ammonia. the remotest part of the earth. Alexander Polyhistor, who Ararat is a part of the great lived in Egypt under Ptolemy chain of Caucasus. Armenia, Lathyrus, testifies that all Afrialso, was anciently called Arme- ca was called Ammonia; and that ni, and Arminni: i. e. Aram Min- it was so called from the god ni; and by Jeremiah, Ararat Ammon. Lucan also says, that Minni. Jer. li, 27.

Ammon was the god of Ethiopi. Mankind, it is said, first dwelt ans, Arabians, and Indians. in the region of the Minyae, at Plutarch calls Egypt Chemia the bottom of mount Baris, the from Cham. The Copts, as Bomountain of the Ark; the Ararat chart testifies, call Egypt to this of Moses.

day Chomi. The Arabians, also, Callimachus says, “The Kro- call Cairo Misr, from Misr the nides, (i. e. the sons of Kronus, father of the Misraim. Saturn, or Noah) determined, or It is hardly necessary to obset out, by lot the several regions serve, that Ham was Jupiter, of the world.”

and was worshipped under the Homer makes Neptune, the name of Jupiter Ammon: or that son of Saturn, say, that his broth- the temple, erected to him, was ers parted the world into three discovered by Hornemann in the shares, and that each obtained year 1798, at Siwah: about three by lot his own share.

hundred miles west by south of Plaio says, “The gods i. e. the Cairo. three sons of Saturn, obtained 2. Testimonies concerning the the doniinion of the whole earth Ark. according to their different al- The principal Tartars, or Talotments; and without conten- tars, declare themselves to be tion took possession of their descended from Turk, i. e. provinces by a fair lot.”

Turgoma (Togarmah) the son The Grecks called Japhet, or of Japhet, the son of Noah; who Japetus, the first of men; and was saved from the Deluge in to express the highest antiquity the Ark, on the mountain of Ba. of any thing said, proverbially, ris, or the Ark. The Turks that it was older than Japhet, were originally called by them

That Ham settled in Africa is selves Turcomans. You will reevident because,

member, that not a small numFirst; Hammon was worship- ber of testimonies concerning ped as a god by the Egyptians; the Ark have been already menand had temples erected to him. tioned; being too intimately in

Secondly; Because cities, pla- terwoven with other testimonies ces, and people, were named to be separated. from him. In Egypt the great The word nagrać used by Plum city Diospolis, or the city of Ju- tarch, Alexander Polyhistor, piter, is called Amon, or Ham. Nicolaus Damascenus, and Theo



philus of Antioch, is exactly e- At Smyrna in honor of Dionu. quivalent to the Hebrew word Of this we are informed by Theba, used by Moses for the Aristotle. Ark, and translated asgvak by Jo- At Olympia, the most sacred sephus.

place in Greece, the same rite From this name Parnassus is existed. derived: of which Stephen of By. Many cities were anciently namzantium says, Parnassus was an- ed Theba, from the ancient word, ciently called Larnassus; be used to signify the Ark. These cause the Augas (Larnax) or ark were in Cilicia, Attica, Syria, of Deucalion was wafted thither. Egypt, Pontus, Italy, &c.

The priests of Ammon, in their In the Sybilline oracles it is religious rites, carried in their said, that on Ararat, a mountain procession a boat; in which was of Phrygia, the ark rested on a an Ark or oracular Shrine, holde high summit. en both by them, and the people, In the ancient delineation of in great veneration. This cus- the Solar Systein a ship was reptom was of the remotest antiqui- resented as regulating the whole ty. Two representations of it course of nature, in which were were copied from Luxor seven kindred sailors. Luxorein, in Upper Egypt by The ship Argo, in the celesbishop Pocock; and taken from tial sphere was a memorial of the the apartments of the temple, so Ark. In proof of this I observe, much celebrated by Diodorus that the name Argo is used to Siculus. The ends of the boats, signify an Ark, 1 Sam. vi, 8; that copied by Pocock, are alike. the harbor, in which the ship

The name of this boat, or Argo was built, was called in anship, of Isis, was Baris. The cient fable the port of Deucalion. same was the origin of all the The Argo, in the celestial navicular Arks, or shrines, in sphere, is said by Plutarch to the ancient worship. You will have been the ship of Osiris. remember, that Baris* was the The celestial Argo is partly name of that mountain in Ar- concealed in the clouds. menia, on which the ark of Noah supposed to have been oracular, was supposed to have rested; and to have been conducted im. and that it is no other than the mediately by the will of the DeHebrew word Barith signifying ity. On the rudder is a bright

star, called Canopus; supposed At Erythra, in Ionia, the god to have been originally, Hercules was represented on a the city of the oracle of Noah. float, as Pausanias testifies.

Tacitus says,


among tlie At Athens the sacred ship was Suevi the chief object in their also carried about with great religious worship was an Ark, reverence in honor of the god- or ship. dess Damater, at the Pan-Athe- Many ancient historians de. naea; and

clare the remains of the Ark to

have existed a long time on the *Are not the English bark, the mountain of Ararat. This will French barque, the Spanish barca, &c. signifying a boat, or ship, deriva

seem less improbable, when it ed from this word?


is remembered, that it was built

It was

an Ark.

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of cypress, and smeared with bydenus, Theophilus,and Chry808bitumen.

tom, appeal as being well known. 3. I shall now mention some Nicolaus Damascenus

says, testimonies concerning the “There is a great mountain in Mountain, on which the ark Armenia, called Baris, to which rested.

many flew together at the time
That Ararat is in Armenia is ev- of the deluge; particularly one
ident, First; Because the Seven- floating in an Ark, came to the
ty render the Hebrew word Ar- summit, and was saved."
arat Armenia in 2 Kings xix, 37; Hatho, the Armenian, says,
Theodoric in Isaiah xxxvii, 38; that in Armenia is a mountain,
and Jeremiah li, 27; and the Vulc named Arath, which is higher
gate in Genesis viii, 4.


other mountain on earth. Secondly. Berosus dcclares On the summit of this mountain the sons of Sennacherib to have the Ark of Noah first rested af. fled into Armenia, which in the ter the deluge. The meaning Hebrew is called Ararat.

of the name is the mountain of Thirdly; Abydenus says, “Xis- descent: in Hebrew, properly wthrus sailed in the ark to Ar- expressed Ar, or Har, Irad. It menia,

is called a trobarruglov by Josephus. Fourthly; Melo' says, “The The mountain Ararat has been man, who escaped the deluge, called by this name through all came with his sons out of Arme- ages. nia."

It has also been called Masis, Fifthly; Berosus declares, that Thamanim, and Shamanim. That the Ark touched the mountains manim in the old Armenian lanof Armenia.

guage, and Shamanim in the HeSixthly; Nicolaus Damasce- brew both signify eight. nus, and Aratus, both testify It has been objected to the the same thing; as do, also, the Scriptural account of the Ark's Fathers Eustatius, Chrysostom, resting on Ararat, that TourneIsidorus, &c. That Ararat is the fort found, that there were no same with the Gordyaean moun- olives growing in the country of tains testify Berosus, Polyhistor, Armenia. To this it is decisiveJonathan, and Onkelos, Herpenic ly answered, that Strabo, a naanus, Georgius Elmasinus, the tive of Asia Minor, asserts, that Nubian geographer, Agathias, in his day Armenia was fruitful and: Epiphanius.

in olives. Lucian, a native of Samosata, Both the Arabians, and Tar. upon the Euphrates, where the tars, land the ark on mount traditions and memorials of the Ararat, says Howard. deluge were eminently preserv

4. I will now mention some ed, and a constant reference was testimonies concerning the Dove. had to it in their worship, says, Plutarch says, that the dove, “Most of the eastern Authors, sent out of the ark, brought cerwho have recorded the deluge, tain proofs to Deucalion of the say, that the remains of the Ark continuance of the tempest, by were to be seen on one of the

returning to him, and of its mountains of Armenia, in their cessation, by staying abroad. own time. To this fact Berosus,A. Of the dove there are many

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