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(39)

Number of pupils in private high schools and academies controlled by the several

religious denominations, 1902.

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The attendance in private high schools and academies is shown by the table to be nearly equally divided between nonsectarian institutions and those under control of religious denominations.

COMMERCIAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES.

(40) Students pursuing commercial studies in several classes of institutions, 1894 and

1902,

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Nearly all classes of schools above the elementary grade have made provision for instruction in bookkeeping, stenography, and allied branches. The period of nine years just passed has witnessed the establishment of many business departments as well as complete business high schools in the various cities of the country. The pupils taking business courses in the public high schools have increased fivefold, while in private institutions of the same grade the increase has been nearly fourfold.

SECONDARY STUDIES-RELATIVE NUMBER OF PUPILS PURSUING

EACH BRANCH.

(41)

Percentage of students in public and in private high schools pursuing certain

studies in 1902.

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This table indicates the main variations between the private high schools and public institutions of the same grade in the matter of their curricula. The figures show that a larger proportion of public high school students study Latin, algebra, geometry, physics, physical geography, physiology, rhetoric, English literature, history (of the United States), and civics than pursue these same studies in the private high schools. On the other hand, in the case of Greek, French, German, trigonometry, chemistry, geology, the reverse is true. No explanation of this fact entirely satisfactory could be given without combining the relative numbers in the two classes of schools preparing for college. The Report of the Commissioner of Education for 1902 shows that 10.66 per cent of the students in public and 24 per cent in private high schools are preparing for college. It will be seen that the class of studies in which private students outnumber public embraces those which either lead to or justify the expectance of further study in higher institutions, while the group in which the number of public exceeds the private students may be regarded more as finishing studies. For instance, it may be safely said that none take Greek without the expectation of a college course, while Latin is universally accepted as the language to be first begun and longest studied.

N. B.—The person examining this table should bear in mind that many of the branches of study mentioned are only pursued during one or two years, and that even though all pupils might pursue a given branch at some time during their course, only a limited percentage would be occupied with it in any one year. For instance, in the programme of studies recommended by the committee of ten, Greek is prescribed only during the third and fourth years of the classical course. Now, if all the pupils in all the courses were obliged to take Greek in those years, only 31 per cent would be studying it at any given time, on the basis of the committee's programme (31 per cent of all the students being in the third and fourth years); hence if 2.5 per cent are studying Greek in a given year out of a possible 31 per cent, as is the case in the public high schools, it follows that 2.5 thirty-firsts, or 8.1 per cent, of the pupils of those schools study Greek during their course.

Physics furnishes another illustration. This study is prescribed in the second year of each course; 26 per cent of the high school pupils are in the second year; therefore that is the greatest possible per cent of pupils studying it at one time. In the public high schools in 1902 there were 17.48 per cent studying physics, indicating, on the same basis as before, that 67 per cent of all pupils of those schools study physics at some time.

The following table and programme of studies furnish data for further computations of this character.

Number secondary students in public and private high schools,
1901-2

655, 301 43 per cent in first year

281, 780 26 per cent in second year

170,318 18 per cent in third year

117,954 13 per cent in fourth year

85, 189

Secondary school studies recommended by the committee of ten, 1893, showing time

devoted to each study.

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a German or French. b Latin, German, or French. © Geology or physiography. d Botany or zoology. e Trigonometry and higher algebra or history.

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The proportion of male and female teachers remained practically unchanged for ten years from the first marginal date, the numbers standing approximately in the ratio of two to three, respectively. To-day places of all grades are filled by women from that of State superintendent and city superintendent down, and the ratio of numbers has increased to the extent that nearly three-fourths of the public school teachers are women.

(43) Increase in the average monthly salary of male and female public school teachers

during fifteen years, 1888-1902.

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Increase in average monthly salaries of public school teachers, 1888 and 1902.

Male.

Female.

1888.

1902.

1888.

1902.

$42. 47 $49.05 $33.95

$39.77

United States North Atlantic division South Atlantic division South Central division North Central division Western division

48. 40
27.27
39. 14
43. 89
63.27

59.01
30.50
44.28
50.85
65. 90

31.97
26. 90
33. 30
33. 89
55. 40

40.17
28. 60
36.88
39.60
63. 73

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Proportion of the total population enrolled in the elementary schools in certain

countries.

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II.--EUROPE.

Year re-
ported.

Popula-
tion en-
rolled.

Year re-
ported.

Popula-
tion en
rolled.

Switzerland
United States of America.
England and Wales
Scotland
Ireland
German Empire
Norway
Netherlands.
France.
Austria-Hungary
Sweden.

1901
1902
1902
1901
1901
1901
1899
1901
1900
1900
1900

Per cent.

20.00
20. 98
18.08
17. 16
16.91
16.50
15.00
14.30
14.10
14.00
13. 70

Denmark.
Belgium.
Bulgaria
Italy
Spain
Greece
Roumania
Portugal
Servia.
Russia.

1900
1899
1900
1895
1900
1900
1900
1899
1899

Per cent.

12.50 11.86

9.2 7.7 7.3 6.8 5.7 4.4 4.0 3.3

The two tables here presented, showing the proportion of the total population enrolled in the various classes of schools, public and private, in the 39 countries named, are instructive in the highest degree. The term “elementary," as here used, embraces all grades of instruction below colleges and universities. The figures for all foreign countries are gathered from various authoritative sources, such as school yearbooks, annual reports, etc., but are not the results of inquiries of the Bureau beyond these sources. It will be noted that the statistics are variously for the four years ending with 1902, but an examination of the figures for any short term of years preceding a particular date will show that the changes are not so variable as to seriously impair the value of the comparison as here indicated.

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