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of an inch in greatest diameter, and (type No. 3) a flattened globe about an inch in greatest diameter.

In the Cylindrical class are four types. There is (type No. 4) the well-known thin notched bead (the least rare)-a notched or segmented cylinder like a set of round beads strung closely together. The bulbs, which are sometimes irregular in shape (as shown in fig. 13, Nos. 4a to 4B), vary in number in each bead from two to twelve, and vary in diameter from to of an inch. Each bead has bulbs usually of uniform size. The length of the bead varies from inch to 14 inches. To this type belong two of the Stevenston beads (see fig. 6).2 Beads of

paste found in a Bronze Age grave-mound and within an urn in East Kent (Arch.
Cant., vol. ix. pp. 21–26; Arch., xlv. pl. viii. No. 7, p. 55). Four “minute beads
of green glass" from a barrow at Fovant, Wiltshire (Devizes, Mus. Cat., 2226 ;
Anc. Wilts., 236), may be early medieval. Two small round beads said to be of
glass, but of the precise fabric and colour of which I am unaware, are figured in
Nilsson's Stone Age, Eng. edn., 1868, p. 82, and in his Ureinwohner, 1868, p. 65.
1 A specimen was found with an urn in a barrow at Ringwould, Kent (Arch., xlv.
p. 53), and is shown in fig. 13, No. 3. When Stukeley referred to a bead of "white
earth" (Stonehenge, p. 62, Tab. xxxii.), he may have had before him a specimen of
this type or of type No. 2.

2 In Wiltshire this type of bead was got in twelve barrows (Anc. Wilts., i. 46, 76, 114, 161, 163, 168, 205, 207, 211, 238, and title-page), and others are recorded from the same area (Thurnam, Arch., xliii. p. 495; Wilts. Arch. Mag., vi. p. 324) and from Dorset (Warne's Celtic Tumuli of Dorset, ii. p. 13) and Cambridgeshire (Arch. Jour., ix. p. 22). Others are mentioned by Mr Woodruff (Arch., xlv. p. 53), and by Canon Greenwell (Arch., vol. lii. p. 51), and in Jour. Royal Inst. Cornwall, xxi., pl. iii.

Many of these South English specimens are preserved in the British Museum, and in Devizes Museum.

In the British Museum are a set of thirteen from Wiltshire (Anc. Wilts., p. 204); a set of ten from the same county (Hawley Collection); a set of seven from Cornwall (Jour. Royal Inst. Cornwall, supra); a set of five from Dorset (Durden Collection, Warne's Celtic Tumuli, supra); a set of three from Wiltshire; one and a fragment of another from the same county (Arch., xliii. p. 494); a fragment of one from Sussex (Horsfield's History of Lewes, p. 47-Mantell Collection), -in all, forty-one beads or fragments of beads, representing seven discoveries.

In Devizes Museum, all from Wiltshire, are a set of ten (Anc. Wilts., 76, pl. ix.), two sets of three each (Anc. Wilts., 163, pl. xvii.), a set of two (Anc. Wilts., 205), two single specimens (Anc. Wilts., 168 and 211),—in all, twenty beads, representing six discoveries. In Northern England one, and the fragment of a second in the same

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nearly the same shape of a later period are often of a brownish iridescent glass.1: 2

When the bulbs of the bead are set well apart as if strung detached on a bar it falls into type No. 5,3 and when the cylinder is spirally twisted, into type No. 6. Specimens of the last-mentioned type have been found in Wigtownshire and Ayrshire.*

The fourth cylindrical type (No. 7) is a bead slightly more than 1 inch in length, consisting of five closely-set, graded segments of rectangular section, and each nearly of an inch thick. The central segment is of an § inch in diameter. On each side of it is a small segment of an inch in diameter. Adjoining each of these last mentioned (and forming the terminal segments) is a still smaller segment of an inch in diameter.5


grave, have been found by Mr Mortimer, and are in Driffield Museum (Forty Years' Researches, p. 169).

There are thus sixty-two in English museums. I know of none recorded from Ireland or Wales.

In Scotland, most of the specimens on record are in the Scottish National Museum. In addition to the two now recorded from Stevenston, there was a specimen of three bulbs, also of grey colour, got within an urn at Marcus, Forfarshire (Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xxiv. p. 471). These, with twelve, five, and three from sand-blown areas in Elginshire, Wigtownshire, and Ayrshire respectively, represent twenty-two discoveries comprising twenty-three beads. A thin notched cylindrical bead from Wigtownshire (in my possession) of brownish grey colour, and more glassy than porcellaneous in texture, and another similar from Culbin in the National Scottish Collection, seem to belong to a later period, and are therefore excluded from the list just given. There are thus known to be in collections eighty-five specimens of type 4.

1 See, for example, in the British Museum, beads of the Roman period presented by the Egyptian Exploration Fund (1886) from Defenneh.

2 Instances of Anglo-Saxon glass beads, of the shape under discussion, are given in note 2, p. 397.


A specimen is recorded in Proc. Arch. Inst. held at Salisbury, 1849, p. 93, fig. N; and another by Stukeley (Stonehenge, Tab. xxxii. p. 62). The latter is shown in fig. 13, No. 5.

Three specimens are known. Two from different sites in Ayrshire are in Mr Downes's collection, and are figured in Smith's Prehistoric Man in Ayrshire at pp. 44 and 116. The third was found in Wigtownshire and is in my possession, and is shown in fig. 13, No. 6.

5 Two are known, and were found in Cornwall within an urn by Mr Borlase (Arch., xlix. p. 188). One is shown in fig. 13, No. 7.

The fourth class comprises three kinds of ring-like objects, all probably cast in moulds-discs convex on each face, or convex on one face and flat on the other, varying from about 2-inch to 14 inches in diameter and

of an inch in thickness, with large central perforation. The first (type No. 8) is a plain quoit-like ring. The second (type No. 9) is similar, but has a small perforated protuberance or loop at one point at the periphery. The third (type No. 10) is star-shaped, the periphery being cut into at regular intervals to form straight, rather short rays. One of the Stevenston beads (fig. 6) is of this type. A star-shaped bead in my collection was examined some years ago by Prof. W. Gowland, F.S.A., who stated it was of "crude enamel coloured by copper.":

1 One, shown in fig. 13, No. 8, was got within an urn in Dorset (Arch., xxx. p. 330). A fragment of one of this type or of type 9 was found in Ayrshire (Prehistoric Man in Ayrshire, p. 44, fig. 111). With the assistance of Mr J. Graham Callander, F.S.A. Scot., I have ascertained that six ring-like beads, or "quoit" beads as they have been appropriately called by some Irish archæologists, all of type 8 (and none of type 9, I understand), have been found in Ireland, but all without recorded associations. Mr Knowles has two; the Marchioness of Downshire, one; Mr G. Raphael, Galgorm, one; the Rev. Canon Grainger, Broughshane, Antrim, one; and the sixth specimen is preserved at St Columba College, Dublin. The Rev. L. Hassé has stated that the Irish specimens are the same as the English (Journ. Roy. Soc. of Ant. of Irel., vol. xxi. p. 364). A ring of greenish material from Italy very like this type was given by Mr Temple to the British Museum about 1812. On close examination it was seen to be of stone, lathe-turned, and of a late period.

2 Two of these pendant rings have been found in Sussex with Bronze Age burials. One, shown in fig. 13, Ne. 9, now in the British Museum, was found at Mount Caburn (Horsfield's History of Lewes, i. p. 47, pl. iii. fig. 4; Hora Ferales, p. 200, pl. xxv.), and the other at Clayton windmill (Arch. Jour., xix. 186, and Suss. Arch. Coll., viii. 285).

3 One only has been found in England. It is recorded as having six points, and as being grey like the recently discovered specimen from Stevenston (Arch., xxx. p. 330). Irish specimens have been noticed (Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. xxv. p. 510), and Mr Knowles possesses two specimens and the British Museum one. Scotland has yielded more of them than any other country, thirteen, whole or fragmentary, having been found there-one in each of the counties of Elgin, Ayr, and Perth, two in Aberdeenshire, and eight in Wigtownshire. Of the complete Scottish specimens, one has five points, three have six, one has eight, and four have nine points. One of Mr Knowles' specimens has nine points (the most frequently recurring number), and the other five points. One of hem came rom Whitepark Bay sandhills. One from Wigtownshire sandhills, in my possession, is shown in fig. 13, No. 10.

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This enumeration seems to embrace all known varieties of Bronze Age objects of the coarse paste variously styled, in conjunction with many adjectives, "plaster," "concrete," "earth," "earthenware," "porcelain," (C 'enamel," pearly grey substance," "baked clay," "glass," and "paste," by writers since Stukeley in the first quarter of the eighteenth century.

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Fig. 13. A Classification of Prehistoric Beads of Coarse Vitreous Paste. Types 1 to 7 are shown actual size, and types 8 to 10 half actual size. I. Globular: Type 1, Wigtownshire; 2, Dorset; 3, Kent. II. Cylindrical: Type 4A, Ayr; 4B, Ayr; 4c, Wiltshire; 5, Wiltshire; 6, Wigtownshire; 7, Cornwall. Ring-like: Type 8, Dorset ; 9, Sussex; 10, Wigtownshire.


now been found

Yet more classes and types may await discovery.1 In the sand-blown areas in Ayrshire there have specimens of types Nos. 4, 6, 8 (or possibly 9), and 10. Types 2, 8, and 10 have been found within the same urn,2 and in similar close association

1 Resembling the well-known flattish conical "buttons" of jet or amber, with Vshaped perforation, was an object of "concrete" (Arch., xlix. p. 189), got in the same grave-mound as specimens of type No. 7; which may constitute a fifth class and the eleventh type of these paste objects.

2 Arch., xxx. p. 330; see footnote No. 6, p. 397.



have been discovered types 4 and 3,1 4 and 7,2 4 and 9,3 and 4 and 10.4 Specimens of all types except 1, 5 and 6 have thus been found in the closest association, and are therefore contemporary. While there may be some doubt as to whether type 1 should be here classified, specimens of types 5 and 6 seem clearly identical in colour and fabric with specimens of the other types, and it may with some safety be inferred that types Nos. 2 to 10 (if not also No. 1) are contemporary.

Quoit-like objects of lignite, of type 8, have been found in the same urn with paste objects of types 4 and 9.3 Lignite objects, of type 9, were got with a paste bead of type 4.3 Near beads of type 4 was found a lignite object of type 9.5 A bead of tin, of type 4, was got in a Wiltshire barrow.6 The same type made of bone and ivory has been found in British barrows. Type 5 occurs in black glass and in bronze.8 Types 2 and 3 frequently occur in lignite.

I have failed to notice any precisely similar objects of vitreous paste in collections in various parts of Continental Europe, Asia, and Africa, and in collections of old-world relics in America, and to trace any reference by Continental investigators to these objects having been found outside of the United Kingdom. Their rarity in Ireland (so rich in glass

1 Arch., xlv. p. 53.

Arch., xlix. p. 188; see footnote No. 5, p. 399.

See footnote No. 2, p. 400, referring to the discovery at Mount Caburn.

4 Within urn No. 5 described in this note.

5 Arch., vol. lii. p. 51.

Anc. Wilts., i. 103, pl. xii.

7 Anc. Wilts., i. 68.

8 A specimen in black opaque glass from Culbin, Elginshire, is in the National Scottish Collection. Mr Downes has discovered a bronze specimen in Ayrshire. Beads of bronze of very similar form have been found at Hallstatt (D. Grabfeld v. Hallstatt, Taf. xvii. and pp. 76-80), and in Denmark (Boye's Trouvailles de cercueils en chêne de l'age du Bronze en Danemark, 1896, pl. xxvi.).

9 Specimens of type No. 4 are, however, somewhat like the notched cylindrical beads of considerable rarity got with Egyptian remains of the pre-Roman periods. The British Islands seem particularly rich in different kinds of prehistoric notched cylindrical beads. These differed much at different periods with respect to size, fabric, and colour. There are five distinct kinds, which may be tentatively styled A, B, C, D, and E in order of a conjectural chronology. Class A, probably the earliest, is represented in the Stevenston "find." Class B is the rare, pale blue, opaque, smooth-surfaced bead of glass, almost like fine porcelain, about inch in

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