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distinct varieties of drinking-cup urns represented in three of the graves, from which we are justified in believing that these two varieties were contemporary in this part of the country. These occurrences do not look like fortuitous cases of an earlier variety surviving, and to a certain extent overlapping a later variety. If only one example of two such urns had been discovered, it might have been suggested that it was either an overlap or that the second urn had been placed in the grave at a later period, but, when we have several similar occurrences, they must be explained in some other way. However, before anything can be said with certainty about chronologies, or why different varieties of the one class of urn were chosen for the different graves, a much greater mass of data must be collected. Apparently it was not simply a case of an urn to each skeleton, although this occurs in the two Broomend cists, for in the Skene cist there were two urns and one skeleton.
In the English examples cited we find similar testimony, though their evidence is not so clear as in the Scottish examples, owing to three of the four cases not having been stone-built cists, and also owing to their having been disturbed to receive secondary interments. The fourth example from North Sunderland, however, was a cist, and it contained three urns to one body.
II. A LATE CELTIC HARNESS MOUNTING OF BRONZE
This object (figs. 9, 10) was found more than twenty years ago on the farm of Sheelagreen, in the parish of Culsalmond, Aberdeenshire.
it was picked up during farming operations, no other objects were found associated with it. It is in the form of a ring, which is hollow for the greater part. However, when it was being cast it apparently had been the intention of the founder to make it entirely hollow if possible, but parts of the upper and thinner portion have run solid, as can be seen at two places where there are small fractures in the ring. The exterior outline forms a regular oval, 3 inches by 23 inches in size. The interior lines of the ring commencing in the upper part curve in more
rapidly than those of the exterior, so as to form the divergent spiral, trumpet-like design which is the prevailing feature of the "Celtic art of the Pagan Period." On the under part of the ring (fig. 10) the regular, exterior curve of the object is interrupted by a slightly projecting, flat, oval collar or moulding, 12 inches by 15 inch, in which there is an oval opening, 13 inches by inch, with a bar, inch broad, stretching lengthwise across it; this bar is part of the casting, herein differing from a similar ring found at Towie, Aberdeenshire, which apparently had had a bar or pin of iron fixed with lead to each side of the opening.
Fig. 9. Harness Mounting from Sheelagreen.
Fig. 10. Lower side of Harness Mounting.
The Sheelagreen specimen is finely patinated over nearly the whole of the surface, and is perfect but for two small holes broken in the upper and thinner part of the ring.
Harness mountings resembling this specimen, besides being found in Britain, have been found on the Continent. Dr Anderson has drawn my attention to Lindenschmit's Alterthümer, vol. i., part ii., plate v., Nos. 1 and 2, where portions of two pieces of horses' harness which have such mountings still attached to them, are figured. These objects are in the museum at Wiesbaden, and were found in Italy.
We have five specimens found in Scotland in our National Collection -one imperfect example from Kirriemuir, Forfarshire; another, locality
unknown, but probably Scottish; one from Clova, Aberdeenshire, formerly in the Sturrock Collection; and two from Hillockhead, Towie, Aberdeenshire. These last two examples were found in a cairn along with other bronze relics, which have been lost; amongst these was a bronze ring, 6 inches in diameter. A cist containing an urn and bones was also found in the cairn, but apparently the bronzes were not associated with it. A similar harness ring and several balls of shale, slightly flattened on one side, were found at Crichie, near Inverurie, Aberdeenshire, under a large stone.1 The shale objects were about 14 inches in diameter, and in the centre of the flattened side there were still the remains of iron fastenings. Rev. John M'Ewan, F.S.A. Scot., Dyke, near Forres, has another harness mounting of the same type, which was found on the Culbin Sands, Morayshire. It is slightly imperfect, a piece of the thin portion of the ring having been broken or worn off. The Sheelagreen example is thus the eighth specimen of this special variety of harness-mountings recorded from Scotland.
III. A STONE MOULD FOR CASTING FLAT BRONZE AXES AND BARS FOUND AT PITDOULZIE
This mould, which was found some years ago, during agricultural operations, on the farm of Pitdoulzie, in the parish of Auchterless, Aberdeenshire, like all the other recorded Scottish flat axe-moulds, unfortunately not associated with any other object. It is made of grey sandstone, and is roughly rectangular in shape, with rounded corners, or it might be called a rectangular oval. It measures 113 inches in length, 64 inches in breadth, and from 24 to 33 inches in thickness. It is pretty much weathered, but seems to have borne five matrices. On the obverse the chief matrix is for a flat axe with expanding cutting edge; it measures 63 inches in length, 33 inches across the cutting face, 1 inches across the butt, and inch deep in the middle, getting shallower towards the butt and cutting ends. matrix occupies the centre of the stone. Across the top and at right
1 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 111.
angles to the main axis of the axe, at a distance of inch from the butt end of the axe, is a matrix for a bar 5 inches long, to inch broad, and inch deep. To the left of the axe matrix, and running parallel to its main axis, is a matrix for a bar 3 inches in length, 3 inch in breadth, and inch in depth. Across the bottom, in front of the cutting edge of the axe, is what seems to have been the matrix for a smaller axe, but it is so much abraded and weathered as not to be quite distinguishable. On the reverse of the mould there is part of a matrix for a flat axe still clearly defined for a length of 4 inches. The breadth of the butt end is 11⁄2 inches, but, the whole of the other end of the matrix having been worn away, it is impossible to say what had been the original length of the matrix or the breadth of it at the cutting edge. Judging from the breadth of the butt end, and seeing that there was apparently only one matrix on this side of the stone, it is probable that it had been larger than the one on the obverse.
This is the eighth example of a flat axe-mould recorded from Scotland, and like the other seven, as pointed out in my paper to the Society two sessions ago, comes from the north-east part of the country. Not only is this so, but it was found in that particular district of Aberdeenshire and Banffshire which has already produced four specimens, and like three of these four it bears matrices for bars as well as for flat axes. It resembles other six of the Scottish flat axe-moulds in being made of the favourite material, sandstone.
IV. Two STAR-SHAPED BEADS OF GREEN PORCELLANEOUS PASTE FROM ABERDEENSHIRE.
These two star-shaped beads were found a good many years ago in adjoining parishes in Aberdeenshire, and they are made of a vitreous, porcellaneous paste, much resembling the material used by the ancient Egyptians in the manufacture of beads and other small grave-goods.
The smaller example of the two was found on the farm of Darnabo, in the parish of Fyvie. It is in the shape of a star of six points, with a large hole in the centre. The points of the bead are not at quite so
regular intervals as to form a perfect circle. It is of a light green colour, and was picked up in a field during the working of the land.
The larger and finer example was found on the farm of Camalynes, in the parish of Auchterless. In colour it is a lightish green. The bead has six points placed at regular intervals, forming an almost perfect circle.
Unlike nearly all the other known Scottish prehistoric beads, this specimen was found directly associated with other remains, by which we are enabled to date it. A boy threw a stone at what he thought was the rounded edge of a boulder projecting from the side of a mill-lade. He got a fright when the supposed stone broke and a lot of bones fell out. Having run home and told his folk about it, they went and examined the place, and found this bead amongst the bones. Although none of the bones or fragments of the urn have been preserved, it is extremely likely that it was the remains of a cremation deposited in a cinerary urn, in which case the bead will date back at least to the end of the Bronze Age.
Professor Gowland, of the Royal College of Science, London, who analysed the material of one of three star-shaped beads in the collection of Mr Ludovic M'L. Mann, F.S.A. Scot., reported that it was "a crude enamel, coloured by copper."
With the exception of the one of six rays from Blair-Drummond Moss, Perthshire, star-shaped beads had hitherto been recorded only from the Glenluce Sands and the Culbin Sands, areas which, though far apart, have produced so much in common in the way of prehistoric remains. The recovery of these two beads from Aberdeenshire, goes to show that many of the smaller and more perishable prehistoric relics, such as bronze pins, small fibulæ, and various kinds of beads, which, as a rule, are found on, and which we are perhaps accustomed to associate with sandy areas like Glenluce, Shewalton, and Culbin Sands, have been in use, and common, all over the country. A small bronze or glass object has less chance of surviving intact, and of being discovered, on land that is continually being subjected to farming operations, than on sandy areas