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the skeleton were recovered, and what survived were in a very fragmentary condition. A small part of the jaw, containing two adjoining molar teeth in good condition, was the only well-preserved portion. A small barbed and stemmed arrow-head of light yellow flint, 1 inch in length and inch across the barbs, was found amongst the bones and blackened soil.

On the plan of the mound the distances between the urns were:


Fig. 2. Urn No. 1, from the Mound at Forglen.

from No. 1 to No. 2, 9 feet 6 inches; from No. 1 to No. 3, 5 feet 9 inches; and from No. 2 to No. 3, 14 feet 6 inches. No. 1 was about 4 feet east of the centre of the structure.

At various depths throughout the mound, from the natural surface of the ground on which it was erected to within about 12 inches of the top, thin layers of charred wood of no great extent were observed.

As already mentioned, the three urns are of the drinking-cup type. Urn No. 1 (fig. 2) is a very rare, if not unique, variety, it having a raised beading or moulding about inch in height encircling the

vessel about inch under the rim. It is reddish yellow in colour and is made of a fine paste, the wall being rather less than inch in thickness. It measures 6 inches in height, 5 inches in diameter across the mouth, 415 inches at the neck, 5 inches at the bulge, and 2 inches at the base. With the exception of a plain band inch wide which encircles the vessel 1 inches from the bottom, the wall of the urn is ornamented, from the base to within

inch of the raised mould

Fig. 3. Urn No. 2, from the Mound at Forglen.

ing, by the impress of a roughly twisted cord wound spirally round it eleven times between the base and the plain band, and twenty-four times between the plain band and the top of the ornament. Six to seven of the spiral lines occupy the space of an inch.


The other two urns are much alike and of a common shape. Urn No. 2 (fig. 3) is light yellow in colour and is coarser in texture than No. 1, the wall of the vessel being inch thick. The urn is 67 inches in height, 6 inches across the mouth, 5 inches across the neck, 5 across the bulge, and 33 inches across the base. It bears four zones of orna

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ment about 23 inches, 1 inch, 14 inches, and inch broad respectively, and to inch apart. The first occupies the everted part of the vessel from the edge of the rim to the neck; the second is just above the bulge; the third is midway between the second and the fourth, which is within inch of the base. The scheme of ornamentation is different in

all the four zones. The upper zone is divided into nine narrow bands by nine parallel transverse lines; the first and sixth bands are occupied by vertical lines, seven or eight to the inch, the fourth and eighth bands by crossed oblique lines, and the remaining bands are left plain. The second zone is formed into five narrow bands by six parallel transverse lines; the second and fourth bands are filled in by crossed lines and the others are left devoid of design. The third zone, like the last one, is composed of five parts formed by six transverse lines; the first narrow band is occupied by short oblique lines slanting to the left, the third by perpendicular lines, and the fourth by crossed lines, and the other two are plain. The vertical and oblique lines are about to inch apart. The lower zone is composed of four parallel transverse lines having no ornament between them. All the transverse lines have been made with a toothed, comb-like stamp, and the others with blunt-pointed tools. Much less care has been bestowed on the ornamentation of this urn than on either of the other two; the crossed lines especially are very carelessly and roughly done.

Urn No. 3 (fig. 4) is taller than the others and its colour is a greyish yellow. The greater part of the inside of the vessel and the outside of the everted lip is much darker; this might have been occasioned by its being in contact with the black deposit in which it was found, but as neither of the other two urns, which were found in similar circumstances, have been discoloured, it is more probable that the dark colour. is to be accounted for by different firing and composition of the clay of the vessel. The clay is coarser than in the other urns and the wall of the vessel is inch thick. The height of the urn varies from 711 inches on the one side to 73 on the other, the diameter of the mouth is 53 inches, of the neck 47 inches, of the bulge 57 inches, and of the base

3 inches. Three zones of ornamentation closely resembling each other encircle the vessel; they measure 1 inches, 2 inches, and 2 inches in breadth respectively. The upper zone, which commences about inch from the rim, occupies the everted part; the middle zone, which encircles the bulge, is inch from the upper and inch from the lower zone; the latter extends to within inch of the base. The upper and lower

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edges of the first and second zones are each composed of three parallel transverse lines inch apart, with a zigzag line on the outside; the space between the inner transverse lines is occupied by perpendicular zigzags of four parts in the upper zone and of five parts in the second one, about to inch apart. The lowest zone is similar to the second, only the zigzag line is wanting on the lower side of it. The vertical zigzag lines in the upper and lower zones commence by slanting to the left, while in the middle zone they slant first to the right. The whole

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of the ornamentation on this urn has been made with a toothed stamping tool.

From the preceding description of the mound and its contents the following deductions may be made. The last-discovered and central deposit was the primary interment. A shallow grave having been scooped out of the surface of the ground, the body was placed in it, and a large quantity of charred wood, or soil mixed with charred wood, was scattered over and around it. Judging by the two remaining teeth, the body was that of an adult. Above the body, and surrounded by the charred matter, a drinking-cup urn was placed erect. This urn having been found in fragments, it was impossible to ascertain if its contents differed from the matter amongst which it was placed. A mound of sandy clay was then heaped up over the deposit to the depth of several feet. Besides the urn, the only artificial object recovered from this interment was the arrow-head. It might be suggested that a single arrow had been deposited in the grave with the body, or that the deceased had been killed by an arrow, of which the flint head is the sole remaining evidence.1 Before the mound was raised over the body, fires were kindled at various places on the surface of the ground, and the remaining traces of them cover small areas of 4 to 5 feet in diameter. I have seen the whole foundation area of a cairn covered with similar charred material. What may have been the object of these fires, or whether they were lit before, during, or after the burial ceremony, we cannot say, but as the body was interred amongst charred wood, they may have been lit for the purpose of preparing the charcoal. It has been suggested that the charred appearance of the wood may have been the result of eremacausis, but this is not so, because some pieces of decayed wood were found quite close to burnt wood, and there was no resemblance between them.

1 B. C. A. Windle, Remains of the Prehistoric Age in England, p. 82, fig. 35, quoting from L'Anthropologie, says that in the Grotte de la Tourasse, in France, a skeleton was found with a flint arrow-head embedded up to the barbs in the front of one of the lumbar vertebræ, showing that the arrow had completely traversed the person's abdomen.

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