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posed of three narrow bands, each contained within two parallel straight lines. The first band is composed of straight lines, five or six to the inch, slanting to the left; the next, of perpendicular lines, nine to the inch; and the third, of lines, seven to the inch, slanting to the right. The middle zone which goes round the bulge is formed of vertical zigzags of three parts, six to the inch, which, commencing on a transverse straight line encircling the vessel, first slant to the right, then to the left, and then to the right again, when they end on another transverse straight line running parallel to, and at an average distance of 13 inches from the last transverse line. The lower zone is composed of crossed slanting lines, about eight to the inch, between two transverse parallel lines usually 1 inch apart.

The lines of ornament on both urns have been impressed on the soft, damp clay with the toothed or comb-like instruments which were so much used for this purpose during the Bronze Age. However, more care has been bestowed on the decoration of urn No. 2 than of urn No. 1. On the latter, the vertical lines of ornament filling up the space between the two zigzag lines, while often commencing exactly on the lower line, are usually carried across the upper one, often right up to the lip of the urn, the stamping tool apparently having been too long for this space. The same tool which was used to form the horizontal lines may also have been used to form the vertical lines. It is different in the case of the other urn. As the vertical and slanting lines of its three zones of ornament are of different lengths, and as they do not cross the transverse boundary lines, it is evident that a different stamping tool had been used for each length of line.

The Skene Cist.-A stone cist was discovered in the beginning of March of this year, while a farm-servant was removing gravel from a field on the farm of Whitehouse, in the parish of Skene, Aberdeenshire, about 10 miles south-east of Pittodrie. It was covered with 6 to 10 inches of mould. On being opened, the chamber was found to measure 3 feet 10 inches in length, 2 feet in breadth, and 1 foot 9 inches in depth, and its longer axis lay almost due east and west. The grave contained the

remains of a skeleton, two urns, three scrapers of flint, and some pieces of charcoal. The skeleton, which was that of an adult male, lay on its left side, with the skull at the east end of the cist. The short urn (fig. 3) was deposited on the south side of the cist, in front of the skeleton, and the tall urn (fig. 4) lay near the north-east corner, just touching the back of the skull. Both urns are of the drinking-cup type. The height of the first urn is 6 inches (165 mm.), the diameter of the mouth 63 inches (155 mm.), the diameter at the neck 5 inches (135 mm.), the diameter at the bulge 51 inches (150 mm.), and the diameter of the base 3 inches (84 mm.); the height of the second urn is 8 inches (203 mm.), the diameter of the mouth only 3 inches (84 mm.), the diameter at the neck 33 inches (86 mm.), the diameter at the bulge 3 inches (101 mm.), and the diameter of the base 23 inches (69 mm.). The first urn is of a common variety of the drinking-cup type, but the second is of a most uncommon, if not unique shape. Besides being very narrow in proportion to its height, it is almost cylindrical for a great part of its length; and while the great majority of drinking-cup urns have everted rims, this urn is rather wider at the neck than at the lip, and the bulge is only inch more in diameter than the neck.


The ornamentation of the shorter urn is divided into zones or bands encircling the vessel, by six groups of horizontal parallel lines. Just under the lip it is encircled by two lines, round the neck by five lines, just above the bulge by four lines, and between the bulge and the base by three groups of three lines each, nearly equidistant from each other, the lowest group being quite close to the base. The space between the first and second groups of these lines, which occupies the everted part of the vessel, is filled in with crossed oblique lines. The portion between the second and third groups of horizontal lines, which fills up the space between the neck and the bulge, is filled in with groups of parallel straight lines, ten or twelve in number; one group slants to the right, the next to the left, and so on, right round the vessel, leaving triangular spaces between each group, and each triangle in th reverse position of its neighbour. Only one of the three remaining divisions between the

bulge and the base, the middle one, between the fourth and fifth group of horizontal lines, is ornamented, the other two being plain. This part is occupied by two parallel lines of herring-bone pattern encircling the vessel. The ornamentation of the taller urn is finer and more striking. The entire space between the lip and the neck is covered by twenty-four horizontal parallel lines going round the urn, and eight similar lines encircle the part adjoining the base. Between these zones there are three bands of ornament similar to, and almost equidistant from each other, with the lower one placed in contact with the group of eight lines at the base. These three bands are each bounded on the top and bottom sides by three parallel transverse straight lines, which encircle the vessel. In contact with each of the inner boundary lines both above and below, as well as midway between them, is a row of small transverse lozenges or diamonds formed by short crossed lines, and the spaces between the three rows of lozenges are filled in with vertical lines.

The instruments used in the ornamentation of the urns have been a pointed tool to draw the lines on the shorter urn, and the toothed, comblike stamp for impressing the design on the taller urn.

Professor Reid, of Aberdeen University, kindly furnished me with the details of the Skene burial and with photographs of the urns. A paper on the discovery was read by Dr Alex. Low, in July last, before the Anatomical and Anthropological Society of Aberdeen University, and it will appear in the coming volume of the Proceedings of that Society. The relics are preserved in Professor Reid's Museum at the Marischal College, Aberdeen.

The striking feature of the two burials is the finding of two drinkingcup urns in each of the graves. Cases of a plurality of drinking-cup urns being found in a single grave are not common, either in Scotland or in England. Of the twenty-four burials containing drinking-cup urns excavated by Canon Greenwell, only two contained more than one drinking-cup urn. In one of the graves in a barrow at Rudstone, East Riding, Yorkshire,' three drinking-cup urns and several skeletons were found, but the various interments had been made at different times. In the parish of Goodmanham, East Riding, a grave in a barrow was found 1 British Barrows, pp. 234-245. 2 Ibid., p. 308.

to contain three such urns and two skeletons. An example of three drinking-cup urns which apparently were associated with one skeleton in the principal grave in a barrow on the Garrowby Wold, Yorkshire, is recorded.1 In a note on p. 309 of British Barrows, Canon Greenwell quotes, from the Transactions of the Berwickshire Naturalists' Club, vol. iv. p. 428, pl. xiii., a case of three drinking-cup urns being found in a cist with the skeleton of a girl of about nine years of age, at North Sunderland, Northumberland.

To return to Scotland: two other graves besides the Pittodrie and Skene cists, each containing two drinking-cup urns, have been recorded, and these were also discovered in Aberdeenshire, nearly midway between Pittodrie and Skene, about forty years ago. Both were found 2 feet apart in a natural mound of sand and gravel, at Broomend, near Inverurie.2 The first Broomend cist, like the one at Pittodrie, was of large size, while the second Broomend cist and the Skene example were nearer the average size of the regular Bronze Age short cist. It may be mentioned that a third and much smaller cist was found about 2 feet to the eastward of the second Broomend cist. It measured 16 inches in length, 13 inches average breadth, and 11 inches in depth. It contained the remains of a skeleton and a drinking-cup urn.

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1 J. R. Mortimer, Forty Years' Researches in East Yorkshire, p. 134, pl. xlii. 2 Proc. Soc. Ant. Scot., vol. vii. p. 110.

The first Broomend cist contained two unburnt, full-grown, male skeletons placed in a crouching position, with their heads at either end of the cist, also a ring of bone, and two drinking-cup urns (figs. 5 and 6), one behind each skull. The second Broomend cist also contained two unburnt skeletons, one an adult male, behind which was a drinking-cup (fig. 8), with the bowl of a horn spoon hanging over the rim, the other an infant female, behind which also was a smaller drinkingcup urn (fig. 7). It will be noticed that in the first Broomend cist the two urns were placed in corners of the grave behind the skulls of the skeletons. In the Skene cist one urn was placed in a corner behind the skull, and in the second Broomend cist one urn was placed in a corner beside the infant skeleton, while the other was deposited behind the back of the adult skeleton, about opposite to the top of the thighs. One of the Pittodrie urns was found in a corner of the grave. Unfortunately, it is impossible to say whether the Pittodrie grave contained one or more bodies, as nothing but the urns was observed when the cist was emptied; but its resemblance to the first Broomend cist, both as regards the very large size of the chamber and two drinkingcup urus being found in it, suggests that it may also have contained two bodies. Of course this is mere supposition, but it is difficult to understand why the grave was made so large if it were to contain only one body placed in the usual crouching position.


In none of these four cists were the two urns alike either as regards shape or ornamentation. Each of the four graves contained two distinct varieties of the drinking-cup urn. The taller urns (figs. 2, 6, and 8) from three of the cists have a fine-flowing curved line from the lip to the base, the everted rim curving out from the neck in a regular The shorter urns (figs. 1, 5, and 7) from the same three cists are more angular at the neck, the everted brim springing out from the neck much more abruptly than in the taller urns. Of the two urns from the Skene grave, the tall one (fig. 4) is quite abnormal in shape, while the short one (fig. 3) can hardly be said specially to resemble either of the two varieties from the other three graves. Thus we find two

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