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of the story introduces a boar instead of a bear, and adds an incident more in harmony with chivalry than with hagiology. This variant is thus given by Jervise: "Tradition says that one of this family killed, near the Nine Maiden Well, a wild boar that devoured nine virgins, with one of whom-named Bes, or Elizabeth-Forbes was in love, and that when he had slain the animal, he exclaimed, 'It's a' for Bes!' This circumstance, according to the legend, gave rise to the surname of Forbes." In all this the original dedication of the spring to the Nine Maidens of the Glen of Ogilvy has evidently been forgotten. In the case of the Nine Maidens' Well in Mains and Strathmartin parish, a later legend has likewise served to obscure the early dedication. The romantic story is thus given by Jervise :

"Long, long ago, the farmer of Pitempan had nine pretty daughters. One day their father thirsted for a drink from his favourite well, which was in a marsh at a short distance from the house. The fairest of the nine eagerly obeyed her father's wish by running to the spring. Not returning within a reasonable time, a second went in quest of her sister. She too tarried so long that another volunteered, when the same result happened to her and to five other sisters in succession. At last the ninth sister went to the spring, and there, to her horror, beheld, among the bulrushes, the dead bodies of her sisters guarded by a dragon! Before she was able to escape, she too fell into the grasp of the monster, but not until her cries had brought people to the spot. Amongst these was her lover, named Martin, who, after a long struggle with the dragon, which was carried on from Pitempan to Balkello, succeeded in conquering the monster. It is told that Martin's sweetheart died from injuries or fright; and the legend adds that, in consequence of this tragedy, the spring at Pitempan was named the Nine Maiden Well, and the sculptured stone at Strathmartin, also St Martin's Stane at Balkello, were erected by the inhabitants to commemorate the event." 2

The name of the hero probably arose from confusion with that of the patron of the church of Strathmartin, which was dedicated to St Martin by Bishop David de Bernham on 18th May 1249. The Nine Maidens had a chapel in Strathdichty, which probably stood at Pitempan, not far from the spring bearing their name.

We shall now glance at the somewhat meagre traces of the cultus of St Mazota and her sister St Fincana. The festival of the former was

1 Epitaphs and Inscriptions, etc., vol. ii. p. 218.


Epitaphs and Inscriptions, etc., vol. i. pp. 205-6.

celebrated on 23rd December, and, in connection with it, there is a collect in the Breviary of Aberdeen in which spiritual blessings are sought through the intercession of blessed Mazota the Virgin (intercedente beata Mazota Virgine tua). The correct rendering of the saint's name appears to be Mayoca: as Mr F. C. Eeles remarks: "The form Mazota seems to be corrupt, and to be due to copyists mistaking y for a and c for t."2 That Mayoca is probably the correct form is countenanced by the fact that to the parish of Drumoak, on the Dee, she supplied not only dedication but name, Drumoak signifying the ridge of St Maok or Mayoca. The alternative name of the parish was Dalmaik. The writer of the article on Drumoak in the Old Statistical Account of Scotland observes: "In this part of the country it is almost always called Dalmaik. The church and manse are situated by the river Dee, on a haugh (in Erse Dal), and near a well which has still the name of 'Saint Maik's Well."

In pre-Reformation times the day of the patron saint was celebrated with due solemnity in the church of Drumoak, and her virtues were fittingly made known to the parishioners. There is difference of opinion as to the festival day of St Fincana. 21st August and 13th October have both been assigned to a saint of that name; and it has been thought that there were two Fincanas-one belonging to the sixth century and another to the eighth. The probability, however, is that there was but one. In the Martyrology of Donegal, under 13th October, occurs the name of Findsech or Finnsech, Virgin of Sliabh Guaire in Gailenga, a name slightly resembling that of our saint. The church of Echt was dedicated to St Fincana, and her feast was commemorated there on 13th October. The Martyrology of Aberdeen assigns to St Fincana (whom it describes as a virgin, not a martyr) a church in the diocese of Dunblane. One may presume that the reference is to the chapel of St Fink, in Bendochy



1 Pars Hyem., fol. 22.

2 Proc. of Soc. of Antiquaries of Scotland, vol. xxxiii. p. 450, n.

3 Vol. iii. p. 315.

5 Collections, Aberd, and Banff, p. 636.

Brev. Aberd. Pars Hyem., fol. 22.

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parish, Perthshire, which gave name to the estate of St Fink and the hill of St Fink rising to the height of 918 feet above the sea. The name appears as St Phink in the New Statistical Account of Scotland, where we read: "There was anciently a chapel at St Phink, dedicated to that saint, a small part of the foundation of which still remains. It had been surrounded with a burying-ground, out of which the present proprietor's father dug some human skulls, inclosed between four square stones." 1 The lands connected with the chapel lay to the east of the confluence of the Ericht and the Isla.2

The Nine Maidens, in virtue of their being sisters, are unique in Scottish hagiology; but it is not uncommon to find maidens associated in groups. Thus in the train of St Boniface a certain number of bishops and other clerical attendants are mentioned along with two virgins, Crescentia and Triduana. In one of the legends of St Regulus reference is made to three virgins from Collossia, viz., Triduana, Potentia, and Cineria.3 In connection with the early ecclesiastical settlements at St Andrews, we are told that in the church of St Muren were fifty virgins of the blood-royal dedicated to God, and veiled eleven years.4 In the last instance is clearly indicated the germ of that conventual life which we find fully developed in the later mediæval nunnery. That the story of the Nine Maidens and their father laid hold on the imagination of the dwellers in the North-East of Scotland, is indicated by a salutation made in quite modern times to a Buchan farmer who had nine daughters: "James, James, good luck to you! you are as rich as St Donevald." 5

1 N.S.A., Perth, p. 1188.

Skene's Celtic Scotland, vol. i. p. 277, and vol. ii. p. 275.

* Chronicles of Picts and Scots, p. 187. On the Continent we have St Ursula and her 11,000 virgins, who, according to a wildly romantic legend, were martyred by the Huns at Cologne (Baring-Gould's Myths of the Middle Ages, pp. 317-40).

5 Pratt's Buchan, p. 206, n.

2 O.S.A., vol. xix. p. 359.

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ANDER J. S. BROOK. F.S. A. Scor.

The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland received last year, by a bequest of the late Hugh J. Rollo, W.S., a large gilt brass clock; and also, in April 1898, by a bequest of the late Lady Jane Dundas, a silver alarum repeating clock-watch.

There is neither an authentic history nor even a traditional story attached to these, and the subject is perhaps more suitable for a horological society; but as the clocks in themselves are exceedingly interesting, and are exhibited in our Museum, they have been thought worthy of being described.

The first of them is in the shape of a large watch, and measures 5 inches in diameter, 3 inches thick, and weighs about 7 lbs. avoirdupois (fig. 1). It has a gilt brass case, elaborately pierced and engraved all over, the primary purpose of the pierced work at the back and rim being to emit the sound freely.

Both the back and front are domed, the front cover where the glass of a watch is usually fixed being very open and pierced by a series of eccentric circles. On the back (fig. 2) is a circular shield decorated with a battle- or siege-scene in cast relief work, surrounded by a border of pierced ornament of a slightly Gothic character. There is attached to the rim a loop and ring for suspending the clock.

The dial is gilt brass, elaborately chased and engraved. Outside the hour chapters is a large circle divided into four, with little brass knobs at each quarter, and these quarters are again divided into fifteen subdivisions to represent the minutes. The hour chapters are in ordinary Roman figures inside the quarter circle, and they also have little brass

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Fig. 1. Brass Table Clock of Sixteenth Century, bequeathed to

the Museum by the late Hugh J. Rollo, W.S.

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