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“ These stones were,” says the same writer elsewhere, “unfortunately found to lie in the line of a road then formed (1830), and were ignominiously tumbled down the slope on which for ages they had rested, and buried in a gravel pit by the side of the road.”



Clear classification, where so very few tangible remains are left us, is scarcely possible ; but the following deductions seem justifiable. In the very extensive districts passed under review, there are megalithic relics enough to show that Stone Circles, probably of several varieties, formerly existed at North Burreldales, Gavenie Braes, Templeton (St Brandan's Stanes), Thorax, Marnoch Church, Bellman's Wood, Gaul Cross (Ley, No. 1), Meiklehill Wood, Cowiemuir, Hatton of Aberlour, Innesmill, and Bogton in Lhan bryd.

In addition to these twelve, records extant for Circles at thirteen other sites, viz., at Chapel Den, Newton of Mountblairy, Wardend, near Auds, Boyndie Kirk, Bankhead, Sandend Bay, Gingomyres, Corshalloch, Edintore, Nether Dumeath, Viewfield, and at Haerstanes, Lhanbryd. Out of this considerable number, it is possible to assert of only three of the Circles that they each possessed a Recumbent Stone; although Innesmill Circle most probably possessed that feature also.

On the subject of relics discovered within the area enclosed by the Standing Stones, extremely little evidence is forthcoming as regards the sites surveyed during last September. In the Circle called Corrie-down (or Core Stanes), a quantity of bone-ash seems to have been the main result obtained ; while, at Dallachy, the gold armlet, found in an urn beside one of several cists and deposits, still confines the archæological horizon of the Stone Circles to the Bronze Age. The presence

of groups of cup-marks on Stones in the Circles at Templeton and Thorax is also to be noticed. And I may here record a further discovery of a group of five cups on one of the Stones in the

Circle at Rothiemay, which was not observed at the date of my first visit to that site. The cup-marks, which were noted but not figured in Simpson's Archaic Sculpturings, occur close to the ground on the Stone standing considerably to the east of the Recumbent Stone. They are large, clearly circular, and about of an inch deep.

These additional localities for cup-marks found on Stones of the Circles bring up the total to twelve.1

I append the usual Tabular Summary.

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There is in the Library of the Society a copy of the First Folio Shakespeare, the famous edition of 1623, the existence of which is, I believe, unknown to the public, and indeed to many members of the Society. It is not included in Mr Sidney Lee's "Census of Extant Copies,” and apparently there is no record of it in our Transactions. It is, so far as I am aware, the only copy in Edinburgh, and (now that the Scott and MacGeorge copies have changed hands) one of the only four copies in Scotland, the others being one in the library of Glasgow University, one in the library of the late Mr A. B. Stewart, Glasgow, and one belonging to Mr W. L. Watson, Ayton, Abernethy. I have noted a few particulars regarding ours.

I need not dwell on the exceeding interest and value of such a possession. Mr Sidney Lee has said of the First Folio that it "forms the greatest contribution made in a single volume to the secular literature of any age or country. By the English-speaking peoples it must always be regarded as the proudest monument of their literary history. Its publication first gave permanent record to the full range of Shakespeare's work. Of the thirty-six plays which appeared in the volume, only sixteen had been printed at earlier dates-fifteen in the author's lifetime, and one, 'Othello,' posthumously.... No less than twenty dramas—of which the greater number rank among the literary masterpieces of the world,-nine of the fourteen comedies that were here brought together for the first time, five of the ten histories, and six of the twelve tragedies, were rescued by the First Folio from urgent peril of oblivion. Whatever be the typographical or editorial imperfections of the First Folio, it is the fountain-head of knowledge of Shakespeare's

| Athenæum, 10th March 1906, p. 300.

complete achievement." "That book," writes Mr W. E. Henley, “is so demonstrably the greatest gift ever made to English letters, that praise too liberal, or gratitude too lavish, to them that made it could not be. Since it came to us life and art have been of another colour, another inspiration, another purpose, than in its absence they must have shown themselves; so that to consider Shakespeare at all is to be for ever beholden to the two playmongers, his yoke-fellows in trade, who with the help (so Mr Justice Madden very plausibly suggests) of Ben Jonson, his comrade in art, did what was in them to secure for their fellow such immortality as is within the provision of paper and print.”

During the past century and a half the Folio has vastly increased in money value. It was originally published at the price of £1. In the middle of the eighteenth century a good copy could be bought for £3, 3s. In 1790 the copy now belonging to the Duke of Devonshire at Chatsworth was bought at the Watson-Reed sale by the Duke of Roxburghe for £35, 14s., then considered a great price; it was sold at the Duke's sale in 1812 for £100. During the nineteenth century prices rose steadily, and in our own time the appearance in the market of the American collector has sent them to enormous figures. In 1891 a copy was sold in New York for 4200 dollars-£840—then the record price. In June 1899 Mr Pierpont Morgan bought a copy from a London bookseller for £1000. (Mr Morgan, by the way, owns three copies.) In the following month Mr B. B. MacGeorge of Glasgow paid at Christie's for the Belleroche copy £1700; and in 1901 the DormerHunter copy was bought at Christie's by Mr Bernard Quaritch, junior, for £1720. (Both this copy and Mr MacGeorge's have gone to America.)

I quote the following paragraph from an article recently published by Mr Alfred W. Pollard :-"A Gutenberg Bible and a fine First Folio Shakespeare are now the prizes most valued by Americans. There are five Gutenberg Bibles at present in New York, and I do not know how many First Folios, If these come into the market when their owners die, the game may go on. If they are all left to public institutions, the supply cannot be kept up, and when

copies of the most fashionable books are unattainable private collecting may cease to attract, How near we are to this point it is difficult to guess. In lecturing last autumn I remarked that so far from £1750 being an astonishing price for a First Folio to fetch, it was only its extreme commonness that kept it so cheap; when public institutions had absorbed a few more of the good copies, a really fine example might be expected to fetch £10,000. As I write this article the prediction has already come very near fulfilment by the sale of the MacGeorge set of the four Folios for this precise sum, of which the 1623 edition must be reckoned as accounting for considerably more than half. Since the publication of Mr Sidney Lee's census of copies of the First Folio, it has become evident that, while there are plenty of made-up copies in private hands, the number of fine ones is already approaching exhaustion, and thus we are already within the zone of famine prices." (Book Lovers' Magazine, vol. vi., p. 30, Dec. 1905.)

These great prices only apply to fine copies, but even a comparatively inferior

copy is a thing of no small value. Mr John Scott's copy, for example, of which all the preliminary leaves and the last leaf had been restored in facsimile, sold at Sotheby's in March 1905 for £255. It may

be noted that when “extreme commonness is predicated of a First Folio, that only means that it is common in comparison with Caxtons and the like. Mr Sidney Lee notes 158 existing copies. Of these only fourteen are classed as being perfect and in unrestored condition, and of these fourteen only six are in private hands on this side of the Atlantic.

Mr Lee's well-known facsimile was issued by the Clarendon Press in 1902. It is a photographic reproduction, page for page, of the Chatsworth copy.

In his Introduction and in the annexed “Census of Extant Copies ” Mr Lee has collected all available information as to the editing, printing, and publishing of the volume, its typography and bibliography, the reproductions of it which have been produced, and the whereabouts of the surviving copies. All who are concerned with First Folios, or indeed with Shakespearean study in any form, must acknow



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