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from the western and southern winds (the worst in this country,) by vast woods of pine trees, many of which are an hundred and few under seventy feet high. There is no moss on the trees, though in most parts of Carolina they are covered with it, and it hangs down two or three feet from them. The last and fullest conviction of the healthfulness of the place was, that an Indian nation, who knew the nature of this country, chose it for their situation."
The trustees endeavored very early to secure the friend. ship of the Indians, who by ranging through the woods would be capable of giving constant intelligence to prevent any surprise upon the people, and would be a good out-guard for the inland parts of the province. For this purpose they were treated with all possible candor and gentleness. They were acquainted that the English had no intention to hurt or distress them, but would be ready to assist and protect them on all occasions. They received several presents from the trustees, and were promised, that if any of the people of Georgia injured them, they should upon their complaints and proof of it find a ready redress. For which, in return, the Indians engaged never to take any revenge themselves, as it might breed ill blood between the English and them. And as they have since found, that justice has been always done to them upon proper complaints, they have been true to their engagements.
The Indians made a formal and voluntary cession of that part of the country to Mr. Oglethorpe for the king of Great Britain, by which a further right and title to it was acquired and added to that of the first discovery and cultivation; and a treaty of friendship and commerce with them was settled, which was soon after sent over to the trustees for their ratification.
In the month of May, 1733, the trustees sent over six persons more.
The number of people sent on the charity from the beginning to the 9th June, 1733, (on which day of the month the trustees' account is yearly made up, which is directed to be delivered to the Lord Chancellor and the other persons named in the charter) amounted to one hundred and fiftytwo, of whom one hundred and forty-one were Britons, and eleven were foreign Protestants, and sixty-one were men.
The lands granted in trust this year in order to be granted out in smaller portions in Georgia, were the aforesaid five thousand acres.
The lands granted within this year to persons going at their own expense, were four thousand four hundred and sixty acres.
The money received from private persons this year amounted to 37231. 13s. 7d., whereof the trustees applied 22541. 17s. 9d. of which they exhibited an account to the Lord Chancellor and the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, pursuant to their charter, and carried the remainder into their succeeding account.
From the 9th June, 1733, to the 9th June, 1734.
Besides the several works on which the people were employed at Savannah, as pallisading the town, clearing the place from pine trees, &c. and building of houses, some other works were carried on, viz. a public garden was laid out, which was designed as a nursery, in order to supply the people for their several plantations with white mulberry trees, vines, oranges, olives, and other necessary plants. A gardener was appointed for the care of it, and to be paid by the trustees. A crane was made for landing of goods upon the bluff; a battery raised which commands the river some distance below the town, and on the island of Tybee at the entrance of the river, a beacon was erected ninety feet high, which has been of great service not only to the ships entering the river Savannah, but to those likewise which sail by the coast, there being none like it all along the coast of America.
A fort was likewise built at the narrow passages of an inland river (called Ogechee) in order to protect the settlement from any inland invasion from Augustine. Two little villages were laid out and settled at about four miles distant from Savannah, inland from the river, and a mile from each other, which were called Hampstead and Highgate.
In the Carolina Gazette,* dated the 22d March, 1732, a
* Appendix, No. 2.
further account was given of the settlement at Savannah, which was written by a gentleman of Charleston, who with some others went thither out of curiosity.
The Parliament having granted out of money arisen from the sale of the lands at St. Christopher, ten thousand pounds for the further settling and securing the colony, the trustees resolved to lose no time in strengthening it with people, and accordingly in the months of September and October, 1733, they sent over two embarkations of persons, whose numbers are entered at the end of this year's proceedings, and of whom many were persecuted Protestants from Saltzburgh.
As very pleasing accounts of the country and settlement were sent from several of the people there to their friends, the trustees were informed that some persons had gone about in several parts of England offering money and land in their names (but without their knowledge or authority) to any who should be desirous of going to Georgia : therefore they published an advertisement in some of the newspapers, in order to prevent the ill consequences of drawing laborious people out of the country with such expectations, and they declared that they had never given such power to any persons whatsoever, and that they never used any solicitations to induce people to go over.
British. Foreign Pro- Men. The persons sent ) sent.
testants. on the charity this 341 whereof 237 and 104 and in 135 year were · - ) Those in the for->
• 152 whereof 141 and 11 and in 61 mer year were 3 The number of per.) sons sent in the two years to the $ 493 whereof 378 and 115 and in 196 19th June, 1734, were
The lands granted in trust this year in order to be granted out in smaller portions in Georgia were eight thousand and one hundred acres.
The lands granted this year to persons going at their own expense were five thousand seven hundred and twenty-five acres,
The money received this year pursuant to Act of Parliament was 10,000l., and from private persons 15021. 198. 3d.
whereof the trustees applied 68631. Os. 10d. of which they exhibited an account to the Lord Chancellor and Master of the Rolls, pursuant to their charter, and carried the remainder into their succeeding account.
From the 9th June, 1734, to the 9th June, 1735.
In the month of June, 1734, Mr. Oglethorpe arrived from the colony, and with him came some of the principal Indians of the Lower Creek Nation who live nearest to Savannah.
When these Indians were in England, they desired of the trustees that the measures, prices and qualities of all goods to be purchased by them with their deer-skins, might be settled, as likewise the weights; that nobody might be allowed to trade with the Indians in Georgia without a license from the trustees, in order that if they were in any respect injured or defrauded by the traders, they might know where to complain ; and they further desired there might be but one storehouse in each Indian town for supplying them with the goods they might want to purchase, from whence the trader should be obliged to supply them at the first prices.
The reason which the Indians gave for this application, was, because the traders with them had often in an arbitrary manner raised the prices of goods, and defrauded them in the weights and measures, and by their impositions had often created animosities between the English and Indians, which had frequently ended in wars between them prejudicial to both.
The trustees having considered of their request, and being informed that the Council and Assembly of Carolina had passed an Act the 20th August, 1731, entitled, An Act for the better regulation of the Indian trade, and for appointing a Commissioner for that purpose with regulations, which the trustees hoped might be effectual in Georgia, prepared an Act, entitled, An Act for maintaining the peace with the Indians in the Province of Georgia, with the same regulations and provisions as were in the Carolina Act ; which Act ceased to be in force in Georgia since it was erected into a distinct independent province not subject to the laws of Carolina
The trustees receiving frequent informations from the
colony of the pernicious effects of drinking rum and other spirituous liquors, by not only creating disorders amongst the Indians (who had been plentifully supplied with it by the traders) but also destroying many of the English, and throwing the people into various distempers, prepared an Act, entitled, An Act to prevent the importation and use of rum and brandies in the Province of Georgia, or any kind of spirits or strong waters whatsoever. At the same time they endeavored to supply the stores with strong beer from England, molasses for brewing beer, and with Madeira wines, which the people might purchase at reasonable rates, and which would be more refreshing and wholesome for them. The magistrates of the town of Savannah were likewise empowered to grant licenses to private persons for retailing beer, ale, &c.; and the trustees have great reason to believe that the remarkable healthiness of Ebenezer in the northern part, and Frederica in the southern part of Georgia, is very much owing to the prohibition of the use of rum: for in those parts where rum,
in defiance of the Act, has been introduced, the people have - not in general been so healthy and vigorous.
At the same time the trustees, taking into consideration the many inconveniences which would attend the introduction of negroes in a frontier, for the several reasons before specified, prepared an Act for rendering the colony of Georgia more defensible by prohibiting the importation and use of black slaves or negroes into the same.
These three Acts were laid before the King in Council, in the month of January, 1734, and after a report from the Lords Commissioners for Trade and Plantations to the Committee of Council, that they were proper to receive his Majesty's royal approbation, they were ratified by his Majesty in Council.
Though the lands granted by the trustees were to revert to them on failure of issue male, in order to be re-granted for keeping up a number of men; yet the trustees as guardians of the people when any such failure happened, resolved that the value of the improvements upon the lands of the late occupiers, should be valued and paid to or for the benefit of the female issue or near relation, and the first issue of such a failure being on the death of Mr. De Farren, the value of the improvements he had made upon his estate was on the 5th Feb. 1734, ordered and paid for the use of his daughter in VOL. II.