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2dly, Opposite to the court house stands the log house or prison, (which is the only one remaining of five or six that have been successively built in Savannah,) that place of terror and support of absolute power in Georgia.
3dly, Nigh thereto is a house built of logs, at a very great charge, as was said, for the trustees' steward; the foundation below ground is already rotten,* as the whole fabric must be in a short time; for the roof being flat, the rain comes in at all parts of it.
Ath, The store-house, which has been many times altered and amended at a very great charge; and it now serves as a store, for the private benefit of one or two, as before mentioned.
5th, The guard-house, which was first built on the bluff, soon decayed; as did a second through improper management; this now standing being the third. Several flag-staffs were likewise erected, the last of which, according to common report, cost 501. sterling.
6th, A public mill for grinding corn, was first erected at a considerable expense, in one square of the town; but in about three years time (without doing the least service) it fell to the ground. In another square of the town a second was set up, at a far greater expense, but never finished, and is now erased and converted into a house for entertaining the Indians, and other such like uses.
7th, Wells and pumps were made at a great charge ; but they were immediately choked up, and never rendered useful, though this grievance was frequently represented both to the General and magistrates; the want of wells obliging the inhabitants to use the river water, which all the summer over is polluted with putrid marshes and the numberless insects that deposite their ova there, together with putrified carcasses of animals and corrupted vegetables; and this no doubt occasioned much of the sickness that swept off many.
Several of the houses which were built by freeholders, for want of heirs male, are fallen to the trustees (even to the prejudice of the lawful creditors of the deceased) and are disposed of as the General thinks proper.
At least two hundred lots were taken up in Savannah, about one hundred and seventy of which were built upon; †
• In August, 1740, a new foundation was begun.
a great many of these are now ruinous, and many more shut up and abandoned; so that the town appears very desolate, scarce one quarter of its inhabitants being left, and most of those in a miserable condition, for want of the proper necessaries of life.
St. Simon's island, having on the east the gulf of Florida, on the other sides branches of the Alatamaha, is about one hundred miles south of Savannah, and extends in length about twenty, in breadth from two to five miles. On the west side of it, on a low bluff, stands Frederica, having woods to the north and south, to the east partly woods, partly savannahs and partly marsh.
The soil is mostly blackish sand; the fortifications are augmented since the retreat from Augustine, and here lie most of the remains of General Oglethorpe's regiment. Frederica was laid out in form of a cresent, divided into one hundred and forty-four lots, whereof fifty were built upon ; the number of the inhabitants, notwithstanding of the circulation of the regiment's money, are not above one hundred and twenty, men, women and children, and these are daily stealing away by all possible ways. On the sea point, about five miles south-east of the town, were three companies of the soldiers stationed before the attempt upon St. Augustine; several pretty houses were built by the officers, and many lots set off to the soldiers and entered upon by them ; most if not all now desolate. Several of the officers of the regiment brought over servants to cultivate land ; Col. Cochran, twenty servants; Lieut. Horton at Jekyl, sixteen servants ; Capt. Gascoign at least as many; all gone; and, according to the best of our information, about two hundred of the regiment are diminished.
About twenty miles north-west from St. Simons, is Darien, the settlement of the Scots Highlanders; the town is situate on the main land, close to a branch of the Alatamaha river, on a bluff twenty feet high; the town is surrounded on all sides with woods; the soil is a blackish sand. Here were upwards of two hundred and fifty persons settled, who in Spring, 1736, built a large fort for their own protection; and the poor remains of these are now no more than fifty-three (above two thirds of which are women and children) besides eleven of the trustees' servants enlisted as soldiers, and stationed there under the command of an officer in order to
keep the others from going away, who are nevertheless making their escape daily.
The southernmost settlement in Georgia, is Fort St. Andrews, fifty miles south from Frederica, on the south-west side of Cumberland island, upon a bigh neck of land which commands the river both ways; the walls are of wood, filled up with earth, round which are a ditch and pallisade; two companies of General Oglethorpe's regiment were formerly stationed there, but are now mostly drawn to Frederica.
Opposite to Frederica, on the main, were settled Messrs. Carr and Carteret, with above twenty servants, where they cleared a considerable tract of land; but that plantation is now quitted, and their servants either dead or dispersed. We have lately heard from Frederica, that the General having stationed ten or twelve men upon this place, they were attacked by Spaniards or Spanish Indians, four were killed, four carried off, and two left wounded.
New Ebenezer, to which the Saltzburgers removed from their former habitation at Old Ebenezer, consists of about one hundred persons, under the government of Mr. Boltzius, their pastor; they live and labor in a kind of community, and never commix or associate with strangers ; they have been hitherto liberally supported both from Germany and England, and their rights and privileges have been much more extensive than any others in the colony. This town lies six miles eastward from the old, on a high bluff upon the side of Savannah river, and forty miles from Savannah. Near to this place on a creek of the same river, was built a saw mill, which cost of the public money above 15001. sterling, but, like most other public works, is now entirely ruinous.
About ten miles east of Ebenezer, on a creek three miles from the river, was the village of Abercorn. In the year 1733, there were ten families settled there, and several afterwards. In the year 1737, Mr. John Brodie, with twelve servants, settled there : but all those are gone, and it is now a heap of ruins.
Four miles below'Abercorn, upon the river side, is Joseph's Town, which was the settlement of some Scots gentlemen, with thirty servants; but they have now left it, most of their servants having died there.
A mile below, on the river side, is the settlement where sir Francis Bathurst, with twelve in family and servants, was placed, now in ruins, without an inhabitant.
A quarter of a mile below was the settlement of Walter Augustine, with six in family. Within this settlement was another mill, erected, at the charge of above 800l. sterling, all now in ruins, without an inhabitant.
A mile below is Landiloe, the settlement of Mr. Robert Williams, with forty servants, who made large improvements there, and continued for the space of four years planting each season with great industry in various shapes, still expecting (with the other settlers) an alteration in the constitution; but at last having sunk a great deal of money, he was obliged to leave it, with the loss of above two thousand pounds sterling; and it is now uninhabited, and very much decayed. Next below that is the five hundred acre tract belonging to Dr. Patrick Tailfer; which was settled, but found impracticable to proceed upon, by reason of the hardships and restrictions in the colony. Next to that is Mr. Jacob Mathews's plantation (formerly Mr. Musgrove's) called the Cow-pen, who lived there some time with ten servants; but has now left it, and keeps only two or three to look after his cattle. Adjoining to this was Mr. Cooksey's settlement, with five in family; now entirely abandoned. Next to this was captain Watson's plantation, with a good house, now in ruins. All these lie upon the side of the river. And upon the east and southward, were the settlements of Young, Emery, Polhil and Warwick; all forsaken. Next upon the river side is the Indian land before mentioned, separated from the foregoing settlements by a creek, and running all along to the town. A little below this creek is a place called Irene, where Mr. John Wesly built a pretty good house for an Indian school; but he soon wearied of that undertaking, and left it. A little below this is the Indian town called New-Yamacraw, where the remainder of Tomo Chichi's Indians reside.
Five miles south-west of Savannah, on a small rise, stands the village of Highgate. Twelve families were settled here in 1733, mostly French, now reduced to two. A mile eastward of this is Hampstead, where several German families were settled in 1733, and some others since, now reduced to none.
Five miles south-east of Savannah, is Thunderbolt, where there was a good timber fort, and three families with twenty servants were settled ; but it is now all in ruins and abandoned.
Four miles south of this is the island of Skiddoway, on the north-east point whereof ten families were settled in - 1733 ; now reduced to none.
A creek divides Skiddoway from Tybee island, on the south-east part of which, fronting the inlet, the light-house is built. Twelve families were settled here in 1734, who have now forsaken it.
Twelve miles southward by land from Savannah, is Mr. Houston's plantation, kept with one servant. And,
About thirty miles from that, up the river Ogechee, was the settlements of Messrs. Stirlings, &c., with twenty-five servants. This place, when they went there, was the southernmost settlement in the colony, and very remote; * so that they were obliged to build, at their own expense and at a considerable charge, a strong wooden fort for their defence. And the said Messrs. Stirlings having resided there about three years with the servants, they were obliged to leave it after having exhausted their fortunes to no purpose in the experiment.
Twenty miles above this, on a high bluff on the same river, stands fort Argyle: † it is a small square wooden fort, musket-proof. Ten families were settled here and about it; now all gone; and the fort itself garrisoned by one officer, one Dutch servant, and one woman, who were lately surprised in the officer's absence, by two prisoners that broke out of the log-house in Savannah, and both murdered.
Near the mouth of Vernon river, upon a kind of an island (which is called Hope isle) are the settlements of Messrs. John Fallowfield, Henry Parker and Noble Jones. They have made some improvements there, but chiefly Mr. Fallowfield, who has a pretty little convenient house and garden, with a considerable stock of hogs, and some cattle, &c., and where he generally resides with his family. Near adjoining to this upon a piece of land which commands the Narrows, is a timber building called Jones's fort, which serves for two uses, namely, to support Mr. Noble Jones, who is com
"This was the only spot allowed them to settle upon, any other place being re
+ This is the place where a body of horse called the Southern Rangers, under the command of captain James Macpherson, were stationed for several years. They were paid by the government of Carolina; but have been discharged for some time by past.
This is a narrow passage through which boats are obliged to pass aed repass in going to and from the southard. VOL. 11.