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your honors would be pleased to give this.colony continual assistance, by sending over servants to the said freeholders at reasonable rates : therefore, we do, with all humility, lay before your honors the great and general want of servants in this town and county ; not doubting your timely assistance therein.
“ That the town of Savannah stands in the utmost need of having a good wharf and crane, for the conveniency of both strangers and inhabitants, they being at double pains and costs in landing and getting their goods up the bluff.
“ That the light-house of Tybee, which with great labor and (as we humbly conceive) vast expense to your honors, remains unfinished and uncovered ; by reason of which, that most necessary and lofty structure is subject to all the inju
ries of weather, and may totally decay if not in time pre: vented, which will be greatly detrimental to the trade, navi. i gation and welfare of this colony.
“ That the inhabitants of this town and county are at vast expense in time of sickness, especially they who have most • servants; it being a general misfortune, that during the hot season of the year, hardly one half of the servants are able to do their masters any work, by reason of the violent sicknesses; which hath very much prevented the inhabitants from making improvements.
"It is without the least personal resentment to Mr. Causton, or any other person that we do, with the most profound respect and duty, lay before your honors the foregoing grievances, hardships and necessities; and it is not the persons or personal infirmities of any of the magistrates we blame; but such of their actions and words as (we humbly conceive) tends to the subversion of our laws and liberties; and we are firmly persuaded, that Mr. Causton would not have impaneled this grand jury, on an affair that so nearly concerned him as that of his niece's did, if he had not believed the several persons of this grand jury to be men of strict integrity, and no way prejudiced against him; and as we the said grand jury are, for the time being, appointed for the solemn representation of truth, we humbly hope your honors will consider this our representation, as proceeding from a strict, impartial and sound inquiry.
“In witness, &c. - This first day of September, 1737."
The original of this was signed by all the forty-four, and sent home; but was taken no notice of by the trustees for anything ever we heard ; and we hope it will appear evident to every judicious reader, that this jury was neither biased nor intimidated by Causton, to the prejudice of any person whatsoever, as Mr. Wesly asserts in his Journal, printed at Bristol, 1739. He likewise says, there were a professed atheist and deist in the number ; but for our parts we know of neither. But a man of Mr. Wesly's principles, who makes no scruple of writing wilful falsehoods (as may be seen by any body that compares this narrative with his Journal,) and of damning every person of a contrary opinion with himself, may, without hesitation, give people what appellations come in his head. However, this put an end to any further prosecution of Mr. Wesly's schemes, for soon after this he departed the colony privately by night, and went to Charleston, and from thence to England.
Mr. Wesly had address enough (as he says in his forementioned Journal,) to persuade several persons who were members of the grand jury, to retract, (by some paper which he drew up for them to sign,) their former sentiments; but this, if it was at all, proceeded entirely from the solemn assurances which he gave them, that his main design home was to represent the grievances and oppressions which the poor colony labored under ; and upon this account was charged with divers letters and papers from private persons, relating to the colony; which he undertook faithfully to deliver. But as we have since found, that all Mr. Oglethorpe's interest was employed to protect Mr. Wesly, it is no wonder those promises were never fulfilled; nor indeed could it ever be ascertained, that even the private letters which he carried, were so much as delivered.
On the other hand, Mr. Causton ever after bore a mortal hatred to the members of this grand jury, and took every opportunity to show his resentment; and we doubt not but he prevailed upon three or four of them to a recantation, having either terrified or starved them into a compliance. But we bore these things the more patiently, as being satisfied the trustees were gentlemen who had our interest at heart, and who would hear and redress our gievances in due time; and that Mr. 0— pe might still be a friend to the colony; but at last we heard he had procured a regiment for its de
this, if it was at the gave them, and oppres
fence, of which he was made Colonel ; and that he was likewise made General and Commander in Chief over all his Majesty's forces in South Carolina and Georgia. This news was confirmed by William Stephens, Esq., who was sent over as trustees' secretary, to represent the state and condition of the colony as it really was, and to assist and consult with the magistrates. But Mr. Causton soon found the means to bring over the old gentleman to his interest, or at least to acquiesce in every thing he said or did ; for he had still the command of the cash and stores, and Mr. Stephens had nothing to live upon but his salary, which he could stop
the payment of at pleasure ; so our secretary remained pasEsive until Causton's government ended.
At last Mr. Oglethorpe comes over for the third time, in September, with the remainder of his regiment; the other part having come with Colonel Cochran, in May. But alas !
this regiment was of no service, otherwise than to strengthen - us in case of an attack; for we could neither furnish them in · clothes, provisions, nor any one thing they wanted. And to - put us out of all hopes of bettering our condition, Mr. Ogle
thorpe was pleased to declare in the court-house of Savans nah, that as long as he had any thing to do with the colony,
there should neither be allowance of negroes nor alteration in the titles of land ; and if any such thing should happen, he would have no further concern with it. The people thus seeing there was no hope of redress, left the colony daily ; and the trustees' credit receiving a great shock by their refusing Mr. Causton's certified accounts, and an entire stop being put to the public store, many poor wretches died of hunger. For at this time Mr. Causton was turned out of all his places, and the store was ordered to be sold, in order, as was said, to pay off the trustees' debts. One Thomas Jones, a favorite of Mr. Oglethorpe, whose character we shall
have occasion to give afterwards, was put in his place, as - cash and store-keeper, only with a different title, viz., that of
magazine-keeper; for none but the trustees' servants were to be supplied from it. But the contrary soon appeared ; for the Sola bills that were sent over, were ordered to be issued out in the names of William Stephens, Esq., Mr. Thomas Christie, and Mr. Thomas Jones, or any two of them; but the other two agreeing together, entirely excluded Christie, and paid them to whom and for what purpose they thought
the sonupplied per; For only will
convenient. They bought New York cargoes, and any other commodities that could be got in quantities, and put them into the magazine, where they were sold out by Jones in wholesale and retail, for ready money, at exorbitant rates. This trade they have carried on ever since, to their vast advantage; but to the no small distress of the poor people, who are obliged to give at the rate almost of cent. per cent. for their provisions. Thus under the color of no store, these two keep as open a one as ever Causton did; and by having the public money at their disposal, the payment of all salaries and pensions coming through their hands, they are become as absolute; with this difference, that Mr. Causton's power, in every respect, extended over the whole colony when it was most populous, and money most plenty; but theirs seems only to affect the wretched remains of Savannah.
We might have imagined, that the trustees were somewhat moved with our repeated complaints, and that Mr. Causton's removal was owing thereto. But alas ! in this we were mistaken. Nothing (as ever we could understand,) was laid to his charge on our account; and it was of small benefit to us, whether the mismanagement of money, which was the reason of his dismission, lies at his or Mr. Oglethorpe's door. And we cannot but here take notice that Mr. Causton's case fortifies the common observation, that those who prostitute themselves to carry on illegal and oppressive schemes, when they have once stuck in the mire, they are forsaken by their employers, and despised by all the world besides.
Mr. Oglethorpe staid not long at Savannah, his common residence being at Frederica, where they had, in imitation of us, built a few houses, and cleared some land ; but finding planting not answer, they left it off, and as soon as the regiment came, almost every body betook themselves to the keeping public houses; and in this manner do the few that now remain live.
All the public work being put a stop to, and clearing of land being found impracticable, by which most of us had ruined ourselves, we were in a miserable condition; and all hope from Mr. Oglethorpe being at an end, we could hardly tell what to do. But still thinking the trustees might be ignorant or misinformed of the present condition of the col
ony, we at last resolved to set forth our grievances in a short and general representation, to be signed by all the freeholders in the colony, of which the following is an exact copy.
“ To the Honorable the Trustees for Establishing the Colony
of Georgia in America.
: “ May it please your Honors ;
“We whose names are underwritten, being all settlers, freeholders and inhabitants in the province of Georgia, and being sensible of the great pains and care exerted by you in endeavoring to settle this colony, since it has been under your protection and management, do unanimously join to lay before you, with the utmost regret, the following particulars. But in the first place, we must beg leave to observe, that it has afforded us a great deal of concern and uneasiness, that former representations made to you of the same nature, have not been thought worthy of due consideration nor even of an answer. We have most of us settled in this colony in pursuance of the description and recommendation given of it by you in Britain ; and from the experience of residing here several years, do find that it is impossible that the measures hitherto laid down and pursued for making it a colony can succeed. None of all those who have planted their land have been able to raise sufficient produce to maintain their families in bread kind only, even though as much application and industry have been exerted to bring it about, as could be done by men engaged in an affair on which they believed the welfare of themselves and posterity so much depended, and which they imagined required more than ordinary pains to make succeed; so that by the accumulated expenses every year, of provisions, clothing and medicines, for themselves, families, and servants, several hath expended all their money, nay even run considerably in debt, and so been obliged to leave off planting and making further improvements; and those who continue are daily exhausting more and more of their money, and some daily increasing their debt, without a possibility of being reimbursed, according to the present constitution. This being now the general state of the colony, it must be obvious that people cannot subsist by their land, according to the present establishVOL. II.