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third bailiff after Gordon's dismission or resignation, was one Darn, nigh seventy years of age, crazed both in body and mind, who died not long after his appointment, and his successor, R. Gilbert could neither read nor write; so that Causton had never after Gordon's departure, any opposition made by the other magistrates to his arbitrary proceedings. If we should allow ourselves to enter into a detail of the particular instances of such proceedings, we should exceed much our proposed bounds; we shall therefore confine ourselves to two only, which may serve as a specimen of the many others. One is, that of Captain Joseph Watson. This person having incurred Mr. Causton's displeasure, was indicted for stirring up animosities in the minds of the Indians, &c. tending to the ruin and subversion of the colony. Upon his trial, the jury in their verdict found him guilty only of some unguarded expressions, (although twice returned and hectored by Mr. Causton, who acted both as witness and judge in the matter) and verbally recommended him by their foreman to the mercy of the court, imagining or supposing he might be a lunatic; however, as it afterwards appeared, it was represented to the trustees that the jury found him guilty of lunacy in their verdict) whereupon he was immediately confined by Mr. Causton, (although sufficient bail was offered) and kept prisoner near three years, without any sentence. But, as we are informed this affair now lies before a proper judicature, we shall say no more of it.
The other instance is that of Mr. Odingsell, who was an inhabitant of Carolina, and had been a great benefactor to the infant colony of Georgia, having given several head of cattle and other valuable contributions, towards the promoting it. This person having come to Savannah to see how the colony succeeded, after he had been there a few days, being abroad some time after it was night, as he was going to his lodgings was taken up in the street for a stroller, carried to the guard-house, and threatened with the stocks and whipping-post; the terror and fright of which (he being a mild and peaceable man) threw him into a high fever with a strong delirium, crying out to every person who came near bim, that they were come to carry him to the whipping-post; and after lying two or three days in this distracted condition, he was carried aboard his boat in order to be sent home, and died in the way somewhere about Dawfuskee Sound.
Thus, while the nation at home was amused with the fame of the happiness and flourishing of the colony, and of its being free from lawyers of any kind, the poor miserable settlers and inhabitants were exposed to as arbitrary a government as Turkey or Muscovy ever felt. Very looks were criminal, and the grand sin of withstanding, or any way opposing authority, (as it was called, when any person insisted upon his just rights and privileges) was punished without mercy. Nevertheless, we bore all these things patiently, in full hopes that the trustees' eyes would soon be opened, and then our grievances be redressed, and still continued exhausting our substance in pursuing an impracticable scheme, namely, cultivating land to advantage in such a climate with white servants only, not doubting, but that the Parliament, who yearly repeated their bounty, would make up our damages : but alas! their bounty was applied in Georgia, rather to the hurt than benefit of the colony, as we shall here briefly relate. First, a light-house was set about; but before the frame was erected it was almost half rotten, and has not been carried on any farther, nor never even covered, which has likewise greatly contributed to its decay; and now that lofty fabric, so highly useful to vessels which make that coast, is either fallen or must fall very soon. Log-houses and prisons of various sorts, were built and erased successively, and most part of them were fitter for dungeons in the Spanish inquisition than British goals. Trons, whipping-posts, gibbets,* &c. were provided, to keep the inhabitants in perpetual terror; for innocence was no protection : and for some time there were more imprisonments, whippings, &c. of white people, in that colony of liberty, than in all British America besides. Corn-mills, saw-inills, public roads, trustees plantations, as they were called) wells and forts, in different places, were all set about, but, as is evident from the event, with no design to serve the public, but only to amuse the world, and maintain some creatures who assisted in keeping their neighbors in subjection ; for few or none of these things were ever brought to perfection ; some of them were left off half finished, and of those that were finished, some were erased (being found of no service,) and others fell of themselves for want of proper care. To carry on the
* It was a very usual thing with General OGLETHORPE, when any persons bad incurred his displeasure, to threaten to hang them.
manufactures of silk and wine, a garden was planted with mulberries and vines, which was to be a nursery to supply the rest of the province. But this was as far from answering the proposed end, as every thing else was; for it is situated upon one of the most barren spots of land in the colony, being only a large hill of dry sand. Great sums of money were thrown away upon it from year to year, to no purpose; this was remonstrated to the trustees, and they seemed to be sensible of the error, and gave orders to choose another spot of ground; but the ruling powers in Georgia took no notice thereof. And now, after so great time and charge, there are not so many mulberry trees in all the province of Georgia, as many one of the Carolina planters have upon their plantations; nor so much silk made there in one year, as many of those planters do make : nor could they ever in that garden, raise one vine to the perfection of bearing fruit. And here it may be observed, that the silk Mr. 0_ pe carried over for a present to Queen CAROLINE, was most of it, if not all, made in Carolina. Though no proper measures were ever taken for advancing the silk and wine manufactures, yet private persons made several assays towards the culture of European grapes; but even such attempts met with no suitable encouragement from Mr. Oglethorpe, as will appear from the following fact. Abraham De Leon, a Jew, who had been many years a vineron in Portugal, and a freeholder in Savannah, cultivated several kinds of grapes in his garden, and, amongst others, the Porto and Malaga to great perfection; of this he sent home an attested account to the Board of Trustees, proposing further, that if they would lend him, upon such security as he offered, two hundred pounds sterling, for three years without interest, that he would employ the said sum, with a further stock of his own, in sending to Portugal, and bringing over vines and vinerons; and that he should be bound to repay the money in three years, and to have growing within the colony forty thousand such vines, which he would furnish the freeholders with at moderate rates.
The trustees were satisfied with the security, and accepted the proposal, and wrote him, that they had remitted the two hundred pounds by Mr. Oglethorpe for his use; which he did not deny, when applied to by the said Leon for the same, but said that he could not advance more than twenty or thirty pounds, in regard he had other uses for the money; and so that design dropped.
In February, 1735-6, Mr. Og — pe arrived in Georgia, for the second time, with great numbers of people, in order to settle to the southward, where he soon after carried them. Upon the Island of St. Simons he settled a town, which he called Frederica ; and about five miles distance from thence, towards the sea, he placed the independent company which he removed from Port Royal in Carolina, their former station. On one of the branches of the Alatamaha he settled the Highlanders in a village which was called Darien. Then he settled a fort on Cumberland, which he named St. Andrews; and some time after he caused a garrison of about fifty men to be placed upon a sandy island (without fresh water) in the mouth of St. John's River, opposite to a Spanish lookout, where possession was kept for about six months, and several fortifications built; but at last he was obliged to abandon it, after several people had lost their lives by the inconveniences of the place, besides great sums of money thrown away in vain.
Whilst things thus passed in the southern part of the province, Mr. Causton was not idle at Savannah ; and one would have thought, that he made it his particular design further to exasperate the people of Carolina. He stopped their boats who were going up to New-Windsor; and not content with that, he caused them to be searched, and whatever rum was found therein, was directly staved, in pursuance of an Act, as he alleged, entitled, An Act against the importation of rum into the colony of Georgia. To complain of this, and to represent the bad state of the Indian trade, a committee from the Assembly of South Carolina arrived at Savannah in July 1736, where Mr. Og— pe then was. But their coming was of little consequence; for after this the differences and animosities betwixt the two provinces rather increased than diminished ; and we shall only observe, that one thing is certain, that ever since Mr. Ogle— pe intermeddled in the Indian trade, it has decayed apace, and at this time is almost entirely good for nothing either to the one or the other province.
Thus while the province of Carolina resented the bad treatment they had met with from the leading powers in Georgia against the colony in general, the poor inhabitants were doubly unfortunate, being ill looked upon by their nearest neighbors and friends, for the actings of their Gor
ernors, while they themselves were still the greatest sufferers by those very actings.
Whilst Mr. 0— pe staid in Georgia, great complaints were made against the arbitrary proceedings of Mr. Causton ; but to no purpose : likewise several persons endeavored to show the impossibility of the colony's succeeding, according to its then present constitution : but if this was done in his hearing, he either always browbeat the person or evaded the discourse; if by letters, he never made any answer to them, even although he had given public orders, that every person should give in their grievances and complaints to him in writing, and that he would consider and answer the same. But that we might not be entirely ignorant of his thoughts, Mr. Causton, who always spoke his sentiments, publicly declared that we had neither lands, rights or possessions; that the trustees gave and that the trustees could freely take away. And again, when he was told that the light-house wanted a few spike nails to fasten some of its braces which were loose, and which might occasion the downfall of the whole fabric,
he answered that he would say as Mr. Oglethorpe said, it - might fall and be d— d. Mr. Oglethorpe staid in Georgia
until November 1736, most of which time he spent to the southward, and then embarked for England, leaving Mr. Causton with the same authority he had formerly invested bim with and in the same power he then exercised, and the colony under the same difficulties and hardships.
In March thereafter we had advice of the Spaniards' intentions of attacking the colony from the Havana. This put the whole province in great consternation, especially the town of Savannah; they having neither fort, battery, or any other place to shelter themselves in, in case of any actual
attack; therefore they immediately set about building a - wooden fort, and all sorts of people labored continually until
it was in some measure finished ; only Mr. Causton never came to the work, but did all he could to retard it, making light of the information, although it was sent express by Commodore Dent, with a letter directed to the commander in chief of Georgia ; and has since been put out of all manner of doubt, the Spaniards having at that time four thousand men embarked and ready to sail, if an extraordinary accident had not prevented them.* People now seeing the little care
* They were detained eight days at the Havana, by contrary winds; (the land forces being on board all that time) at the end of which there came orders from Old Spain to forbear hostilities, the Convention being then agreed upon.