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sepse being at Charlestown, whilst Mr. Oglethorpe was at the southward, might have prevented the misunderstandings which afterwards happened.
On the 10th of December the wind at E. S. E. and a moderate gale, we, in company with the Hawk, the London Merchant, and about forty sail more, who had been forced to stay by the long continuance of contrary winds, stood out for sea.
When we had past the Needles the pilot left us. The London Merchant lay by a little for three of the passengers, who happened to be gone to Portsmouth when the wind came fair; but it was all to no purpose, for they not coming up in time, were left behind.
On the 12th we parted with the Hawk, the wind blowing very hard.
I believe a journal of the winds and days of the month will be but dry to the reader, and that it may divert him more to hear which way our floating colony were subsisted and passed their time on board.
We had prayers twice a day. The missionaries expounded the Scriptures, catechized the children, and administered the sacrament on Sundays; but Mr. Oglethorpe shewed no discountenance to any for being of different persuasions in religion. The Dissenters, of which there were many on board, particularly the Germans, sung psalms and served God in their own way. Mr. Oglethorpe had laid in a large quantity of live stock, and other refreshments, (though he himself seldom ate any but ship's provisions.) Not only the gentlemen, his friends, ate at his table, but he invited, through the whole passage, the missionaries and the captain of the ship, who together made twelve in number.
All those who came upon the Trust's account were divided into messes; and besides the ship's provisions, the Trustees were so careful of the poor people's health, that they put on board turnips, carrots, potatoes, and onions, which were given out with the salt meat, and contributed greatly to prevent the scurvy. The ship was divided into cabins, with gang-ways, which we call streets between them. The people were disposed into these by families; the single men were put by themselves. Each cabin had its door and partition. Whenever the weather would permit, the ship was cleaned between decks and washed with vinegar, which kept the place very sweet aud healthy. There were constables appointed to prevent any disorders, and every thing was carried so easily, that during the whole voyage there was no occasion for punishing any one, excepting a boy who was whipped for stealing turnips.
When the weather permitted, the men were exercised with small arms. There were also thread, worsted, and knitting needles given to the women, who employed their leisure time in making stockings and caps for their family, or in mending their clothes and linen.
Mr. Oglethorpe, when occasion offered, called together all those who were designed to be freeholders, recommended to them in what manner to behave themselves, acquainted them of the nature of the country, and how to settle it advantageously.
We went south as far as the nineteenth degree of north latitude, in order to fetch the trade winds, so that about Christmas it was as hot as in June. Our people grew sickly. Mr. Oglethorpe himself visited them constantly; and when it was proper he let them have fowls for broth, and any refreshments of his own. We had a very good surgeon, and I observed that carduus vomits gave the sick great relief. If that did not do, bleeding, and some powders which the doctor gave, (which were chiefly either compositions of salt or wormwood, or testaceous powders) had such effect, that, by the blessing of God, not one soul died from the time we left the Downs to our arrival in Georgia. Instead of lessening our number we increased it, for on the passage there were four children born.
Whenever the weather was calm enough to permit it, Mr. Oglethorpe went on board the London Merchant, to see that the like care was taken of the people on board her, with whom we kept company all the way.
Having run before the trade wind till we had got westing sufficient, and being as far south as twenty degrees, we were obliged to stand northwardly to fetch Georgia, which lies in the latitude of thirty-two, so that we had a second winter, for we found the weather cold as we came near the coast of Georgia.
On the twenty-sixth of January it blew so hard, that we • were obliged to lie to under a reefed mainsail. We shipped several seas, one of which filled the great cabin, though the dead lights were up; and another splitted our mainsail, which was quite new : we soon unbent it, and brought the ship to under her mizzen.
On the 2d of February, at noon, we saw three sails standing E. N. E. We bore up to them, and soon after spoke with the Pompey, Captain Rowse, bound for London from Carolina. He lay by whilst Mr. Oglethorpe wrote letters to England, which he sent by him.
On the 4th we found we had passed the stream of the Gulf of Florida. We sounded, and found ground with fifty fathom of line, being the banks of Georgia, which shoal gradually to shore, at that time about thirty leagues distant. In the evening we saw land, which proved to be the island of Tybee. We lay off and on all night.
On the 5th we ran in, and made Tybee plain. Captain Dymond, of the Peter and James, came out to us in his boat, and brought a pilot with him. He carried us over the bar with the first of the flood, finding nineteen foot water in the shoalest part. We came to an anchor within Tybee.
Mr. Oglethorpe went ashore to see what progress was made in the light house : he found the foundation had been piled but the brick-work not raised. The materials which he had left sawed at Savannah were brought down, but nothing set up. He had left one Blytheman, a carpenter, a very ingenious workman, in charge to build it, allowing him ten men for his assistance; and fearing that if he left any one to control the carpenter, (who naturally must understand less of it) it might have prevented the work ; therefore he left it in the carpenter's charge, at his peril. Mr. Oglethorpe calling him to account for this scandalous neglect, he had nothing to say in excuse, but that he had used the men in clearing away the trees, that the beacon might be the more conspicuous; that a great deal of time had been taken up in piling the foundation, and in bringing down and landing the timber; that he had made a great many more braces than at first had been thought necessary; but that the chief reason of his delay arose from his men's not working; that rum was so cheap in Carolina, from whence they easily got it, that one day's pay would make them drunk for a week, and then they neither minded him nor any thing else. I heard Mr. Oglethorpe, after he returned to the ship, say, that he was in doubt whether he should prosecute the man, who is the only one here able to finish the work, and thereby leave the work undone, and lose the materials, which were all ready ; or else forgive what was past, and have the beacon finished. He took the latter counsel, and agreed with him for a time certain, and a price certain, appointing Mr. Vanderplank to see that the work advanced according to the agreement : and not to pay but proportionably to what should be done. This beacon is twenty-five foot wide at bottom, ninety feet high, and ten foot wide at top It is of the best of pine, strongly timbered, raised upon. cedar piles, and brick-work round the bottom. It will be, when raised, of great service to all shipping, not only to those bound to this port, but also to Carolina; for the land of all the coast, for some hundred miles, is so alike, being all low and woody, that a distinguishing mark is of great consequence.
There is an Island called Peeper, lying in the mouth of the Savannah river, between which and Tybee there is a very good harbor. In the evening we came to anchor there, where lay the following ships : The Prince of Wales, Capt. Dunbar, the Two Brothers, Capt. Thomson, and the Peter and James, Capt. Dymond, who were all on the Trustee's account, with stores and men for the southward settlement, and obliged to stay on demurrage, by reason of our being unluckily delayed by contrary winds at Cowes. Mr. Oglethorpe employed all hands to discharge them, that he might stop the expense of demurrage as soon as possible. All the ships saluted Mr. Oglethorpe with their cannon on our coming to anchor; after which, he sent an express to Charlestown, and to Lieut. Delegal, (who commanded the King's independent company at Port Royal) for the company to repair to St. Simon's.
We learnt from Capt. Dunbar, who had brought over one hundred and seventy Highlanders, that Capt. Hugh Mackay was set out for the Altamaha river; he being gone first with part of the men, and having left the families to follow after. – That there had been several reports spread among the Highlanders, by the sutlers who brought them provisions, that the Spaniards and Indians would certainly destroy them, notwithstanding which they went up.
On the 6th, early, Mr. Oglethorpe set out for Savannah, but he first carried the people on shore upon Peeper island, and shewed them where to dig a well, which they did, and
found a plenty of fresh water. He was received at Savannah by the freeholders under arms, and under the salute of twenty-one cannons, which we heard plainly, being about ten miles distance.
After Mr. Oglethorpe was gone to Savannah, most of the colony went ashore upon Peeper island, where I found an eagle's nest on a fir tree; we cut it down, and found an egg in it, in which was a young eagle. In the evening the people found another spring, and also a pond of fresh water, which they used for washing their linen. A small sloop passed by us for Savannah, bound thither with provisions from Carolina.
On the 7th all our women went ashore on Peeper island to wash their linen. A boat came down from Savannah with some fresh beef, pork, venison, and other refreshments, sent by Mr. Oglethorpe for the people on board this ship and the London Merchant. In the evening we had a smart shower of rain, which wetted our good women to the skins, before they could get aboard.
On the 8th some boats with sutlers came on board with provisions to sell to the passengers. They privately brought some rum; which being discovered, the officers who were left by Mr. Oglethorpe to keep orders on board, during his absence, ordered the same to be staved; which was accordingly complied with. The boat returned which had been sent to Port Royal, with answer, that the refreshments which had been bespoke from England, for the use of the colony, were not ready. She immediately proceeded up to Savanpab, having packets of letters for Mr. Oglethorpe, who in the evening returned from thence in a scout boat. This was a strong built, swift boat, with three swivel guns and ten oars, kept for the visiting the river passages, and islands, and for preventing the incursions of enemies, or runaways, from whence it is called scout-boat. The crew is composed of men bred in America, bold and hardy, who lie out in the woods and upon the water months together, without a house or covering. Most of them are good hunters or fishers. By killing deer and other game they can subsist themselves, in case their provisions should fail; but indeed on these sea-islands, no one can starve, since if at the worst, a man was lost, there are oysters and shell-fish enough to subsist him.