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may reject their silk, their raisins, oil, wine, olives, and divers other merchandizes, and be supplied from Carolina and Georgia. I have been credibly informed that a gentleman, now living in this kingdom, was the first person who made pitch in America, about thirty years ago; the people whom be conversed with then, looked on his experiment as a chimera, but it has proved so real as to reduce that commodity, I think, four-fifths in its value: so that we may now buy for twenty pounds what was formerly worth a hundred pound.
France has not the same advantage as Great Britain in its situation, for maritime affairs: That country is extended wide within land, and has not the benefit of being penetrated by many deep creeks, or navigable rivers ; on half its borders it is bounded with the continent; and the good harbors of France are but few, compared with the numbers of ours. These reasons of our superiority over them in maritime affairs in general, served to prevent their increasing in North America as fast as we did, and there is another special reason, viz., We have had the navigation of North America in us by the large traffic of our early settlements, and even of the French sugar colonies, which we supply with lumber, horses and provisions. We have five souls on the continent for one of theirs; their principal settlement is in a climate too cold and not very fruitful. And yet they contrive all imaginable methods of augmenting their numbers. They intermarry with the natives and convert them; and the French king supplies two thousand persons yearly with money to enable them to go thither, without being afraid that he shall drain his country of people.
It is easy to demonstrate that we can afford to send people abroad better than France and Spain. They have in each of those kingdoms more than one hundred thousand cloistered females, not permitted to propagate their species, and the number of males in a state of celibacy is still abundantly greater as it comprehends their secular and regular clergy, and a considerable part of their great armies who resolve against marriage, because of the uncomfortable
prospects they have, with regard to their progeny. It
be said indeed, that these do not marry, yet many of them get children. But it must be admitted that the usual fate of that kind of propagation is to be destroyed secretly, either before, or after the birth; and the former of these crimes frequently procures barrenness in the woman. I have entered into the consideration of the loss by the celibacy of their males, that nobody may imagine the computation of their deficiencies should be made upon their cloistered females only.
And yet let us take a short view of their losses upon that calculation, allowing a monk, or a priest, for an husband to each immured woman. The most exact rules in this kind of arithmetic are as follows:
1st. The people who go on in an ordinary course of propagation and morality, and are not visited with some extraordinary destructive calamity, grow double in their number in one hundred years.
2d. Thirty-three years, are a sufficient allowance for a generation, or three generations to an hundred years. Now, since the Reformation, near two hundred years are elapsed, at which time celibacy was abolished in England.
Therefore, in that time France has lost more than five generations, principal of its inhabitants, at the rate of two hundred thousand in each generation, besides the accumulated numbers of cent per cent, for each hundred years, which loss must be reckoned upon the second century as interest upon interest; so that the two hundred thousand individual persons who were under the vow in France, an hundred and eighty years ago, will twenty years hence be a negative upon their numbers to the value of eight hundred thousand people.
They who understand a little arithmetic, may divert themselves by computing the amount of all the parts of this loss of people in the five generations: to those who do not relish numbers, I fear, I have here and elsewhere been too tedious.
My aim in this chapter is to rectify the notions of some of my countrymen, upon an affair so important as our commerce; to point out the differences between a natural and an artificial trade; to instance them in our neighbors compared with ourselves; to show the industry of the French to rival us in America, in spite of their geography and their religion; and to inculcate that our strength depends on our shipping, and our shipping on our wide extended colonies, which have neither gold nor silver, and for that very reason, · confirm us the more powerfully in the dominion of the seas.
If what has been offered to the public in the foregoing sheets meets a favorable reception, the author will add some farther observations hereafter on the same subject. At present he only wishes that any thing here laid down, whether fact or observation, may be of use to Great Britain.
VOYAGE TO GEORGIA,
BEGUN IN THE YEAR 1735.
An Account of the Settling the Town of Frederica, in the
Southern Part of the Province ; and a descrip-
Rivers, Islands, &c.
The Rules and Orders made by the Honorable the Trustees for that Settlement, including the Allowances of Provisions, Clothing, and other Necessaries to the Families and Ser
vants which went thither.
A Description of the Town and County of Savannali, in the Northern Part of the Province ; the manner of dividing and granting the Lands, and the Improvements there : With an Account of the Air, Soil,
Rivers and Islands in that Part.
By FRANCIS MOORE,
AUTHOR OF TRAVELS INTO THE INLAND PARTS OF AFRICA.
A VOYAGE TO GEORGIA.
The Trustees for establishing the Colony of Georgia, in America, ordered a new town to be built in that colony, and an embarkation to be made for that purpose. They were pleased to appoint me to be keeper of the stores.
The following rules were given for the embarkation, viz.:
Rules for the year 1735. “The Trustees intend this year to lay out a county, and build a new town in Georgia.
They will give to such persons as they send upon the charity, To every man, a watch-coat; a musket and bayonet; a hatchet; a hammer; a handsaw; a shod shovel or spade; a broad hoe; a narrow hoe; a gimlet; a drawing knife; an iron pot, and a pair of pot-hooks; a frying pan; and a public grindstone to each ward or village. Each working man will have for his maintenance in the colony for one year (to be delivered in such proportions, and at such times as the Trust shall think proper) 312 lbs. of beef or pork; 104 lbs. of rice; 104 lbs. of Indian corn or peas; 104 lbs. of flour; 1 pint of strong beer a day to a man when he works and not otherwise; 52 quarts of molasses for brewing beer; 16 lbs. of cheese ; 12 lbs. of butter; 8 oz. of spice; 12 lbs. of sugar; 4 gallons of vinegar; 24 lbs. salt ; 12 quarts of lamp oil, and 1 lb. spun cotton ; 12 lbs. of soap.
“To the mothers, wives, sisters or children of such men for one year, that is to say, to every person of the age of 12 years and upwards, the following allowance, (to be delivered as before,) 260 lbs. of beef or pork ; 104 lbs. of rice ; 104 lbs. of Indian corn or peas ; 104 lbs. of flour; 52 quarts of molasses for brewing beer; 16 lbs. of cheese; 12 lbs. of butter; 8 oz. of spice; 12 lbs. of sugar; 4 gallons of vinegar; 24 lbs. of salt; 6 quarts of lamp oil ; half lb. of spun cotton; 12 lbs. of soap.
“For every person above the age of seven, and under the age of twelve, half the said allowance, being esteemed half a head.
“And for every person above the age of two, and under the age of seven, one third of said allowance, being esteemed one third of an head.
“ The trustees pay their passage from England to Georgia; and in the voyage they will have in every week four beef days, two pork days, and one fish day; and their allowance served out daily as follows:
“On the four beef days.-Four pounds of beef for every mess of five heads, and two pounds and a half of flour, and half a pound of suet or plums.
“On the two pork days, for every five heads, five pounds of pork, and two pints and a half of peas.
“And on the fish day, for every five heads, (the whole at sixteen ounces to the pound) two pounds and a half of fish, and half a pound of butter.
"And allow each head seven pounds of bread of fourteen ounces to the pound, by the week, and three pints of beer, and two quarts of water (whereof one of the quarts for drinking, and the other for dressing the ship provisions) each head, by the day for the space of a month; and a gallon of water (whereof two quarts for drinking, and the other two for dressing the ship provisions) each head, by the day after, during the voyage.
“ The said persons are to enter into the following covenants before their embarkation, viz.
“That they will repair on board such ship as shall be provided for carrying them to the Province of Georgia; and during the voyage will quietly, soberly and obediently demean themselves, and go to such place in the said Province of Georgia, and there obey all such orders as shall be given for the better settling, establishing and governing the said colony.
“That for the first twelve months from landing in the said Province of Georgia they will work and labor in clearing their lands, making habitations and necessary defences, and in all other works for the common good and public weal of the said colony ; at such times, in such manner, and according to such plan and directions as shall be given.
“ And that they, from and after the expiration of the said