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the Italian family at Savannah in Georgia, winding off silk from the cocoons, and that they have been there about four or five years. And this deponent further saith, that there are great numbers of prickly pear shrubs in Georgia, and that he hath seen the fly feeding on the leaves, which this deponent verily believes to be the cochineal, he having squeezed the flies and tried them, and found the juice of them a deep red. And this deponent saith, that by industry people may raise a comfortable subsistence; and by encouragement to go on with these useful produces, may obtain thereby the other necessaries of life, and benefit themselves as well as Great Britain, by producing in time quantities thereof for export. And -lastly this deponent saith, that in the year 1736, he built the fort at Frederica, to which there is four bastions, a ditch palisadoed, and a covered way defended by fifty pieces of cannon. And that he has also seen the fort at St. Andrews, built the same year by Capt. Hugh Mackay, which is a star work, with a ravelin at the bottom, defended by nine pieces of ordnance. And that when this deponent came from Georgia, he left them in a defensible condition.
SAMUEL AUGSPOURGUER. Sworn at the public office, February 13, 1739, before
SIR,—The silk you was so kind to send to have my opinion of, is of as good a quality, in all appearance, as any we have from Italy : it is already as well sorted as it can be; indeed the finer the more valuable, as it is so well cleaned.
The price of raw silk is variable, but at present being dear, I think the greatest part of it is worth twenty shillings per pound. I am, sir, your most humble serv't,
JOHN ZACHARY. King-Street, Cheap Side, Jan. 16, 1739—40. To Mr. Harman Verelst.
Ewract of a Letter from Mrs. Martha Causton to the Trustees.
Savannah, January 16, 1737. It is not without fear of presuming too far, that I trouble you with this, in order to inform you of the state of the silk worms, and the progress they made last season in this province.
They hatched in March, when the mulberry trees had been about three weeks in leaf. They were kept in a house, twenty-four feet long, wherein were five tables of the full length and width of the house: these tables were wholly covered with the worms, as are likewise the upper floor. Their number, regular disposition, and manner of working, drew many to see them, who looked upon the whole as matter worthy of admiration. The Chickasaw Indians, who were here at that time, were in an exceeding manner delighted with them, never failing their attendance at the house twice a day, during their continuance at Savannah. I ordered an interpreter to inform them that silk was for clothes, and one of them said, they had not those worms in their nation, but if they had, and knew the method of keeping them, they could return us yearly canoes laden with balls, having a great abundance of mulberry trees up in the country, to supply them with food.
Thomas Shubrick, of Ratcliffe Cross, in the County of Middlesex, Captain of the ship Mary Ann, aged twenty-nine years and upwards, maketh oath, that in March last he sailed with provisions for General Oglethorpe's regiment, to be delivered at Frederica in Georgia, and arrived there the second day of June following. That this deponent touched first at Charlestown, and took in a pilot for Frederica. That he found the coast of Georgia as capable and secure for navigation, as any coast whatever. That at most places there is seven or eight fathom water within three or four leagues from the land, where any ship may stand into, and if necessity should require, may anchor with the utmost safety, the ground being all clean sand from one end of the coast to the other. That the entry at Jekyl sound is very safe, and that he found upon the bar there, as he sounded when he went over at young flood, seventeen feet water; so that upon that bar this deponent computes at low water to be at least fifteen feet water, and at high water full twenty-two feet water, whereby forty gun ships may safely go over it, and when in the sound, which is large and well land-locked, twelve men-of-war may ride in safety. And this deponent saith, that the river in Georgia flowing from that sound will contain a great number of ships in smooth water. And this deponent further saith, that upon the bar at Charlestown, in South Carolina, there is only eleven feet at low water, and eighteen feet at high water. And this deponent lastly saith, that he has seen very fine knee timber in Georgia, fit for shipping, which grows near the sea; and when on shore, and viewing the soil in those parts, saw exceeding rich land there, having fine mould about two feet deep
THOMAS SHUBRICK. Sworn at the public office, February 20, 1739, before
George Dymond, of Golden Land, London, late mate of his Majesty's ship the Princess Caroline, aged forty-six years and upwards, maketh oath and saith, that he, this deponent, has been three voyages from Europe to Georgia in America, and one voyage from Georgia to Pennsylvania
, and back on board the ship Peter and James, whereof he was master. That the last time this deponent left Georgia in the month of January, 1737; that by reason of his said several voyages there, and his having been employed as a store-ship and guard-ship in the southern part of Georgia
, he was well acquainted with the coast and harbors and the climate; and the then state and condition of the said colony; and saith that about four years ago, the Trustees erected, at the island of Tybee, a very high beacon or land mark
, visible four leagues at sea, which is of the utmost use to all ships sailing on that coast, there being no other land mark on that, or on the coast of Carolina ; whereby ships not only know the bar of Tybee, but have also a direction by that, to know the coast they are on, which before that beacon was erected, they were at a very great loss to know. That the bar at "Tybee is a very safe entrance, where ships of four
hundred tons, without altering their course, may run directly from the sea over the bar, whereon there is fifteen feet at low water, and twenty-two feet at high water, and that creek and the river Savannah communicating therewith, will contain in safety four hundred or five hundred sail of ships in smooth water. That about six years ago the town of Savannah was erected on a bluff, about ten miles from Tybee creek, to which town ships of three hundred tons may safely go up. That when this deponent was last there he verily believes there were upwards of two hundred houses built in the said town, most of which were then inhabited. And this deponent saith, that the coast of Georgia is as convenient and secure for navigation, as any coast in the world; for that at most places there is seven or eight fathom water within three or four leagues from the land, where any ship may stand into, and if necessity should require, may anchor with the utmost safety, the ground being all clean sand from one end of the coast to the other; and this deponent saith, he never heard of any ship that put on that shore by stress of weather, for that the wind seldom or never blows hard upon the land; and if any ships have ever run on shore there, it must have been chiefly owing to mistakes, which the beacon erected at Tybee may for the future very likely prevent. And this deponent saith, that there is the same depth of water upon the bar at Jekyl harbor, as there is upon the bar at Tybee, whereby forty-gun ships may safely go over either of those bars. That Jekyl harbor is so large and land-locked, that twelve men-of-war may securely ride therein ; and that the river belonging to that harbor is so large, and hath such a depth of water, as to be able to contain above one thousand sail of ships in smooth water. That about three years ago, the town of Frederica was erected, about six miles on a straight line from Jekyl harbor, where several houses were built, as also a very strong defensible fort; and another fort was begun at St. Simons. And this deponent saith, that the climate of Georgia is very healthy, the latitude of Tybee being in thirty-two degrees, and of Jekyl in thirty-one degrees northern latitude, which climate is capable of producing silk, wine, and cotton, for no vegetables thrive faster any where, than the mulberry trees in Georgia; and this depodent verily believes, that wine may be brought to as great a perfection in Georgia as in Spain, and be much the same
sort, the vines growing wild, and the grapes therefrom being well tasted, which by transplanting and cultivation will improve: and this deponent has no doubt but they will thrive very well; and this deponent saith, he is the more satisfied thereof, for that several Spaniards of St. Augustine, who came from Andalusia in old Spain, with whom this deponent frequently conversed, told him that Georgia would produce every thing that old Spain did ; and this deponent brought over with him several pods of cotton, which grew in Georgia ; and this deponent saith, the prickly pear shrubs grow wild in Georgia, and that he hath seen several of the flies, which feed thereon, and believes they are the cochineal, for by squeezing the insect, though green to appearance, yet the juice of it is a fine scarlet. And this deponent saith, that he has seen very good timber for masts in Georgia, which grow. very high, and near navigable rivers to be floated down : that there are also great quantities of live oak in Georgia fit for building ships: and that the carpenter of the King's sloop, the Hawk, stationed in Georgia, told this deponent, that the timber for masts in Georgia were fit for the largest men-of-war. And this deponent further saith, that the province of Georgia, being settled and fortified, is the greatest barrier and security, not only to Carolina, but to all the northern provinces in America; and that colony having no negroes (which this deponent believes are no way necessary for the raising of silk, wine, cotton, or cochineal) is thereby of the greatest use and consequence to Carolina, to prevent the running away of their negro slaves. And this deponent lastly saith, that in his judgment and opinion the said colony of Georgia, is of great moment and importance to the British nation, and that the produce thereof will, in process of time, become very profitable and beneficial to its mother country. Sworn at the Public Office, March 7, 1739, before
William Thomson, of London, mariner, aged thirty years and upwards, maketh oath, and saith, that he this deponent, has been six voyages from Europe to Georgia in America ; that this deponent left Georgia in the month of March last; that he is well acquainted with the coast, harbors, and climate of Georgia ; that the beacon or land mark at the island of