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Beyond St. Andrews to the south, is the island of Amelia, where the orange trees grow wild in the woods. Upon this island are stationed the Trust Highland servants, with their scout boats. They have a very good plantation, and raised corn enough last year for their own consumption. A little fort is built here, and has a sergeant's guard. Upon this island, as well as Cumberland, there is a stud of horses and mares, and the colts out of them are very good ones, and are bred without any expense.
Beyond Amelia's is St. George's, which was quitted in the year 1736 by agreement with the Spaniards; and at a little distance from this is St. Juan's, where the Spaniards had two forts, which were taken last year; and between forty and fifty miles distance from St. Juan's is Augustine.
To sum up in short the present situation of the colony. The Trust is in possession, in behalf of his Majesty from the garrison of the Okfuskees in the Upper Creek nation (which they settled six years ago) down to the Gulf of Mexico by the Appellachees, and from thence to Amelia. The garrison of the Oksuskees is near four hundred miles from the sea, and a mark of possession within forty miles of the French fort. The commanding officer there, keeps up the English interest with the Indians, and the French cannot encroach further without hostilities. The sea coast lies from Amelia, which is in thirty degrees, thirty minutes to the mouth of Savannah, which is in thirty-two degrees and is a degree and a half upon the globe, but is computed by the boatmen who row it, to be near two hundred miles by water.
The Creek Indians, though they acknowledge the King of Great Britain for their sovereign, made war with the people of South Carolina, to obtain satisfaction for injuries done them by their traders. The war concluded by a peace, which obliged the people of Carolina not to settle southward of the river Savannah, and no Englishmen was settled within this district, when the first colony of Georgia arrived. But the Creek Indians have since, by agreement, conceded the limits mentioned above. In this province, which eight years ago was covered with woods, there are four towns and other settlements. It is almost every part of it fit for pasture; there is a good stock of cattle, and it discovers a great deal of rich land fit for agriculture.
Besides what the land yields for subsistence, and the tame cattle, which multiply very fast, there are in the province abundance of deer and buffaloes. There is a vast plenty of almost all kinds of wild fowl. And the rivers abound with a great variety of fine fish, and particularly sturgeon, which may prove a beneficial trade. And in the coast upon the sea are oysters, and many other sorts of shell fish. There are found likewise in hollow trees large quantities of excellent honey.
As the government, in the beginning of our present disputes with the court of Spain, asserted the nation's right to the possession of this province; it may be some satisfaction to the reader to see this stated, which I shall endeavor to do in a few lines. Besides the concession of it by the Indians, who are the native proprietors of it, Great Britain has the right by the first discovery. I
This was made by Sebastian Cabot, under the authority of letters patent from Henry the VIIth, dated 5, 1495. In the year 1496 he coasted by the shore of the continent so far, that he had the island of Cuba on his left hand, as is particularly described in the Decades of the Ocean, written by Peter Martyr, (a famous Spanish Historian) and dedicated to the King of Spain, in the year 1516.
This discovery is testified, not only by our own historians, but likewise by other Spanish writers, as Oviedo, Herrera, and Gomara, and also by Ramusius, Secretary to the Republic of Venice.
In the year 1516, Henry the VIIIth sent Sebastian Cabot a second time with Sir Thomas Port, Vice Admiral of Eng. land to coast the continent and take possession thereof: and by virtue of this discovery and possession, the Kings of England have from time to time exercised their right to the lands, by granting particular portions thereof by their letters patent; some of which are as follow, viz.:
June 11, 1578, Queen Elizabeth to Sir Humphry Gilbert. March 25, 1584, Queen Elizabeth to Walter Raleigh, Esq., who with Sir Francis Drake, in the next year, in time of war with Spain, drove the Spaniards from Fort St. John, and the city of Augustine, (where they had lately settled) and thereby maintained the English rights even to Augustine itself.
On the 30th of October, 1629, King Charles the Ist, by his letters patent to Sir Robert Heath, (then Attorney Gen.eral) and to his heirs and assigns, forever granted the rivers Matheo and Passamagno, and all the lands between the said rivers, (the first of which is in thirty degrees, and the last in thirty-six degrees of north latitude) and erected the same into a province, called Carolina.
On the 24th of March, 1662, King Charles the IId, by his letters patent to Edward Earl of Clarendon, George Duke of Albemarle, William Lord Craven, John Lord Berkely, Anthony Lord Ashley, Sir George Carteret, Baronet, Sir William Berkely, and Sir John Colleton, their heirs and assigns forever, granted all that territory or tract of land within his dominions in America, not then cultivated or planted, extending from the north end of that island called Lucke Island, which lies in the Southern Virginia seas, and within thirty-six degrees of northern latitude; and to the west as far as the South Seas; and so southerly as far as the river St. Mathias, which borders upon the coast of Florida, and within thirty-one degrees of north latitude ; and so west in a direct line, as far as the South Seas aforesaid ; and made them the true and absolute lords and proprietors thereof. And by the said letters patent erected the same into a province, and called it Carolina. .
On the 30th of June, 1665, King Charles the IId., at the request of the Lords Proprietors, extended the said province to the degree of 29, inclusive, north latitude, from the degree of 36 and 30 minutes, north latitude, and annexed and united the said enlarged territory to the said province.
The river Matheo, or St. Mathias, which is part of the grant of king Charles the Ist, and of the first grant of king Charles the IId., is the *same that is now commonly called St. Juan's, where the two Spanish forts were built which were taken last year; consequently the Spaniards, so far from having a just claim to any part of Georgia, are to be looked on as encroachers upon the English dominions; and the spirit of Great Britain is properly exerted in maintaining her own rights, and checking their pretensions.
If there are any persons of opinion that Georgia is not worth the further care of Great Britain, and that no more supports should be granted for it; the following short considerations are recommended to them. It is notorious that
* Appendix, No. 9.
before the commencement of the war, Spain did claim this province, and that she had made preparations to take it by force; and for effectually carrying on her designs, she endeavored privately to stir up insurrections among the negroes in South Carolina, and openly granted them protection. It is likewise well known, that France has a longing eye on some place on this side of the continent; that she has at different times, used all her arts to gain, and power to destroy those Indians in alliance with us, and who have been a sort of barrier against them. If therefore Georgia should be abandoned or neglected, and if either of those nations should become possessed of it, how troublesome, how dangerous, nay how ruinous must the neighborhood be to Carolina, and the adjacent settlements? If likewise the Indians should think that Great Britain could not, or see that she would not assert and support her own possessions, how much more apt would they be to enter into friendship with those of whom they must have a better opinion? And how much more disposed, on any provocation, to disturb, insult, and even ravage our other plantations ?
N. B. Since the greatest part of this Inquiry was printed, an account was received from Georgia on the 13th of this month of December, that some persons, who have been the chief instruments in working up among the people, a contempt of the magistracy, a repugnance to any improvements, apprehensions of immediate danger from the Spaniards, and a general dislike to the colony, have lately gone from thence; and that some, who had fled into other provinces, are now complaining that they find a greater difficulty of subsisting, than in Georgia, and are repenting, that they had been seduced to leave it.
To show still further, that the province is in a better condition than has been represented, extracts of a letter, received by a private person, Mr. John Lyde, from Mr. Thomas Jones, a friend of his in Georgia, dated so late as the 18th of last September, are added in the *Appendix.
The Deposition of Lieutenant Raymond Demaré, taken by Francis Moore,
Recorder of Frederica in Georgia, the 19th day of January, 1733—-9.
This deponent says, That he arrived here on the first day of June, 1738, with a detachment of the regiment, and continued with the same to the arrival of the second detachment in September last; and that all the soldiers that came over with him, were in their turn employed to work in the sun and air in building huts, burning lime, carrying clapboards, and going into the water up to their necks to unload boats; and that they usually worked from five in the morning till between eleven and twelve; and began again about half an hour after one, and worked till night: and some also worked in clearing the ground from roots of trees, &c. for a parade; and during all the said term, the men continued very healthy, not one man dying, except an old man, who came sick on board at Gibraltar, and who never worked. This deponent says, that during the whole time he never knew any man desire to be excused from labor on account of the heat; and that the recruits who came from England, were more employed than the old men who came from Gibraltar. This deponent further says, that he was ten years with my Lord Harrington in Spain, and that he often felt the weather botter there than in Georgia ; and that the peasants in Spain perform all the works of husbandry without the assistance of negroes.