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were about seventy, who were able and willing to act for defence of the colony, exclusive of servants, inmates, &c. who were above double that number, and without taking notice of the plantations, and the adjacent villages and of the town of Ebenezer in particular, which alone could furnish sixty able men of the Saltzburghers.
Though beginning a settlement with indigent people is commonly disadvantageous, for reasons before mentioned ; the sending over others of them in small numbers after the settlement is made, may not, and probably will not be attended with the same inconveniences. When they see a society formed, and a government ready established, at which they cannot have a shadow of reason to repine : when they see others, who had been in the same condition with themselves, living happily upon the fruits of their industry, and have evident and occular proofs, that they may soon arrive at the same; and when they will not have numbers to countenance them in their idleness, they will in all likelihood be more incited to labor.
The following short account of the state of the province, will (it is hoped) satisfy the public, that, though some have deserted it, it is not in that miserable condition, which some have taken pains to represent it.
About ten miles up the river, the town of Savannah is situated upon a bluff of land, about forty feet perpendicular from the water. The land about it, and on which it stands, is sandy, and after the hardest rains immediately dry, and therefore healthy, and fit for habitations. The water about the town is excellent. The town is regularly built, with a large street through it from the landing-place. There are at least one hundred and thirty houses in it, (besides ware
houses and huts,) which are built at some distance from each * other, to prevent the spreading of any fire, and to keep them w more airy. These form several wide streets, and spacious
squares. The town is divided into six wards, and every Ward into three tithings, with a constable and three tithingmen appointed for each ward. It is governed by three bailiffs, and a recorder, who are the magistrates, and have Tull power to judge in matters of civil right, as well as capital offences in the northern part of the province. There are in the town, a court house, a gaol, a store-house, a house r the Trust servants, a wharf, a guard-house, and some Llums, še ees, oraną the peopl.
other public buildings. There is likewise a public garden, which was designed as a nursery for raising trees and plants to be delivered out to the people for their plantations, viz. : mulberry trees, oranges, olives, vines, peaches, apples, pears, plums, &c. By the negligence of former gardeners, these had met with very ill treatment; but by the care of some Italian gardeners last year, they recovered from it, and the garden is now in a thriving condition. The town of Savannah is conveniently situated for trade, as the navigation of the river is very good, and runs several hundred miles up into the country, and ships of three hundred tons may lie close to the town, where the worm does not eat into them.
About six miles distance from Savannah up the river are several considerable plantations, and at fifteen miles is a village called Abercorn. Ten miles above that, on the Carolina side of the river, is the town of Purysburgh, which is a settlement of Swiss, formed in the same year that Georgia was established. Fifteen miles from Purysburgh, on the Georgia side, is Ebenezer, where the Saltzburghers are situated; their houses are neat, and regularly set out in streets, and the whole economy of their town, under the influence of their ministers, Messieurs Bolzius and Gronau, is very exemplary. For the benefit of their milch cattle, a herdsman is appointed to attend them in the woods all the day, and bring them home in the evening. Their stock of outlying cattle is also under the care of two other herdsmen, who attend them in their feeding in the day, and drive them into cow pens in the night. This secures the owners from any loss, and the herdsmen are paid by a small contribution among the people. These are very industrious, and subsist comfortably by their labor. Though there is no regular court of justice, as they live in sobriety, they maintain great order and decency. In case of any differences, the minister calls three or four of the most prudent elders together, who in a summary way hear and determine as they think just, and the parties always acquiesce with content in their judgment. They are very regular in their public worship, which is on week days in the evening after their work; and in the forenoon and evening on Sundays. They have built a large and convenient house for the reception of orphans, and other poor children, who are maintained by benefactions among the people, are well taken care of, and taught to work, ac
cording as their age and ability will permit. The number computed by Mr. Bolzius in June 1738, whereof his congregation consisted, was one hundred and forty-six, and some more have since been settled among them. They are all in general so well pleased with their condition, that not one of their people has abandoned the settlement.
At some distance from hence is a place called Old Ebenezer, upon a river which runs into the Savannah Here the Saltzburghers were at first settled, and there are now some plantations of German families, as also a cow pen in which the Trust have a great number of cattle for the use of the public, and for breeding.
Beyond Ebenezer are several settlements of Uchee Indians, on both sides of the river Savannah, who have raised a quantity of corn.
At a considerable distance from hence 'is a town called Augusta; it is two hundred and thirty-six miles by water from the mouth of Savannah river, and large boats are navigated from hence to the town of Savannah. It was laid out in the beginning of the year 1736, and thrives prodigiously. It is the chief place of trade with the Indians. There are several ware houses in it well furnished with goods for the Indian trade; and the last year the people raised there above six thousand bushels of Indian corn, besides some wheat for their own use, which was very good. There are five large boats which belong to different inhabitans of the town, and carry about nine thousand weight of deer skins each ; and last year about one hundred thousand weight of skins was brought from thence. All the Indian traders from both provinces of South Carolina and Georgia, resort thither in the spring. In June, 1739, the traders, pack-horse-men, servants, townsmen, and others depending upon that business, made about six hundred whites, who live by the trade in the Indian nation. Each Indian hunter is reckoned to get three hundred weight of deer skins in a year, which is a very advantageous trade to England, for the deer skins, beaver, and other furs, are chiefly paid for in woolen goods and Iron.
At Augusta the Trustees have hitherto maintained a little garrison, in a fort which they built: and the security which the traders receive from this fort is their inducement to ego there. The town stands upon a high ground, upon the side of the river. A road has been marked out from thence to Old Ebenezer, so that horsemen can now ride from the town of Savannah to Augusta, as likewise to the Cherokee Indians, who are situated above Augusta to the north-west, and on the Georgia side of the river, in the valleys of the Appalachian mountains. The Cherokees have now between four and five thousand warriors. The French have been using their utmost endeavors to gain or destroy them: but as the town of Augusta so easily furnishes them with arms, ammunition, and necessaries, the French have not been able to get any ground among them. The Creek Indians live to the westward of Augusta, their chief town is the Cowetas, at two hundred miles distance. The lower Creeks consist of about a thousand, and the upper Creeks of about seven hundred fighting men ; upon the edge of whose country the French fort of Albamas lies. They are all sincerely attached to the English interest, and they express the greatest gratitude upon all occasions, for the kind reception which their chiefs met with in England, and for the justice with which all the Indians are treated in Georgia. Beyond the Creeks, lie the Chickasaws, who are a very brave people: they inhabit near the Mississippi river, and possess the banks of it: they are likewise great friends of the English, and have resisted both the bribes and arms of the French. Some Georgia traders live among them. Ten towns also of the Choctaws, who were formerly in alliance with the French, trade with the people of Georgia.
Besides the settlements upon the river Savannah, there are several plantations to the southward of the town, as well as the little villages of Highgate and Hampstead, which lie about four miles distant from it. Some of these settlements extend as far as the narrow passages near Ogeechee, which is an inland river. At the narrow passages is Fort Argyle, in a situation that commands all the province. This was built in the year 1733. It is a large, strong palisade, eleven feet high, with flankers and loop-holes for small cannon at the angles. Beyond this, in the southern part of the province, is the town of New Inverness, in the district of Darien. Here the Highlanders are settled. They raised, at first, a considerable quantity of corn. They feed, (as has been said before) great numbers of cattle, and have many good sawyers, who make an advantageous trade of lumber. Their buildings are chiefly huts, but tight and warm. They bave
a minister, who has an allowance from the incorporated society in Scotland, and are a sober and laborious people. They have also a fort below the town.
About twenty miles from hence is Frederica, on the island of St. Simon's, which is near the sea upon a branch of the Alatamaha river. There are many good buildings in the town, several of which are brick. There is likewise a fort and store-house belonging to the Trust. The people have a minister who has a salary from the Society for Propagating the Gospel. In the neighborhood of the town, there is a fine meadow of three hundred and twenty acres ditched in, on which a number of cattle are fed, and good hay is likewise made from it. At some distance from the town is the camp for General Oglethorpe's regiment: the country about it is well cultivated, several parcels of land not far distant from the camp having been granted in small lots to the soldiers, many of whom are married, and fifty-five children were born there in the last year. These soldiers are the most industrious, and willing to plant; the rest are generally desirous of wives, but there are not women enough in the country to supply them. There are some handsome houses built by the officers of the regiment, and besides the town of Frederica, there are other little villages upon this island. A sufficient quantity of pot herbs, pulse and fruit is produced there to supply both the town and garrison; and the people of Frederica have begun to malt and to brew; and the soldiers' wives spin cotton of the country, which they knit into stockings. At the town of Frederica is a town court for administering justice in the southern part of the province, with the same number of magistrates as at Savannah. .
Beyond St. Simon's is Jekyl island, where there is but little good land. Captain Horton, an officer of the regiment, however, who has a lot upon this island, has made great improvements on it.
Southward of Jekyl lies the island of Cumberland, upon which is a strong fort called St. Andrews, built in the year 1736: it is situated upon a fine commanding ground. Two companies of the regiment are stationed here, and the soldiers, who have wives, have had lots granted them; which they have improved very much. They have made a little village called Barrimacké, where are about twenty-four families with good buts.