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a Dutch oven here and that the fireplace had been altered. In the restoration, this fireplace has been opened and tiled with pictorial Dutch tiles imported for the purpose.

Returning to the South Hall and going upstairs, one finds in the West Chamber, corresponding in size to the West Parlor below, much of the early woodwork. The great open fireplace is one of the attractions of this room. It was originally lined with blue and white Delft tiles, five inches square, with extremely quaint designs representing Biblical scenes with citations to the passages in Holy Scriptures which they illustrate. One design, illustrating Luke xix, 4, represents Zaccheus in a tree, and Christ and two companions passing by. Another, illustrating Matthew ii, 13, represents Joseph fleeing to Egypt with the young child and mother riding on an ass.

Others illustrate the miracle of the loaves and fishes (John vi, 7), the removal of the body of Jesus from the tomb (John xix, 38), and other scenes from the New Testament and the Apocrypha. Of the original tiles, only 106 remained in 1911. The architect found, however, that tiles of the same pattern were still being made in Holland, and more were ordered from the old country to complete the restoration. The new tiles closely resemble the old ones, but an expert can distinguish a slight difference in the shade of blue.*

In this fireplace is an old stove-plate - a slab of iron 24 X 26 inches square, upon which, crudely cast in relief, is represented Elijah being fed by the ravens. Underneath this scene is an almost illegible inscription in closely crowded capital letters, some of the letters being joined together and there being no spacing between the words. In the restoration in 1911, a counterpart was brought to light and placed in the fireplace in the East Chamber. From a careful study of the two, we have deciphered the inscription as follows: ICHHABEDENRABENBEFOLENDICIIZWERS

K17C

DIBD

* The old Biblical tiles are probably 18th century products. An article on Dutch tiles in the Bulletin of the Metropolitan Museum of Art for December, 1908, says:

One can trace three distinct periods in the development of the Dutch art of tile making -- the first extending from about 1580 to 1630; the second from 1630 to 1670; and the third, summarily speaking, from the end of the 17th to the end of the 18th century.

During the third period whole compositions, portraying animated scenes especially of a Biblicai

or pastoral character, are crowded on to one tile."

Spacing the words we have the German quotation: ICH HABE DEN RABEN BEFOLEN DICH ZV VERS. The letter V

" in the next to the last word is the equivalent of “u," and the last word is an abbreviation of " VERSORGEN." What appears in the inscription to be “ zwers," therefore, stands for “ ZU VERSORGEN,” meaning “to feed,” and the whole line means: “I have commanded the ravens to feed thee.” The DIBD under the left-hand end of the line and the “k17c" under the right-hand end stand for “ Das I Buch der Koenige 17 Capitel,” or “ the first Book of Kings," Seventeenth chapter.” At the bottom of the plate are the date and initials “17 BSDW 60." The 1760 is the date of the casting. The initials BSDW stand for Benedict Schroeder and Dietrich Welcher, iron masters, who at that time owned Shearwell Furnace near Oley, Berks County, Penn. This is not a fire-back, like the English fire-back previously mentioned, but a stove-plate, having been cast originally as part of a “ five-plate non-ventilating stove,' although it may have been used as a fire-back. A five-plate stove ” was a primitive iron stove enclosed with iron plates on five sides and open on the sixth side, built with the open side against the wall. The casting of ornamental stove-plates was an industry of the early Pennsylvanian Germans. They represent a little known but very interesting chapter of American history and of German folk-lore. Several replicas of the Manor Hall stove-plate exist, one of them being in the remarkable collection of stove-plates and fire-backs belonging to the Bucks County, Penn., Historical Society. Similar stove-plates are known to exist in old houses in Kingston and the Mohawk region dating about the middle of the eighteenth century. They are often mistaken for Dutch fire-backs. [See plate 14.]

Somewhere in the northern end of the West Chamber there is (or was years ago) a secret closet, now hidden or obliterated by the closets built on either side of the chimney place for the use of the City Clerk. The Ilon. T. Astley Atkins distinctly remembers it, but no trace of it was found in the restoration.

Across the Upper South IIall, over the East Parlor, is the East Chamber, corresponding in size to the parlor below. The early woodwork of this room is an interesting architectural feature. The fluted pilasters and the broken arches over the doors and

mantelpiece on the north side of the room are of a design different from those in the room below. The mantelpiece is highly enriched by solid wood carving around the mirror representing fruit and birds, and in the broken arch over the mirror are the three plumes of the Prince of Wales.

The fireplace has been restored with Dutch tiles imported for the purpose. They have octagonal designs, representing in yellow, blue and green, landscapes in which appear castles, sail boats, fishermen, etc. In the fireplace is an iron stove-plate like that in the West Chamber, representing Elijah being fed by the ravens.

Passing through a doorway in the north side of the East Chamber one comes to the spacious Upper East Hall, corresponding in size to that below.

A door on the north side of the hall opens into what has been used by the City Government as the Common Council Chamber, occupying the remainder of the second floor, 22.75 feet by 53.2 feet in size. Formerly, a central hallway extended the length of this floor with bedrooms opening off on either side. To accommodate the city fathers, the attic floor over this space was removed, thus giving the Council Chamber the height of both the second story and the attic. The brackets and trusses supporting the roof of this enlarged apartment present an architectural incongruity, but the means at the disposal of the custodian society for restoration were not sufficient to warrant any changes in this respect.

Returning to the Upper South Hall and ascending to the attic, one comes to apartments less picturesque and commodious, but to some people not less interesting than those below. These are the old slave quarters. The rude plank floors, the thin partitions and doors, the wooden latches, the wooden hinges with leather washers to prevent squeaking, the unceiled attic roof showing the ancient hewn timbers of the gambrel or curb roof, and the little dormer windows are all quaint reminders of the period when slavery and villeinage existed on the Manor and when no less than thirty black and twenty-six white servants were quartered in this third story dormitory. Some of the hand-hewn timbers are numbered in Roman numerals, having been fitted before being assembled in the final construction. Exposures of some of the lath-work show that the original laths were hand split. As before stated, that

portion of the attic occupying the northern fifty-three feet of the house has been thrown into the room space of the Council Chamber below, so that the present attic accommodations give no idea of the extent of the quarters which the fifty servants occupied.

Ascending by a stepladder to the roof, it is found that the great L-shaped space within the balustrade is not a flat platform, as it appears from below, but consists of the upper slopes on either side of the ridge pole which characterize the gambrel or curb roof. From this uncertain footing a fine view of the IIudson and Palisades is had. Upon the eastern balustrade were placed, at the time of the bi-centennial celebration in 1882, huge letters and figures as follows: “1682 MANOR HALL, 1882.” In the restoration of the roof the badly decayed balustrade has been rebuilt, the dates and name omitted, the roof reshingled, the modern flagpole removed, and the misplaced chimney, before referred to, removed.

The cellar extends only under the southern portion of the building, the East Hall, and the old Dining Room before mentioned. For the safety of the building, the furnace and hot-air pipes have been removed from the cellar and a steam-heating plant has been installed in a small brick building erected in 1911 for this purpose and as a caretaker's lodging in the northwestern corner of the grounds. Subterranean steam pipes from this detached building connect with the newly-installed radiators in the Manor House. The detached building is 25 x 30 feet in size.

The West Cellar under the West Parlor is said to have been the Kitchen of the First Lord. It is paved with stones eighteen inches square, some of which are fossiliferous and the source of which is unknown. A mass of modern brickwork was removed in the restoration. The brick arch supporting the fireplace in the parlor above appears to have been altered since the building was originally constructed, and if there was once a practical fireplace in this cellar all trace of the flue-opening has been obliterated.

In the corresponding East Cellar one can see the basement walls, two feet or more thick, the hewn oak floor timbers overhead, and what looks like a large open fireplace with hewn timber lintel. It is not apparent whether this was a practical fireplace or is simply the support of the fireplace in the East Parlor above.

Against the south and west walls is an inner wall of masonry, four feet high and three feet thick, the purpose of which is not known. The total thickness of this low mass of masonry and the western wall against which it abuts is between six and seven feet. In the restoration, it was penetrated, with a view to discovering whether it contained the secret passage which tradition persistently associates with the building, but no trace of such passage was found. It is possible that the low wall was used for the support of wine casks.

Upon the southeast corner of the mansion is a fine bronze tablet bearing the arms of the Philipse family, reduced copies of the medallion busts which appear on the ceiling of the East Parlor, the seal of the Yonkers Historical and Library Association, and the following inscription:

Manor House of the Manor of Philipsburg. The Manor was created in 1693, and by Royal Charter granted to Frederick Philipse. By act of the Legislature of the State of New York, the Manor was confiscated in 1779 and sold by Commissioners of Forfeiture in 1785. The Manor IIouse was purchased by the Village of Yonkers in 1868 and became the City Hall in 1872. This tablet was erected by the Yonkers Historical and Library Association in 1899."

Colonial Furniture. In February, 1912, Mr. Alexander Smith Cochran gave a further evidence of his public spirit and interest in the Manor Hall by placing in the East and West Parlors and the East and West Chambers, a valuable collection of Colonial furniture. The chairs are all American Windsor chairs, most of them made in the third quarter of the Eighteenth Century, and the tables — Chippendale and Jacobean — are such as also were in use here in that period.

Portraits of Famous Americans. Mr. Cochran has also placed in these rooms a remarkable collection of forty-one oil paintings of famous Americans, valued at at $100,000. This collection, the assembling of which by Mr. Cochran has covered a period of several years, symbolizes sonue

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