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proceeding westward, the distances being only rough approxima-
tions following the windings of the paths:

The Amphitheatre about 14 mile long.
Glen Alpha

about 38 mile long.
Glen Cathedral

about 15 mile long. Glen of the Pools about 18 mile long. Glen Arcadia

about 1/8 mile long.
Glen Facility

about 38 mile long.
(Railroad Viaduct.)
Glen Horicon

about 12 mile long.
Glen Elysium

about 12 mile long. Glen Omega

about 3mile long.

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The Amphitheatre. The first natural division of the reservation is called the Amphitheatre. This is an expansion of the Glen into a basin about 400 or 500 feet wide and 1000 feet long, bordered on the north and south sides by cliffs about 150 feet high, and threaded by the Glen Creek. The entrance to the Amphitheatre is on the north side of the Creek, leading westward.

About 100 feet west of the entrance gate we constructed a Pavilion, designed by Professor Van Pelt. It is a concrete structure, one story high, partly open on three sides, with red tile roof. The exterior of the concrete was brushed out so as to expose the broken stone used in the aggregate. The building contains a large open waiting space, enclosed toilet rooms for both sexes and an enclosed caretaker's room. The floors are of cement. There are reinforced concrete seats inside and outside, and the building is surrounded by a concrete sidewalk five feet wide. The pavilion is simply ornamented with a band of Hartford Faience tile, three feet wide, running around the exterior wall about two feet from the ground, and by the arms of the State carved over the door.

A supply of drinking water at the entrance was provided by means of connections with the village water mains.

The grounds lying on the north side of the creek, varying from 60 to 250 feet in width, were in bad condition when the reservation came into our custody. On the one hand the stream was eroding the bank, while on the other landslides were eating away the gravel bank higher up. The landslide was checked and

preparations made for planting trees to restore a natural appearance. To prevent further erosion and to make an easier grade, a reinforced concrete dyke, twenty-two feet high was built along the edge of the creek from the entrance of the reservation to the wstern end of the Amphitheatre. This was protected by a railing consisting of three lines of one and one-quarter inch pipe, set in cast-iron standards three and one-half feet high and eight to ten feet apart, and the space back of the dyke was filled in and graded to the top of the dyke, giving an easy ascent from the entrance of the reservation to the entrance of the gorge.

Glen Alpha. At the western end of the Amphitheatre the walls of the Glen suddenly contract and the narrow gorge begins. The first section of the gorge is called Glen Alpha and contains Sentry Bridge, Entrance Cascade, Stillwater Gorge, Minnehaha Falls, Cavern Gorge, the Labyrinth, Cavern Cascade and the Vista. On the upper level of the north bank of this section are the Indian Trail, Lookout Point, Cliff Avenue and Lover's Lane.

At the beginning of Glen Alpha, where the bold scenery begins, the prospect was formerly marred by the means provided for access to the gorge. These consisted first of a flight of twenty-two wooden steps running up diagonally athwart the face of the cliff; then another flight of equal height at right angles to the former, then a horizontal wooden gallery about fifty feet long leading to the northern end of Sentry Bridge.

In place of these unsightly encumbrances, which we removed, we resorted to a device which harmonizes excellently with the bold and rocky character of the scenery. First, we built against the face of the cliff a low, broad flight of reinforced concrete stairs, consisting of eighteen steps, relieved by a landing midway. At the top of these steps, fourteen feet above the path below, is another commodious landing for purposes of rest and observation. At the back of the upper landing, we excavated a portal into the solid rock, and a tunnel, seven feet wide, nine feet high and ninety feet long, with concealed concrete stairs emerging from the face of the rock in the gorge at the level of Sentry Bridge. The floor of the tunnel was concreted. The whole construction solved

a very perplexing problem, for it supplanted unsightly and dangerous means of access with a passage which is unobtrusive, dry, light, and secure from falling rocks.

The old Sentry Bridge, by means of which the visitor crossed from the north to the south side of the gorge, was of wood. It was so named because it stood guard, as it were, at the very entrance to the treasures of natural beauty. Standing here and looking eastward, one has a fine view of the Amphitheatre through which he has just passed, and beyond it the valley and eastern hills, two miles away. Turning westward, he sees the Entrance Cascade, a narrow thread of water shooting out from an angle in the rocks about eighty feet above, into a deep pool beneath; and beyond, the irregular cliffs rise one above another until they seem to meet at a height of 175 feet.

In place of the old wooden bridge at this point we constructed an elliptical arch concrete bridge, seven feet wide and fifty-seven feet long. This bridge is fifty-two feet above the water, the gorge itself being 200 feet deep. The bridge was poured in one day, the concrete being brought down from the cliffs above on a tramway propped up from the rocks fifty-two feet below. [See plate 5.]

At the north end of the bridge, where it connects with the tunnel, a flight of thirteen concrete steps with solid concrete balustrade was built leading downward and westward to a short lookout path, carefully railed, from which a fine view eastward under the bridge is to be had. At the south end of the bridge are three short flights of concrete stairs with solid concrete balustrade, leading upward to the path which runs westward to Stillwater Gorge.

Looking westward from Stillwater Gorge 300 feet, one has a view of Minnehaha Falls with their double waterfall.

At Minnehaha Falls, there were formerly two flights of wooden stairs and bridges crossing the glen, which violently obtruded upon the view. These we supplanted with a single flight of iron stairs on the south side of the gorge, anchored in the rocks and resting on a cement foundation. On account of the length of this flight, consisting of forty-two steps, it was deemed advisable to build it of iron instead of concrete, and it is therefore less becoming to its surroundings than any other structure which the Society erected.

Ascending the Vinnehaha stairs, one comes to what is called the Labyrinth. About 200 feet to the westward the path leads to and behind Cavern Cascade. Here the Society found another difficult problem which was solved by the ingenuity of the Society's resourceful adviser, Prof. Van Pelt. In the pioneer days, there was a rude ladder here which enabled workmen to reach the milldam previously referred to. When the Glen was opened to the public under private auspices, the ladder was superseded by a flight of wooden stairs, called the Long Stairs, which crossed the Glen a few feet east of the Cascade and has been an unsightly object for more than two scores of years. These stairs we removed ; but to effect a crossing of the gorge, the old path which continued around behind the waterfall was widened and protected with guard rail. At the end of the path, on the north side of the gorge, a short flight of concrete steps was constructed, leading up to a vertical tunnel which we excavated in the solid rock. Concealed in this tunnel we built a winding staircase of concrete, four feet wide, relieved by a landing midway. The exit at the top of the tunnel opens out upon a landing overlooking Cavern Cascade and the Labyrinth. The portion of the Glen east of the tunnel to the Labyrinth is called Whirlwind Gorge.

Going westward from the landing at the top of the tunnel, (now on the north side of the stream), a distance of about forty feet we erected concrete stairs. At the top of these stairs, the visitor may turn from the main path into one leading upward and eastward about 800 feet to Lookout Point near the top of the cliff. This path was improved throughout, and at the summit, concrete steps leading to a semicircular concrete outlook were built. The prospect from this point, 140 feet above the water in the Glen, is superb, embracing, as it does in summer, an extensive landscape of leafy foliage, rocky gorge and dashing cascades. [See plate 6.]

The path eastward from Lookout Point to the Village is called Indian Trail. We built concrete steps leading down from the Lookout to the Trail, and improved the trail by widening, grading and protecting it with iron guard rail.

The path westward from Lookout Point along the top of the north bank of the Glen is called Cliff avenue, until at a point overlooking Suspension Bridge, it joins the east end of Lover's

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Lane. Along the avenue we built two retaining walls. One of them, where the Swiss Cottage formerly stood, is sixteen feet high and 120 feet long, faced with natural stone, and tied into a reinforced concrete retaining wall.

Returning to Lookout Point and going westward down the same path by which we reached the Lookout, we join the main path again, and continue westward along what is called the Vista to Suspension Bridge. The path passes under the bridge. This bridge is eighty-five feet above the stream. Its northern end connects with Cliff avenue on the northern rim of the Glen and its southern end with the path or road leading to the village. In 1907-8 we removed the stone abutment at the south end of the bridge and substituted a new one of concrete. We also timbered and replanked the foot way and protected it with guard rail. Here we also provided a supply of drinking water by means of connection with nearby springs.


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The portion of the Glen at and immediately west of Suspension Bridge is called Glen Obscura, for the reason that no extended prospect could be obtained here until the improvements made by the Society. Glen Obscura is composed successively of Sylvan Gorge, Sylvan Rapids, Glen Cathedral, Central Cascade and Baptismal Font.

The path in the Vista and the path in Sylvan Gorge were connected by means of a tunnel, thirty feet long, nine feet high and seven feet wide.

About two hundred feet west of Suspension Bridge in Sylvan Gorge, we built a series of concrete stairs and landings, leading up from the main path to the upper path which at this point is called Lover's Lane.

At the foot of Sylvan Gorge a flight of steps was cut in the natural rock.

Going west from Sylvan Gorge along the rock path, we come to Sylvan Rapids. Sylvan Rapids are 400 feet long and in places not over fifteen or twenty feet wide, while the rocks on either side rise 150 feet high. A flight of reinforced concrete flying stairs, with lookout on the center, was built on the path at Sylvan Rapids, replacing the old wooden stairs.

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