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are not like. He gives you something different from himself, but not the character which he means to assume. He goes out of himself, without going into other people. He cannot take off any person unless he is strongly marked, such as George Faulkner. He is like a painter who can draw the portrait of a man who has a wen upon his face, and who therefore is easily known. If a man hops upon one leg, Foote can hop upon one leg. But he has not that nice discrimination which your friend seems to possess. Foote is, however, very entertaining with a kind of conversation between wit and buffoonery."

On Monday, March 23, I found him busy, preparing a fourth edition of his folio Dictionary. Mr. Peyton, one of his original amanuenses, was writing for him. I put him in mind of a meaning of the word side, which he had omitted, viz. relationship; as father's side, mother's side. He inserted it. I asked him if humiliating was a good word. He said, he had seen it frequently used, but he did not know it to be legitimate English. He would not admit civilization, but only civility. With great deference to him I thought civilization, from to civilize, better in the sense opposed to barbarity than civility; as it is better to have a distinct word for each sense, than one word with two senses, which civility is, in his way of using it.

He seemed also to be intent on some sort of chymical operation. I was entertained by observing how he contrived to send Mr. Peyton on an errand, without seeming to degrade him, "Mr. Peyton,—Mr. Peyton, will you be so good as to take a walk to Temple-Bar? You will there see a chymist's shop, at which you will be pleased to buy for me an ounce of oil of vitriol; not spirit of vitriol, but oil of vitriol. It will cost three half-pence." Peyton immediately went, and returned with it, and told him it cost but a penny.

I then reminded him of the schoolmaster's cause, and proposed to read to him the printed papers concerning it. "No, Sir, (said he,) I can read quicker than I can hear." So he read them to himself.

After he had read for some time, we were interrupted by the entrance of Mr. Kristrom, a Swede, who was tutor to some young gentlemen in the city. He told me that there was a very good History of Sweden, by Daline. Having at that time an intention of writing the history of that country, I asked Dr. Johnson whether one might write a history of Sweden, without going thither. "Yes, Sir, (said he,) one for common use."

We talked of languages. Johnson observed that Leibnitz had made some progress in a work, tracing all languages up to the Hebrew. "Why, Sir, (said he,) you would not imagine that the

French jour, day, is derived from the Latin dies, and yet nothing is more certain; and the intermediate steps are very clear. From dies, comes diurnus. Diu is, by inaccurate ears, or inaccurate pronunciation, easily confounded with giu; then the Italians form a substantive of the ablative of an adjective, and thence giurno, or, as they make it giorno: which is readily contracted into giour, or jour." He observed, that the Bohemian language was true Sclavonick. The Swede said, it had some similarity with the German. JOHNSON. "Why, Sir, to be sure, such parts of Sclavonia as confine with Germany, will borrow German words; and such parts as confine with Tartary will borrow Tartar words."

He said, he never had it properly ascertained that the Scotch Highlanders and the Irish understood each other. I told him that my Cousin Colonel Graham, of the Royal Highlanders, whom I met at Drogheda, told me they did. JOHNSON. "Sir, if the Highlanders understood Irish, why translate the New Testament into Erse, as was lately done at Edinburgh, when there is an Irish translation?" BOSWELL. " Although the Erse and Irish are both dialects of the same language, there may be a good deal of diversity between them, as between the different dialects in Italy."-The Swede went away, and Mr. Johnson continued his reading of the papers. I said "I am afraid, Sir, it is troublesome." "Why, Sir, (said he,) I do not take much delight in it; but I'll go through it."

We went to the Mitre, and dined in the room where he and I first supped together. He gave me great hopes of my cause. “Sir, (said he,) the government of a schoolmaster is somewhat of the nature of military government; that is to say, it must be arbitrary, it must be exercised by the will of one man, according to particular circumstances. You must shew some learning upon this occasion. You must shew, that the schoolmaster has a prescriptive right to beat; and that an action of assault and battery cannot be admitted against him unless there is some great excess, some barbarity. This man has maimed none of his boys. They are all left with the full exercise of their corporeal faculties. In our schools in England, many boys have been maimed; yet I never heard of an action against a schoolmaster on that account. Puffendorf, I think, maintains the right of a schoolmaster to beat his scholars."



THE advertisements prefixed to the first six editions of the Life are printed at the beginning of this volume, and will give the reader a general idea of the early history of Boswell's text. Boswell did not live to see the third edition published, but he seems to have indicated where some part of the fresh matter should be inserted, and though new matter by Malone and others was added, it is probable that the third edition most faithfully represents the work as Boswell left it. On the other hand, some of Johnson's best letters, such, e.g., as those written concerning his mother during her last illness, were communicated to Malone after Boswell's death, and were first published in the fourth edition. If the third edition had been adopted for the present issue, these letters, which Boswell would certainly have published if he had had the opportunity, must either have been omitted, or published in the form of notes or addenda. Moreover, Malone, who had already assisted Boswell by revising the work before it was published, was a specially well qualified editor. Boswell's own testimony to the value of Malone's assistance is emphatic. Writing to his friend Temple (28th November, 1789), he says: "The revision of my Life of Johnson by so acute and knowing a critic as Mr. Malone is of the most essential consequence, especially as he is Johnsonianissimus.” Under these

circumstances, it has been thought best to adopt the text of the sixth edition, the last published under the editorship of Malone. In the preparation of that edition, great care was taken to render the text as free as possible from errors of the press. A few have nevertheless been discovered and corrected.

With regard to the authorship of the notes at the foot of the page, it is hoped that no difficulty will be felt. All the unsigned notes are by Boswell himself, except a few which, forming part of another writer's contribution to the text, are printed within quotation marks. Those notes for which Boswell is not responsible are printed within square brackets, and signed with the name of the author. For the sake of space, Malone's notes are signed "M.," instead of "Malone." The notes signed "J. Boswell" were written by James Boswell, the author's second son. The references in the sixth edition of the Life to Boswell's Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides are to the third edition of that work, published in 1786. In the present edition it has been

thought convenient to add references to the date in the Journal. In the case of references to later portions of the Life, it has generally been necessary to substitute a reference to the date for a reference to the volume and page.

During the interval of seven years which elapsed between Johnson's death and the publication of Boswell's Life, many works of biographical interest relating to Johnson were published. Of these Boswell's own Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, published in 1785, is by far the most important. Croker refers to this Journal as "the most original, curious, and amusing portion of the whole biography." In the same year appeared Prayers and Meditations, composed by Samuel Johnson, LL.D, and published by George Strahan, A.M. In 1786 Mrs. Piozzi published Anecdotes of the late Samuel Johnson, LL.D., during the last twenty years of his Life, and, in 1788, Letters to and from the late Samuel Johnson. In 1787 Sir John Hawkins, one of Johnson's executors, published his Life of Samuel Johnson, three editions appearing within the year. Boswell has much to say about Mrs. Piozzi's Anecdotes and Hawkins's Life, and he also refers to some less important Memoirs and Anecdotes. The first edition of Boswell's own Life of Johnson was published in 1791, the sixth, which is here reprinted, in 1811.

After the death of Malone, in 1812, the succeeding editions of Boswell's Life were, with some comparatively unimportant exceptions, mere reprints of the sixth, until the famous edition by the Right Hon. John Wilson Croker, in five volumes, was published in 1831. The liberties which Croker took with Boswell's text are well known. Besides printing in their chronological places the Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, and Johnson's Diary of a Journey into North Wales (first published in 1816), he incorporated with the text a quantity of extraneous matter derived from Mrs. Piozzi, Sir John Hawkins, and other sources. This course was severely censured by the critics, especially in a very characteristic way by Carlyle; and in a second Croker edition, published in ten volumes in 1835, a change was made, the materials "derived from other pens than those of Dr. Johnson and the original biographer" being either distributed in notes or printed as Johnsoniana in the ninth and tenth volumes. But even in this, and in a later edition published by Croker in one volume in 1848, the text is not fully restored. The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides and the Diary of a Journey into North Wales still Occupy their places in the middle of the Life; extracts from the Thrale Correspondence and a number of letters from Johnson to various persons are inserted; a few expressions are here and there omitted; and the various legal arguments which Johnson wrote for Boswell are relegated from the text to appendices. the 1835 edition, which was published under the direction of John Wright, Boswell's text was for the first time divided into chapters. Modern editors, while recognising and profiting by Croker's labours, have avoided these errors, and have preferred to present in the form of notes or appendices the very large quantity of material which now exists for supplementing Boswell's narrative.


The quantity of this material has been increased within more or less recent years by the publication of Madame D'Arblay's Diary and Letters (1842),

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