Bodies Politic: Disease, Death and Doctors in Britain, 1650-1900

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Reaktion Books, Mar 8, 2021 - History - 328 pages
Bodies Politic takes a critical look at representations of the body in death, disease, and health, as well as at images of the healing arts in Britain from the mid-seventeenth to the twentieth century. Arguing that great symbolic weight was attached to contrasting conceptions of the healthy and diseased body, Roy Porter shows that such ideas were mapped onto antithetical notions of the good and the bad, the beautiful and the ugly. With these images in mind, he explores aspects of being ill alongside the practice of medicine, paying special attention to self-presentations by physicians, surgeons, and quacks and the changes in practitioners’ public identities over time. Packed with amusing anecdotes and unusual illustrations, this book is a magisterial account of the meanings of disease, doctoring, and the “body politic.”

“A wonderful book. . . . There are 137 illustrations . . . and every one is an exultation in the fleshly horrors of the era.”—Guardian (UK)

“Roy Porter is one of the world’s best historical writers: his prose is pithy, witty, vivid, engaging, and perfectly paced. He has a keen eye for evidence and can wrest conclusions with analytical rigour and imaginative subtlety. He masters fact and theory with equal ease and wields both lightly and powerfully.”—Independent
 

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Punyamurtula Kishore MD a.k.a. MAD DOG MILLIONAIRE , Brookline Doctor Pleads Guilty, Sentenced to Jail and Ordered to Pay $9.3 Million for Running
Medicaid Kickback and False Billing Scheme
Punyamurtula Kishore MD a.k.a. MAD DOG MILLIONAIRE to Surrender Medical License, Sentenced to House of Correction
BOSTON – A Brookline doctor has pleaded guilty, was
sentenced to jail, and has been ordered to pay $9.3 million in
restitution for running an intricate Medicaid fraud scheme involving
millions of dollars in taxpayer funds, Attorney General Maura Healey
announced today.
Dr. Punyamurtula Kishore, 64, along with his company Preventive
Medicine Associates, Inc. (PMA), pleaded guilty on Monday in Suffolk
Superior Court. PMA pleaded guilty to charges of Medicaid Kickbacks (8
counts), Medicaid False Claims (19 counts) and Larceny over $250 (11
counts). Dr. Kishore pleaded guilty to one count of Larceny over $250.
“Dr. Kishore orchestrated a complex kickback scheme to funnel a
lucrative drug screening business to his laboratories and then billed
taxpayers millions of dollars for those services,” AG Healey said. “This
case exhibited blatant theft of state funds that were supposed to go
toward care for some of our most vulnerable residents. This is fraud
that undermines the integrity of our health care system.”
Today, Superior Court Judge Janet Sanders sentenced Kishore to 360
days in the House of Correction, with 11 months to serve and the balance
suspended for 10 years. As a condition to his sentence, Kishore has
also agreed to surrender his medical license. Judge Sanders also ordered
Kishore and PMA to pay, jointly and severally, a total of $9.3 million
in restitution.
Dr. Kishore previously owned and managed PMA, a network of 29 medical
branches throughout Massachusetts, including physician office
laboratories and one independent clinical laboratory. Based on the AG’s
investigation, Dr. Kishore used bribes, or kickbacks, to induce sober
house owners to send their residents’ urine drug screening business to
his laboratories for testing. Residents were typically screened three
times per week.
A urine drug screen may be billed to MassHealth by a physician if the
screen is medically necessary. Drug screens generally are billed to the
MassHealth program for approximately $100 to $200. Dr. Kishore
manipulated his business relationships with sober house owners to
illegally obtain tens of thousands of drug screens paid for by
MassHealth for sober house residents who were never treated by PMA
providers.
In September 2011, Dr. Kishore and PMA were indicted,
and individually charged with Medicaid Kickbacks (8 counts), and
Medicaid False Claims (8 counts). In November 2013, Dr. Kishore and PMA
were indicted on additional charges of Medicaid False Claims (11 counts)
and Larceny over $250 (11 counts) for billing MassHealth for millions
of dollars in drug screens using the names of PMA physicians and nurse
practitioners who were not actually treating the patients or determining
the drug screens to be medically necessary. State regulations require
that the services must be medically necessary and the provider must be
physically present and actively involved in the treatment of the
member.
Two other individuals previously pleaded guilty to one count of
Medicaid Kickbacks in connection with their involvement in Dr. Kishore’s
scheme to defraud MassHealth. In June 2012, Damion Smith, 42, of New
Jersey, president of Fresh Start Recovery Coalition, was sentenced to
two years in the House of Correction suspended for two years with
probation. Carl Smith, 69, of Dorchester, manager of New Horizon House,
pleaded guilty in January 2015 and was sentenced to two years in the
House of Correction suspended for two years with probation.
The case against Thomas Leonard of Malden, the part owner and manager
of the Marshall House, a sober house located in Malden, is ongoing.
John Coughlin of Carver, president of Gianna’s House Inc., which
operates several sober houses located in
 

Contents

Acknowledgements
8
Preface
9
Framing the Picture
15
2 The BodyGrotesque and Monstrous
35
3 The Body Healthy and Beautiful
63
4 Imagining Disease
89
Plate Section I
97
5 Prototypes of Practitioners
129
Plate Secton II
177
8 Professional Problems
209
9 The Medical Politician and the Body Politic
229
10 VictorianDevelopments
250
Afterword
272
References
276
Select Bibliography
315
Photographic Acknowledgements
318

6 Profiles of Patients
150
7 Outsiders and Intruders
171

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About the author (2021)

Roy Porter (1946–2002) was professor in the social history of medicine at the Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine in London, UK. He is the author of Religion, Health and Suffering and Enlightenment: Britain and the Creation of the Modern World.

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