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DICTIONARY OF SPORTS,

ETC. ETC.

corn,

a corn measure.

A AARON. A bay colt, foaled in ABLET, or ALBLEN. See BLEAK. 1747, the first produce of his dam, ABORTION. The produce of was got by Lord Portmore's White- an untimely birth. This accident nose (a son of the Godolphin Ara- seldom happens to brutes. In mares bian) out of Diana, by Whitefoot. the cause may be generally attributed This extraordinary horse generally to over-work or external violence. measured under fourteen hands. ABORTIVE CORN. A disease See LITTLE DRIVER.

in which shews itself when the ABATE. A horse is said to abate, stalk is about eighteen inches high, or take down, his curvets, when and may be known by a deformity of working upon curvets he puts both the ear, the leaves, the stalk, and hind legs to the ground at once, and even the grain. Corn in this state, observes the same exactness in all if not directly unwholesome, may be the times.

considered as unfit for horses from ABATIS, or ABBATIS, from batum, its deficiency of nutriment. An obsolete term

ABRAMIS. See BREAM. for an officer of the stables who had ABSCESS. A tumour or swelling the charge of the provender. containing purulent matter. It arises

ABATURES. The foiling of the generally from external violence, and sprigs of grass thrown down by a stag is relieved in horses by the applicain passing, or the rigs themselves. tion of a poultice-in sheep and

ABDOMEN. A cavity, vulgarly poultry by opening the tumour and called the belly, containing the guts, expressing the pus or matter. bladder, liver, spleen, and stomach;

ABSORBENTS. Medicines supwhen opened the first thing that posed to have the power of drying presents itself is the peritonæum, a up redundant humours, either interthin though firm membrane, capable nally or externally; as magnesia,&c. of considerable extension, and of re

ABSORBENT VESSELS. Vesturning to its former state. sels which carry any fluid into the

ABDOMINALES. An order of blood, and are denominated, accordfishes having ventral fins placed being to the liquids they convey, lachind the pectoral in the abdomen, teals, lymphatics, and inhalent arte

ries.

ACCLOYED. Pricked. A horse's foot, when pricked in shoeing, is said to be accloyed. A word now rarely used.

ACHE (in Horses). A pain in any part of the body, occasioning a

numbness in the joints. It proceeds as in the CARP, herring, salmon, &c. from cold, taken upon violent exer

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cise, and there are various remedies so called at Newmarket, one mile for it.

two furlongs and twenty-four yards ACIDS. The name of a very in length: abbreviated A. F. See powerful class of substances em- RACE COURSES. ployed in veterinary practice: they ACTION, in horsemanship, im. are divided into animal, mineral, and plies the motion of the various parts vegetable acids. For some excellent of a horse in doing his paces. remarks on the composition of acids tion,” says a modern writer, “ is and the principle of acidification, the every thing: without it (i. e. free reader is referred to the London and graceful action) the finest form Encyclopædia, articles CHEMISTRY is of no avail.” and PHARMACY.

ACTION OF THE MOUTH. ACOPA, Acopum, or Accopum. The agitation of the tongue and the An extremely hot and stimulating jaw of a horse that, by champing medicine used by the ancients both upon the bit, keeps his mouth fresh. externally as an ointment or charge, It is shown by a white ropy foam, and internally as an electuary. In which is a sure indication of health, the preparation of this extraordinary mettle, and vigour, composition no less than thirty dif ACTUAL CAUTERY. See ferent articles were used, among CAUTERY. which “ half a pound of pigeon's ACULEATED. A term applied dung” is ordered. The author of to the fins of fishes that are armed the Dictionarium Rusticum, edit. with prickles, such as the stickle-back. 1717, says, “It is both a medicine ACULER (in the Manége). The and an ointment, helping convul- motion of a horse, when in working sions, stringhalts, colds, &c. in the upon volts, he does not go far enough muscles and sinews, draws forth all forward at every movement, so that noisome humours, and being put up his shoulders embrace too small a into the nostrils of a horse, by means space, and his croupe comes too near of a long goose feather anointed the centre of the volt. Horses have

therewith, disburdens the head of a natural inclination to this fault, in . all grief. It dissolves the liver making demi-volts. troubled with oppilations or obstruc ACUPUNCTURATION. Some tions, helps siccity and crudity in writers think it bas a galvanic influthe body, banishes all weariness ; and, ence on the nerves. See Churchill's lastly, cures all sorts of inward dis- Treutise on Acupuncture. eases if given by way of drench, in ACUPUNCTURE. The operawine, beer, or ale."

tion common among the Japanese ACRIMONY. This term is ap- and Chinese of pricking the diseased plicable to some states of the hu- parts with a gold or silver needle. mours'in an animal, as acrimony of It has been recently introduced into the bile, and other secretions which European practice. I am not are, by the laws of animal economy, aware,” says a writer in The Veteconstantly thrown out of the marinarian, " that it has been resorted chine, in order that the humours to by any English veterinarian, exmay be kept in a sound condition : cept that I once used it with consifor, except when in a morbid state, derable effect in a case of chorea they are free from acrimony. When consequent on distemper in a bitch.” in a morbid state we have different The same gentleman adds, “ I do species of acrimony, which are de- trust that some zealous veterinarian nominated from the effects produced will put the use of the needle fairly on the habit. Hence, we say, com to the test in that most dreadful and plaints of this nature originate from untractable disease, tetanus.” Some an acrimonious humour sui generis. French vets have given it an exten

ACROSS THE FLAT. X course sive trial; and experience has shown

that it has great power in relieving forth; and produce rarely above many painful and obstinate nervous eleven eggs at a time, each about and muscular affections.

the size of a blackbird's, and linked ADDER STUNG. A term used, together in the womb like a string when horses or cattle are stung or of beads; each egg containing from bitten by any venomous reptile, or one to four young ones; so that the by hornets, horse-flies, wasps, hedge whole of a brood may amount to hogs, shrews, &c. The common about twenty or thirty. Mr. White British viper or adder abounds in informs us, in his History of Selthe Hebrides, and in many parts of borne, that a viper which he opened, Britain, particularly in chalky, dry, had in it fifteen young ones of the and stony districts. According to size of earth-worms, about seven Pennant and other naturalists they inches long. They twisted and are viviparous, but proceed from an wriggled about with great alertness; internal egg. This viper seldom and, when touched, erected themexceeds two feet in length, though selves, and gaped very wide, exhiPennant tells us he once saw a fe- biting tokens of menace and defiance, male nearly three feet long. The though no fangs could be perceived, ground colour of the male is a dirty even with the assistance of glasses : yellow, that of the female deeper. which the author remarks as an inIts back is marked the whole length stance, among others, of that wonwith a series of rhomboidal black derful instinctive knowledge young spots, touching each other at the animals possess of the position and points; the sides with triangular use of their natural weapons, even ones; the belly black. There is a before these weapons are formed. variety wholly black; but the rhom. Vipers feed on frogs, lizards, mice, boidal marks are very conspicuous, toads, and young birds : they are being of a deeper and more glossy capable of enduring very long abstihue than the rest. The head of the nence, and appear to live occasionviper is inflated, which distinguishes ally on those well known, nutritious it from the common snake. Catesby substances floating in the atmosays, that “the difference between sphere, and which are continually vipers and snakes or other serpents taken in by animal respiration; their is that the former have long hollow young separated from every thing fangs or tusks, with an opening near but air, will grow considerably the point; the neck small, the head few days. When at liberty vipers broad, the cheeks extending wide, remain torpid throughout the winter; scales rough, the body, for the most but when confined have never been part, flat and thick ; they are slow known to take their annual repose : of motion; swell the head and neck in this latter state, however, if mice, when irritated; and have a terrible their favourite diet, be given them, and ugly aspect.” The tongue is though they will kill, they will not forked, the teeth small; the four ca- devour them. Their poison, too, denine teeth are placed two on each creases in proportion to the length side the upper jaw : these instru- of their incarceration. The method ments of poison are long, crooked, of catching them is by putting a cleft and capable of being raised or de- stick on or near the head; after pressed at the pleasure of the ani- which they are seized by the tail mal. Vipers are said not to arrive and put into a bag. The viperat their full growth, till the sixth or catchers are frequently bitten by seventh year;

but that they are them, notwithstanding this precaucapable of engendering in the second tion: yet we rarely hear of the or third. They copulate in May, and wound proving fatal, if early attendare supposed to remain impregnated ed to, by rubbing the affected part, for tbree months before they bring or the whole limb, with salad oil.

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A remarkable instance of the effi- ' nine hours sound rest, awoke about cacy of olive oil in neutralizing the six the next morning, and found effects of the viper's poison occurred himself very well; but in the afterat Bath nearly a century since, in noon, on drinking some rum and the person of one Oliver, a noted strong beer, so as to be almost incatcher of these reptiles, who is said toxicated, the swelling returned with to have discovered this admirable much pain and cold sweats, which remedy.

abated on bathing the arm as before, In the presence of a great number and wrapping it up in brown paper of persons, this man suffered him- soaked in the oil. In corroboration self to be bitten by an old black of the efficacy of vegetable oil, as an viper (brought by one of the com- antidote to the poison of the adder pany) upon the wrist and joint of or viper, we quote the writer of a the thumb of the right hand, until paper in the fourth volume of the blood issued from the wounds: even Annals of Sporting, who says, “ If before the viper was loosened from olive oil should not be at hand comhis hand he felt a violent burning mon sweet oil will answer the purpain in his arm: in a few minutes pose, as I have several times tried his eyes began to look red and it upon dogs which have been bitten fiery, and to water much; in less by vipers or adders.” than an hour the venom reached Notwithstanding the dreadful efhis heart, with a throbbing pain, at- fects of the viper's bite, the flesh is tended with faintness, shortness of celebrated as a restorative. The breath, and cold sweats : soon after old remedy for an adder's sting conhis belly began to swell, accompa- sists of dragon's blood, barley meal, nied with vomitings and purgings: and the white of an egg. during the violence of these symp ADVANCER. One of the starts toms he lost his sight, but retained or branches of a buck's attire, behis hearing. After the lapse of an tween the back antler and palm. hour and a quarter, a chaffing-dish ÆGYPTIACUM. This compoof glowing charcoal was brought in, sition takes its name from its dusky and his naked arm held over it, while colour, wherein it resembles that of his wife rubbed in the oil with her the natives of Egypt. It is chiefly hand, continually turning his arm used as an external application for round: the poison soon abated, but cleansing foul ulcers, and keeping the swelling did not diminish much: down fungous flesh. We extract most violent purgings and vomitings the following recipe from the Pharfollowed; and the pulse became so macopæia in use at the Royal Vetelow and so often interrupted, that a rinary College, Pancras: Ægyprepetition of cordial potions was tiacum. Verdigris (subacetate of deemed proper, from the effects of copper) eighteen ounces; alum in which, however, the patient was not powder, six ounces; vinegar, twelve sensible of deriving any great relief, ounces; treacle, ten ounces. Boil as he expressed himself; but that a gently together, and add, sulphuric glass or two of olive oil which he acid, two ounces and a half. drank seemed to give him ease. AFFOREST. To turn a tract of Continuing in this state, he was put land into a forest. On the conto bed, by Dr. Mortimer's direction, trary, disafforested implies land dis(the physician who drew up the charged from being a forest, reduced case), and rubbed with olive oil, from the privileges of forest to comheated in a ladle over the charcoal. mon ground. From this last operation he declared AFTER-MATH, or AFTER-GRASS. he found immediate ease, as if by The second crop, or grass which some charm : he soon after fell into springs up after mowing; or grassa profound sleep, and, after about math that is cut after some kinds of

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