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1828.)

COLUMBIA RAII, ROAD.

89

institutions, there is nothing more interesting than the cuted for less than the estimates, which are predicated perfection of the means of interior communication. It upon higher prices both for labour and materials than will consolidate the varied population of Pennsylvania those at which they can now be procured. into one great mass, influenced by the same interests The confidence the committee have that the cost of and pointing its active energies to the same objects. It the works hereafter to be executed will not exceed the will call forth all the resources of the commonwealth, estimates of the engineers, is confirmed by the experiand by furnishing a fund for education will ultimately ence of our sister states. The executive of New York, expand all its moral powers.

in a recent communication of the legislature, says “the The committee will proceed to communicate the re- Erie and Champlain canals have cost between 20 and 30 sult of their anxious enquiries into the best means of thousand dollars a mile, and this enormous expenditure completing the works commenced under the auspices will never occur again. All the mysteries of such operaof the government, the importance and advantages of tions are developed and all the difficulties diminished, which are now so well understood by the people, that and it may be confidently pronounced that the maximum no petition has been presented and no voice heard in expense of any given canal will not exceed ten thousopposition.

and dollars a mile, unless it passses over high mountains; A bill is submitted which proposes to extend the by locks, inclined planes or deep cutting, or under them canal from Lewistown to Frankstown, on the Juniata; by extensive tunnels." The report of the canal comfrom Northumberland to Bald Eagle, on the West missioners of Ohio to the legislature now in session, says Branch of the Susquehanna and from Northumberland “the final cost of that part of the Ohio canal which has to the New York state line on the North Branch; from been put under contract, will fall considerably short of Blairsville to Johnstown on the Conemaugh; from the the sum at which its cost was originally estimated.” point where the existing contract terminates on the De. In the bill now submitted it is proposed to appropriate laware to Easton and from Pittsburg by the Beaver the sum of two millions of dollars. route to the town of Erie, on the lake. It is also propos The committee are aware that among our most pru. ed that not less than twenty-five nor more than forty- dent citizens there are some who regard with apprehenfive miles of cach section shall be put under contract sion the temporary increase of the public debt which will during the ensuing season. The bill provides for the be incident to the vigorous prosecution of internal imlocation of a rail way from Philadelphia through the city provement. A public debt is indced a mortgage upon of Lancaster to Columbia, thirty miles of which are to be the estates of the people, and when incurred in support put under contract within the present year. This will of ambitious wars or wasteful luxury, is justly deprecataccommodate a district of country which from its prolificed. The aggregate wealth of the community is believed soil and rich cultivation is regarded as the garden of our to be not less than 800,000,000 of dols. It may be asked country. It is ascertained by the satisfactory report of whether a temporary incumbrance for the completion of Major Wilson, to which the committee beg leave to re- the noblest of works, ought to impede the march of the fer, that the rail road is practicable at a moderate ex. spirit of improvement? The suggestion of schemes of pense, and it is believed it may hereafter be judiciously finance are not within the sphere of this committee, but extended from from Columbia to York, and that a wise it may be remarked that the bank stock and other proand equal policy will require its further extension to the perty in the possession of the government, together west for the purpose of accommodating the populous with the part of the debt due from individuals which and flourishing counties on the southern boundary, and will soon be paid; far exceeds the whole of the present connecting them with our own commercial metropolis. debt. The permanent sources of revenue will also conThe location of a rail-way across the Allegheny on the stantly increase by the trade which the improvements Juniata route, and a contract for the necessary materials will nourish and sustain. The money paid by auctionis also one of the objects of the bill. The question cers in Philadelphia, during the last year, would of itwhether the improvement in contemplation between self, be aciequate to the payment of the market rate of the Swatara and Columbia or the mouth of the Conesto interest on more than $3,500,000. The vast amount of 89, shall be by canal or railway is referred to the de- shares which the state holds, in turnpike, bridge, and cision of the next legislature. It is further provided canal companies will be rendered productive by the inthat scientific examinations shall be made with a view of crease of population, commerce and wealth. it is said improving the Monongahela and of connecting the Rays that the internal navigations of England are three town branch of the Juniata with the Conemaugh. thousand miles in length and that 2,000 miles of rail.

In relation to the probable cost of extending the sys- road are completed or in progress towards completion., tem of internal improvement, the committee have great Notwithstanding these facilities for heavy transportation satisfaction in stating, that the experience of last year, upon a territory not much greater than Pennsylvania the furnishes the aid of facts in corroboration of former esti- turnpike roads, which are eighteen thousand miles in mates. It is indeed true, that from the durable princi- length, are enlivened by travellers and light carriages. ples on which the sections provided for in the law of The tolls which are collected are represented to be neareighteen hundred and twenty-six are constructed, from ly a million of pounds sterling. From these facts, the building high and broad walls on account of the size and committee confidently predict that the day is not far disforce of the streams, from the policy of incurring a heavy tant when under the influence of the canal system the expense for the purpose of creating water power, from turnpikes and bridges of Pennsylvania will become a the necessity of erecting an additional aqueduct to ac- productive state capital. commodate the western emporium, and from the con In looking for relief from taxation and ultimately of struction of large basins to facilitate trans-shipment furnishing an ample fund for education and for the exand trade: from these and other causes, the cost of the tinction of the public debt, the committee mainly rely sections first commenced will exceed the sum originally upon the productiveness of the canals and rail roads. in contemplation.

In forming estimates of the revenue which will accrue The commissioners, however, have since the passage from future canal tolls, our own experience and that of of the law of last year, put about one hundred and sixty New York, will be safe guides. The Schuylkill mines miles under contract; and from the prices at which the are not yet in full operation, nor has the Union or the work has been in part completed, and at which the re- state canal as yet been tributary to the commerce of the mainder has been contracted for, the estimate for the Schuylkill navigation. The tolls and water rents of 1827 whole is less than eleven thousand dollars per mile. This were, however, $64,000. Such is public confidence in includes larger and more expensive dams and aqueducts the work as a profitable concern, that the subscription of than will be necessary in the further progress of the 50,000 dollars of the state to the stock, may now be sold work. As respects soine part of the work not yet under above par, at the exchange in Philadelphia. The tolls contract, the committee believe that they may be exe-I of the New York canals, for 1827, were 859,000 dollars

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and were supplied chiefly by the traffic of the country on vent any obstructions from the rivalry of contending in.
the borders of the canals. The governor of New York terests, and is in accordance with the general interests
in his message of last year, says “It is presumed to be a of the commonwealth. It is demanded alike by justice
general rule of easy application and execution, that the and expediency and is consonant to the genius of repub-
cost of the repairs and superintendence of a canal ought lican government, which looking to equality of taxation,
not to exceed one tenth of its gross income. If we de regards with an equal eye the feelings, wishes and inte-
duct one tenth or 85,900 dollars from the gross income rest of the whole community.
of 1827 it will leave 773,100 dollars as the profits. This
sum at the market rate. would pay the interest on about LEHIGH COAL AND NAVIGATION COMPANY.
seventeen millions of dollars. The New York canals
are in length four hundred and twenty-seven miles, and

REPORT
in their whole course meet with no coal and little iron. In accordance with the provisions of the charter, the
The Pennsylvania improvements will be of much great- managers present to the stockholders a statement of
er extent and will pass through a country rich with coal their transactions during the past year.
and iron, and salt and lime, and prolific in every thing From the state of the finances at the commencement
necessary for clothing or food or habitation. They will of the season, it was expected that the operations of the
reach the western waters, possessing 20,000 miles of board would be limited to finishing the rail-road, and
boat navigation and they will proceed to intersect the the ordinary business connected with the coal trade.
Ohio canal, the practicability of which was ascertained Anxious however to proceed with the ascending navi-
during the last summer by scientific examinations. Pro- gation, and finding the stock of the company appreciat-
fiting by the sagacity of the statesmen who purchased ed by the public, the managers resolved upon opening
the triangle in the lake, they will extend to Erie, and books of subscription for the balance of the capital

, having an advantage over new York in climate, they amounting to ten thousand shares. The readiness with will contend for the future commerce of the great inland which the whole was taken clearly demonstrated, that

capitalists were becoming awakened to the important In the contemplation of all the facts relative to the advantages possessed by the company, and the fair prostonnage which will pass upon the Pennsylvania improve- pects of profit to be derived from the investment. Funds ments, the obvious deductions of reason are, that the being thus provided, and the managers believing that tolls which will be gathered upon the Pennsylvania the interest of the company demanded the immediate canals and rail road, may before the lapse of many years construction of the ascending navigation, the board extinguish the public debt, and instead of a burthen,the unanimously resolved to commence it. improveients will prove a rich legacy to future genera Aware of the loss and disappointment which would tions.

result from error, either in the plan or execution of large The committee cannot avoid adverting specially to and expensive operations, they determined to avail the resource Pennsylvania has in coal, the most valuable themselves of the aid of an engineer of the highest standof all articles as tonnage for canals or rail ways. The ing, both with regard to experience and scientific attainengineers of the Lehigh coal and navigation company, ments; and they felt themselves fortunate in being able have made a calculation to shew “that the coal trade, to obtain the services of Canvass White. when the population within ten miles of tide are supplied The instructions given to the engineer were “To ex. will pay to Pennsylvania four millions of dollars annual amine the ground from Mauch chunk to Easton, along ly, in the shape of tolls on the improvements, in addition the valley of the Lehigh, and to report to the board the to the profits of the coal dealers and the support of an plan of a canal and river improvement, and an estimate immense mining and transporting population with their of the cost of the work. Canals to be made in lieu of mechanics and families.” If this estimate is exaggerated, river improvements only, where they would be cheaper; it is at least countenanced by the fine properties of the and where they were used, to be forty-five feet wide on Pennsylvania coal, and the varied uses to which it may the surface, and five feet deep. Locks to be twentybe applied. In industry and the arts, in weelth and po- two feet wide, and one hundred feet long. The empulation, our country cannot long be in the arrear of any bankments to be laid out so as to admit of the canal benation. It is said there are annually brought into use in ing widened to sixty-feet. And if the foregoing stipulaGreat Britain, twenty millions of tons of coal, and the tions were not such as, in his estimation, were best adaptconsumption of London alone, exceeds a million of tons. cd to the situation and expressed views of business of The West Indies, and perhaps France, will hereafter the company, to propose such a plan, with an estimate consume Pennsylvania coal. The market of the United of the cost of it, as he would of his own unbiassed judgStates is open from Maine to New Orleans, and at this ment recommend.” time Pennsylvania coal is carried by inland navigation Pursuant to these instructions, a report was made to more than one hundred miles to Philadelphia, and the board by the engineer on the 20th of July, accomthence carried by sea to Richmond, and on account of panied with an estimate amounting to 677,215 dollars, its superior quality is consumed there within a few miles which, after deliberate examination, was adopted. of the Virginia coal mines.

Contractors were immediately invited to make propoIn conclusion, the committee will remark, that the bill sals for constructing the improvements, and nearly the they have framed, is grounded on the principle contain. whole line has been let. It may, however, be proper to ed in all the bills relating to a general system of improve remark, that some alterations in the plan bave since been ment which for many years in succession, were argued in mede, which will swell the cost beyond the original esthe legislature. This principle was finally adopted in timate, as will appear by the report of the engineer the law of March 27th 1824, when a new era commenced herewith submitted. In exploring the line it was found in Pennsylvania. The law alluded to, as well as the mo- that a highly valuable water power could be located in difications of it made by succeeding legislatures, and un- the immediate vicinity of the borough of Easton, withder which the present commissioners are acting, directed out materially increasing the cost of the navigation, or surveys and examinations of all the great lines of com- diminishing its effect; but the land through which it munication which were then deemed practicable, and must pass, being of the first rate quality, the

owners de adapted to unfold the riches of the interior, and afford manded excessive damages, or what might be deemed an easy and cheap communication with the west. It was very high prices in case of a sale, nor would they sell

, also a primary object of the legislature, to make our own but in quantities to suit their own convenience. After sea-port the general emporium of trade and commerce. some time spent in negociation, the board determined This system, after mature reflection has been commenced to purchase about 236 acres, at an average cost of 109 by the board of canal commissioners and is sustained by dollars per acre. the voice of the people. It is happily adapted to pre On these premises are erected several small tenements,

1828.]

LENIIGII NAVIGATION.

91

a farm house, and a spacious barn. When it is consider the company will stand unrivalled in the facility of suped that this purchase will accommodate a water power plying coal in all the important markets east of the of greater magnitude than that at Manyunk on the Chesapeake, and moreover be in the receipt of a large Schuylkill, and on some accounts better adapted to amount of tolls upon other commodities. manufacturing purposes, it is not unreasonable to con We are however aware, that the works which the clude, that when the improvements are finished, the company are now constructing will require considerable water power, with sufficient ground to accommodate additions to the funds, at present provided to complete cach purchaser with a mill scite, and lots for dwelling them; but as the investment can hardly fail to be profithouses and gardens, will refund the cost of the first pur- able, we rely with confidence that steady perseverance chase, and go far to defray the expense of this part of and energy will surmount every obstacle, and realize the navigation, There will be several other important the hopes of the most ardent calculator. water powers created on the line by the construction of The financial concerns of the company will be laid the works; but no additional expense has been incurred before you by the treasurer; and the reports of the actfor this object.

ing manager and the engineer will shew the progress of Your managers have generally resorted to the expe- the improvements, and the funds which may be necesdient of settling questions of damage, by purchasing the sary to be provided for the current year. land which will be occupied by their improveinents, and All which is respectfully submitted, to save the expense of bridges (where small portions re

By order of the Board of Managers, main betwen the canal and river) they have added these

JONATHAN FELL, President. also to the purchase.

1st Mo. 12th, 1828. Laying down the rail-road interrupted the hauling of coal about two months, and reduced the shipments six or eight thousand tons; but the effect, since it has been

TUE ACTING MANAGER Reports: in full operation, has lessened the cost of coal, so that That the rail-road from Mauch Chunk to the great the whole expense of the improvement, as was antici-coal inine, was commenced on the 8th of the first mo. pated, will be saved in two or three years. Beside the 1827, and finished, so as to pass the first load of coal main line extending from the river to the great coal down the whole line, in three months and twenty-six mine, there have been numerous branches carried into days. the mine, which greatly facilitate the operations of the The length of this road, from Mauch Chunk to the company.

west end of the coal mine, is nine miles, 47,520 ft. The demand for coal appears to be steadily advancing. Length of lateral or branch roads to the mine, 8,069 for notwithstanding the large increase of supply from Roads and their branches in the mine, 11,437 other districts, much of which has been selling at re. duced prices, the company have maintained their price, Total length of single tracks 12 695-1000 ? and have succeeded in selling a much larger amount

} 67,026

miles, this season than the last, and were prevented from sup- The cost of the road, $38,726 $3050 per mile. plying several large orders, for want of vessels to carry Cost of them are fick vores brake}9,500, whole cost $48,226. it to distant places.

The commencement of the Delaware division of the 146 rail-road wagons have been made, and the utility Pennsylvania canal, is deservedly a subject of congratu- of the road proved, by transporting on it 27,770 tons of lation, inasmuch as it is calculated to enhance the value coal, at a saving over the turnpike

road of 64. cents per of the improvements on the Lehigh, by securing a chea-ton, which, after deducting the interest on the cost of per and more efficient means of transportation to this the improvement, has produced a saving, this season, of market, than is, or perhaps can be, made from any other more than 15,000 dollars. There has also been a saving coal district in the state.

in raising the coal and in the boating department toThe cost of carriage upon artificial navigation, is in gether, of 16 cents per ton; thus reducing the cost of proportion to distance, lockage, and capacity of canal. our coal, this year, more than 80 cents per ton, Lockage may be resolved into distance by allowing 16 In addition to the rail-road, we have erected 13 plank feet of the common kind of lift to be equal to one mile houses, and a fire-proof office, of distance: by this calculation, our distance will not ex The current or regular business of the company, durceed 140 miles; and the capacity of our canal admitting ing the year, has been as follows, viz: the use of boats of sixty-five tons burden, will require no Cutting from the stump, and sawing 7,412,185 feet of more hands, and but one more horse, to transport them, lumber, and building 83,124 feet, = 154 miles in length, than boats carrying 30 tons; hence results a saving of of coal boats; raising and carrying to market 32,074 tons more than fifty per cent. in the cost of freights. of coal, 30,428 tons of which were shipped from Mauch

As it will be the interest, so we trust it will be the Chunk, and 1,646 sold at the landing. disposition of this company, to afford every facility to The stock of lumber on hand at Mauch Chunk, at the forming a good connexion between this division of the close of the season, was 2,318,195 feet, sufficient, when Pennsylvania canal and their improvements on the Le- made into boats, to transport 15,000 tons of coal. high.

Also on hand, at the pine forest, 28,392 logs cut, and The present is perhaps not a fit occasion to expatiate | 1,175 oar poles. upon all the collateral advantages which belong to the Contracts have been made with persons on the Delalocal position of the concerns of this company, but the ware, for furnishing from thence the necessary, lumber managers may be allowed to say, that every year's ex- for the dam at Easton, and also for 5 locks; and negociperience increases their confidence that the upper secations are opened with the farmers along the Lehigh for tion of the Lehigh can be made, at the least expense, timber enough for two dams. There has been brought the most efficient and practicable channel of communi- from the pine forest, the past season, lumber for two cation with the north-east branch of the Susquehanna, dams, leaving to be provided from thence, this year, and consequently the most profitable outlet for the trade what will be required for 3 dams, and the remainder of of that part of this important river; it is believed that a the locks; say for the latter object 1,704,400 feet board few years will suffice to demonstrate this fact with so measure. much clearness, that capitalists will soon be found ready The discovery of Hydraulic lime on the line of the to embark in this comparatively easy undertaking, canal, has afforded the advantage of giving greater perwhich, when completed, will greatly swell the profits manency

to the works, without a heavy addition to their of the improvements now in progress. And when all cost. And I have much pleasure in stating, that I have the canals which are intended to connect with these recently discovered a method of producing artificially improvements are completed, we contidently believe this invaluable article, by compounding the materials of

92

LEMIGII NAVIGATION.

[FE.

which it is composed, and which are found to exist in ported, in consequence of changing from river to canal the greatest abundance on the shores of the Lehigh. navigation: these, however may be balanced by the

The determination of the State of Pennsylvania to dams and guard locks abandoned. construct a canal along the valley of the Delaware, in It will be perceived, by the present estimate, that stead of an improvement in the bed of that river, requir- very material alterations have been made, by substituted a change in the plan of improvement heretofore ing canal for dams and pools; which will make about 75 adopted on the Lehigh. In accordance with this view, miles of canal more than was reported. Although the the canals have been increased in length; and the dams expense, in some places, will be considerably increased, diminished in number, till the whole line, as now arrang the navigation will be made much more safe and per. ed, consists of three-fourths canal, and one-fourth slack fect. One of these changes below Bethlehem will add water pools. The Lehigh, however, affording an abun. to the expense about sixteen thousand dollars. dant supply of water, and our coal mine and market, the The canal line has all been re-located, so as to avoid former prepared to give, and the latter to receive, a as much as possible any 'extra expense, occasioned by very large supply of coal, induced the managers to se- the increased width of the trunk, but will, notwithstandcure the advantages of our local position, by providing a ling, add some to the cost, say about twenty-three thoucanal and locks, sufficiently capacious to accommodate sand dollars. the passage of twin boats, each 67 tons burden. And The length of the canal will be 35miles, and 10 froin the arrangements made along the line, and method miles of pools and tow-path. Total 454 miles. pursued by the engineers, I flatter myself the whole will be nearly or quite passable within 12 to 18 months from

The estimate will now stand as follows: this time; and, when done, will present a model for eco Excavation, embankments, slope wall, &c. 379,930.44 nomy of transit, and permanency of work; the first not Locks,

223,265.22 equalled, and the last not surpassed, in any fresh water Dams,

77,802.09 lock navigation in the United States.

Guard Locks,

23,547.50 JOSIAH WHITE, Acting Manager. Aqueducts and Culverts,

24,433.00 1st mo. 12th, 1828.

Waste weirs,

7,500.00 Bridges,

7,620.00

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ENGINEER's REPORT.

$744,098.25 To Jonathan Fell, esq. President of the Lchigh Coal and

Add for contingencies, 5 per cent. 37,204.90
Navigation Company.

$781,303.15
Sir,-- Agreeably to your request, an estimate has been
made of the probable cost of the Lehigh Navigation, Recapitulation of additional expenses:
upon the plan adopted since the former estimate was Work about slate dam and pool, $10,000
made; which is here with submitted.

Waste weirs and culverts,

5,000 The expense is considerably increased in consequence Advance on timber,

20,000 of the enlarged dimensions of the Canal, and other works Locks,

30,000 of art; but not more than was expected. A partial esti Alteration below Bethlehem, 16,000 mate was inade at the time the former report was laid Excavation, embankment, &c. 23,000 before the Board of Managers; but not having time to make a careful revision, and as the line would necessari

$104,000 ly require considerable alteration, the increased cost occasioned by the change, could not be accurately as. certained, andl was not added to the estimate; but was Statement of work done on the Lehigh Navigation, up to stated verbally to the Board, that it would be from 50 to 100,000 dollars.

January 1st, 1828. Some of the items which tend to swell the amount

Sections No. 9, 11, 21, 61 and 62, are completed, and above the former estimate, are not occasioned by the bave been reported for payment at the office at Mauch enlarged dimensions of the Canal; but may be consider. Chunk. ed as omissions: one of which was at the Slate-dam Pool. Sections No. 8, 10 and 86, are completed, but have When the first examination was made, the river was not been reported: total, 8 sections finished, except the high; and it was supposed that sufficient depth of water locks and bridge embankments, and filling up the ditchwould be had to the head of the pool, by raising the dam es left through the canal banks to discharge the floods 13 feet; but when the water fell, and a more minute ex- from the hills until the locks and waste wears are comamination was made, the bed of the river was found to be pleted. About one half of the amount of labour is done very rocky about three-fourths of a mile, which could on sections No. 4, 12, 14, 15, 17, 18, 19, 63, 66, 68, 87, not be excavated on account of the necessity of keeping 91, and about one fourth on sections No. 3, 6, 16, 29, the pond filled for the navigation: it therefore became 60, 64, 65, 69 and 88. necessary to raise the dam 44 feet, and build a new lock

The contractors have commenced and done consider. in place of the one now in use. The additional expense able work on sections No. 7, 20, 22, 24, 25, 30, 31, 43, will be about ten thousand dollars.

51, 54, 59, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, We find, by laying cut the line of the canal for actual 89 and 90. construction, that more waste-wiers and culverts are re

Considerable progress has been made with the locks, quired than was estimated; which will add about five considering the unfavourable weather, since the conthousand dollars. Timber, of which a very large quan- tracts were let. Of the first sixteen, one is nearly tity will be used, is found to cost about 30 per cent completed; the foundations for four are laid, and the more than was estimated; which will add about twenty walls commenced on one of them. The timber for the thousand dollars. The locks are to be constructed in a remaining eleven is principally on the gr und. Stone more substantial and durable manner (by the use of hy- and sand, in considerable quantities, have also been draulic cement) than was calculated at the time the for delivered at the lock scites. mer estimate was made, and the guard-locks are now to

The contractors have commenced procuing materials be constructed with wood and stone laid in cement, in- for locks No. 22, 24, 25, 44, 45, 47 and 48. stead of wood only, as was formerly contemplated: these

Tiinber for some of the dams has also been deadditions and improvements will increase the

livered.

expense about thirty thousand dollars.

CANVASS WIITE, Engineer. Several more aqueducts will be required than was re January 12th, 1828.

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1828.]

EARLY. SETTLEMENT.

93

а

EARLY SETTLEMENT.

a horse, 14 lbs. powder, 6 lbs. of bread, besides boat

hire, 20s to go to After Cull. From extracts from the Records of New York; authenti

I am your loving friend,

E. ANDROS." cated under the Great Seal of that Province; in Land Office, Pennsylvania.

To Capt. Edmund Cantwell,

At New Castle, in Delaware. “A letter sent by the Governor unto Capt. Cantwell, at Delaware, about the militia:

Ibid. A letter from the Governor to Captain Edmund I have received both yours of the 30th November and

Cantwell: 9th of December, of your having taken possession of “Captain Cantwell—Having this opportunity I was the fort, and of the magistrates being settled in New- willing to advertize you of the continuance of my resoCastle, às also up the river at the Horekill, being pre- lution to come into your parts this spring, which I besent yourselfe in the severall places, and am very glad lieve may be about the beginning of Aprill, in the mean to hear that people are generally so well satisfied with time I referr you to my first and former orders, but in the change, and of the likelyhood you tell me of new this interval you are not to suffer Capt. Carre, or any comers to settle in those parts; I thank you for your from him, to dispose of or make away with his estate, care and diligence in putting in execution my severall upon which (if you judge it necessary) you may lay an orders as above,* and do allow of your entertaining a attachment in his majesties behalf. You are also to preman for the fort, and taking up a barrel of powder and pare an account and state of the customs to the 25th of shott as you mention. You may assure the magistrates March next, to be remitted to his royall highness chief and inhabitants in those parts, that continuing in their collector here, and if you have opportunity before my dutyes, I shall not bee wanting in any thing fitt for me coming, that you send it with such letters as shall come in my power for their further encouragement and pro- to me.

I am your loving friend, tection under his royall highness governmt. which that I

E. ANDROSS. may do the the better, I am resolved, God willing, to New York, Feb. 23d, 1674. make a journey to you myself in the beginning of the Spring: In the mean time, you may give such new com- ibid. A letter sent to the Justices of New Castle, in ers, as desire to continue there, any reasonable quantity

Delaware. of lands, not disposed of, or settled in time; according Gentlemen-I have received your address, in answer to their capacity and number of hands they shall bring to which your desire of a minister is allowed by the law. for clearing it, due regard to be had to the late warr, A new commission for magistrates is herewith sent, and and former undertakers to be preferred. The quantity alsoe a law book; the land, commonly called Captain of lands to be disposed of to each person, I must leave Carrs, is allowed to be sold for the use of the creditors, to your discretion, referring you to the custom of the and the purchaser may have a new pattent for his title. place and neighbourhood; but suppose forty or fifty The courts have power to order matters relating to the acres may be sufficient for a head, of age, to improve it. Surveyor in every respect, according to regulation and Least wee run into former errors of giving greater tracts laws. The Book of Laws gives directions for weights of land than improved, to the hindrance of others. And and measures to bee English, but ancient custom may till my arrivall, or order, do further impower you to bee be lookt upon as law, and the public weighous is to be Surveyor for the whole river and bay. As to your ap- gross weights only if or above a quarter of a hundred; prehension of some peoples removal to the east side, I paymt. for wolves and other necessary charges are to suppose none of any note will be hasty therein. The continue, on the east side, as formerly. When the acproprietors not being agreed, though some nave counts of public debts are stated and allowed an order obtained, others have no graunts yet from his royall shall be taken for payment as desired; houses and im. highness, so that tis not like to come into one hands. As proved lands are lyable to pay debts as well as moveable, to what you write to Mr. Nicoll, concerning execution and where none administer the court may appoint some upon Capt: Carr's estate, I can add nothing to my pro- responsible person to doe itt, having due regard to wid. clamation, which I think doth sufficiently confirme all dows. All favor may be expected as to trade, so that legall judiciall proceedings, and is sufficient authority the acts of Parliamt. bee not infringed, with due regard for all persons concerned, as well as for all officers and to the custom house here. The late commandr. is here, magistrates; as to the militia, I do not think to make any and to give an account of his actings in your parts, and alteration till I come, seeing no necessity for it; your if any have been wronged by him, they shall have right, lieutenant, in your absence having power to command, and alsoe any public matters which may further acrew and the ensign being absent, the eldest sergeant may do rectifyde as soon as may be. that duty, or be made ensign upon occasion. And for

Your very affectionate friend, the Horekill the number is as yet too little for a com

E. ANDROSS. pany, but if it be necessary you may nominate a lieuten New York, Oct. 26th, 1678. ant, who may choose a sergeant, and command there till further order. You have done well in summoning

A curious fact in Natural History. the Indians, to demand justice upon the murderer of Mr. James Kerr, of the neighbourhood of ChambersDr. Røades, which I pray prosecute in the best meanes burg, Pennsylvania; lately discovered in the heart of an you can that it may be effected (if possible) without oak tree, he was splitting up to make shingles of A LIVE warrs, if not, let me hear from you very early in the FROG! From the growths of the tree, around the small Spring, that I may take order in it, and supply' you ac- cavity which contained this little animal, it is evident, cordingly. The messenger hath stayed the longer by that it had remained there confined, without the possireason of my voyage to the east end of Long Island, and bility of receiving either air or food, for ninety two years! his being lame.' In an enclosed paper the messenger The tree shewed no signs of decay, except that the hath had here a pair of Shoes, one hundred guilders for cavity (which was barely sufficient to contain its prison

er) was somewhat the colour of the frog. When first

taken out, it appeared to be dead, but in a short time * To take possession of the fort, cannon and stores at gave signs of life, and hopped. 1809. New Castle, or any other part of Delaware river; to send to any other part of the country for “the repossessing The whole nett amount of postage in the U.S. for the any of his majesty's good subjects in their just rights, particularly at Horekill;" to receive quit rents, customs year, cnding March 31, 1829, was $988,676.10, of which and excise, at Delaware; and to enquire after the king's $127,821.51 accrued in Pennsa. being rather more than colours, left there formerly, in the liands of Capt. Carr. an 1-Sth of the whole.

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