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face of the bay; and hence, if it be considered important that the course of the ebb tide will make, with it, a very to prevent the blockade, a floating force must, in every oblique angle. From the western extremity of this line, case, be provided. 4th, and lastly, As the advantages we draw the line a b, (towards the shore,) at an angle of the harbour become more apparent, the commerce of 135 degrees, to which we give a length of 440 yards; benefitted by it more extensive, and the means of the and from the eastern end, we draw, the line cd, at the country more ample, the harbour may be progressively same angle, of 580 yards in length. It will be seen by enlarged, and a battery erected upon the Shears, for its an inspection of the chart, that the ice which will strike protection.

a Breakwater, made according to the above delineation 4th. On the extent and form of the Breakwater: will be deflected outwardly, while that which passes 1st. As to the complete harbour at the position B.

within the extremity b will course along near the shore,

leaving a broad space entirely clear. It will be seen, Going far enough from the shore to leave about half too, that, while by the shore or the Breakwater, all a mile in breadth, of good anchorage, we draw the line winds will be entirely excluded, except the east-north. be of 740 yards. The direction of this line must be such eastwardly, that there will be a large space secure even

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Bottom. from these. The area of this harbour will be about half the course of the tide, an angle of 120 degrees. This a mile square; the mean depth at low water being twen- line is so far up the roadstead, that a vessel anchored ty-eight feet: the whole length of the Breakwater will be behind it at the distance of 800 yards, will be protected one mile. The bases of the interior slopes of this work from east-south-east winds by the lower part of the will be one-half the altitudes: but the exterior being ex- Shears. And here it is proper to remark, that the winds posed to a heavy sea, will require for the slopes bases of blowing from between the cast-south-east and south-east four times the altitudes. The side facing the north-east are neither violent nor of long continuance. It will be will be finished at high water mark, while the other perceived on the chart, that, from the direction we have two sides must be raised three feet higher, to keep the given to the Breakwater, the descending ice will be de. ice from being forced over into the harbour.

Aected towards the deepest water and strongest current, 2d. As to the partial Breakwater at the position A.

and that vessels, to the number of twelve, moored in

two lines behind the Breakwater, will be protected From the point c, which is in about twelve feet water, either by the shoal or by the main land, from all winds, we draw the line é f, of 1100 feet, so as to form with excepting those just mentioned.

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It has frequently been remarked above, that the shoal The light on this cape is elevated near 200 feet above itself is a good Breakwater, and that there is no doubt the level of the ocean, and is at least one mile from the that vessels, provided with good ground tackle, could pitch of the cape. In connection with the circumstances ride under its lee in safety; but it is proper to provide of elevation and distance, it is difficult, in nights which against deficiency in this respect, which may be often are too dark for the very low margin of the Cape to be expected with merchant vessels; therefore, the commis- seen, to guard against an optical delusion, as to the dission propose to fix, in addition to the Breakwater, two tance of the vessel from the shore; and the error is most lines of heavy anchors, connected with buoys, by strong apt to be on the unsafe side; hence, vessels have often been chain cables. These buoys, cables, and anchors, will suddenly run upon the Cape, which were supposed to not only enable vessels to ride in safety, but the buoys be in mid-channel of the roadstead. The soundings give will guide the vessels, as they arrive at their proper sta- no intimation of proximity, as bold water is found at the tions in the harbour, thereby insuring the greatest econo- very edge of the shore. my of space. The length of the line of Breakwater is just sufficient to cover the vessels from the passing ice, lower end of the Brandywine Shoal.

2d. The necessity of a permanent lighthouse on the when they happen to be riding with a scope of sixty fathoms parallel to the Breakwater.

The importance of a light on this position has been The mean depth in the harbour, at low water, will be tion for a floating light. But though this floating light

made evident to Congress, as appears by an appropriatwenty-one feet.

As this work will not be exposed to a violent sea from will, doubtless, answer all purposes during the greater any direction, it is considered sufficient to make the base part of the year, it is certain that it will be destroyed, of each slope equal to twice the altitude.

unless removed at the approach of each season of float

ing ice; and hence, as that is the season of most violent 5th. Estimate of the expense of a Breakwater.

gales, and of greatest damage, it will be away when per1st. As to a complete harbour at the po

haps most necessary. sition B. In the left flank of the Break.

The commission do not hesitate, as to the practicability water there will be,

Cubic feet 5,817,975 of fixing a permanent lighthouse, (which need be but In the centre of ditto

11,346,420 twenty or twenty-five ft. high,) on the point indicated. It In the right flank of ditto

9,744,251 is essential to remark here, that at the period when the

floating light will be removed from its station, all the Total cubic feet 29,908,646 buoys and other signals of sub-marine dangers, will also, 26,908,646 cubic feet, equal to 996,616.52 cubic for the same reasons, be wanting to direct the navigator. yards.

3d. The importance of having, without delay, a corOne perch, or 24.75 cubic feet, at $2 00, is 2.1818 rect hydrographic chart, made of the whole bay and per cubic yard, 996,616-52 cubic yards of stone promis- river. cuously thrown in to form the mass, each stone weighing Of all the navigable communications from the sea to from half a ton to four tons; for materials and labour, at the interior, within the United States, that upon this bay $2.1818 per cubic yard

2,174,417 92 and river is most intricate, and most beset with unseen Add for unforeseen expenses, 7 per cent. 152;209 25 dangers; and there is none, probably, more imperfectly

known. The pilots, it is true, are acquainted with cer. Total expense of complete Breakwater $2,326,627 17

tain channels, well enough to conduct vessels at a fa

vourable time with safety; but it is far from certain that 2d. As to the expense of a partial harbour at the po- they know these thoroughly, or that these are the only sition A.

or the best. In the whole of the line of the Breakwater there will

The great distance and small elevation of the shore, be 5,585;536 cubic feet, or 95,750.592 cubic yards. and the similarity in the soundings and composition of

One perch, or 24.75 cubic feet, at $200, is $2,1818 the shoals, make it very difficult, at times, to hit or keep per cubic yard; 95,760.592 cubic yards of stone, promis- in the best water, even to the pilots. A chart of the bay cuously thrown in to form the mass, each stone weighing and river, which would exhibit a true outline of the from half a ton to four tons; for materials and labour, at shores, with all the landmarks; the courses and widths $2.1818 per cubic yard,

208,930 46 of the several channels; the set of the tides; the influence Add for unforeseen expenses, 5 per cent. 10,446 52

of the moon and of winds upon the rise of the tide in dif

ferent parts of the bay; the place, extent, and form, of Add for moorings:

all ledges, banks, and shoals; the soundings and nature 12 cast iron anchors, each of 30 cwt. at $70

of the bottom, both on the shoals and in the channels; the dollars per ton,

1,260 00 harbours and anchorages; exact and perspicuous sailing 12 chain cables, of 12 fathoms each, of an

directions, &c. &c. Such a chart would not only greatly inch and a half iron; at one end of each

add to the knowledge and utility of the pilots, but with chain a ring, of 12 inches diameter in the

the help of proper signals, buoys, &c. would enable clear, to be made of 2 inch iron, to receive

intelligent masters of vessels to enter with confidence the end of the vessel's cable, which rings

upon the navigation, when, as sometimes happens in should be puddened; equal to 144 fathoms,

stress of weather, they could neither obtain pilots, nor at 10 dollars 50 cents per fathom, 1,512 00 keep the sea with safety. 12 buoys for the chains, say at 30 dolls. 360 00

ties as to the pilotage of the bay, which will be afforded 3,132 00 by the partial harbour. The pilots of Cape Henlopen

are provided with pilot-boats and whale-boats; with the Total expense of partial Breakwater and

former they cruise in fine weather, sometimes out of sight moorings

222,508 98

of land, though some have been lost by pursuing their

cruises too long; in bad weather, they retire to LewisOn concluding this report on an artifical harbour, the town behind the Cape Henlopen, and depend on signals commission take the liberty of recommendiug to the at the lighthouse, to inform them of the approach of notice of government some other matters, which, though vessels. On these signals being made, they start in not within reach of their instructions, are not only impor- whale-boats; but the distance is so great, that vessels are tant in themselves, but strictly analogous in their ten- frequeutly in danger, and sometimes lost, before they dency to those they have been considering: these are, can board them. Anchored under cover of the partia)

1st. The necessity of a beacon-light near the extremi- Breakwater, however, the pilots would be enabled to ty of Cape Henlopen.

get to sea in time, with their largest class of boats; tbere.

00 It will not be out of place here to advert to the facili.

1828.)

FALLS IN THE DELAWARE.

57

Names of the
Falls or Rapids.

Distance below
en the mouth of the

Lehigh in miles.

Length of each 8 Rapid in feet.

by materially diminishing the risk to the arriving vessels | ly quick to be called a rapid: it forms a semi-pool and is and to themselves.

deep and slow enough for steam boats. All which is respectfully submitted.

Bull's falls is a straight uniform rapid with a bottom of BERNARD,

stone and gravel.
Brigadier General. Cutsow rift is composed of a flat reef of rocks extend-
JOS. G. TOTTEN, ing across the river.

Maj. Eng. Br. Lt. Col. Tumbling dam falls are composed of separate reefs or
WM. BAINBRIDGE, steps of rocks extending across the river.
United States' Navy.

Marshall's island rapids are principally of three sepaAccompanying this Report there are three plates, viz. rate rifts with a semi-pool between them as exhibited on

A chart of part of Delaware Bay near Cape Henlo- the chart, the water between the rifts being sufficient pen.

for a steam boat.

Man of war rift is a short shoal with a bottom of stone Plan and profiles of a complete Breakwater for the position B, near Cape Henlopen.

and gravel, presenting little obstruction. Plan and profile of a partial Breakwater for the posi- and gravel.

Stuhl's falls is a uniform rapid with a bottom of stones tion A, near Cape Henlopen. The foregoing is a true copy of the original on file in

Firman's falls is a uniform rapid, having a bottom of the Engineer Department.

smooth stones and gravel. ALEXANDER MACOMB,

Nockamixon falls has a rocky bottom and crooked Maj. Gen. Chief Engineer.

channel among large locks.

Linn's falls has two rifts with a semi-pool between A TABLE

sufficient for steam boats; bottom of stone and gravel.

The head of Durham falls is a short rocky rift on the of the several Rapids or Falls in the DELAWARE Jersey side. The whole fall is smooth on Pennsylvania RIVER between Easton and the Tide.

side.

Gravelly falls has a current forming a long curve over a bed of small stone and gravel.

Rocky falls has a short rift at the head; the remainder is a semi-pool among large rocks.

Ground-hog rift forms a long curved channel over a bottom of stones and gravel.

Old sow rift is a uniform rapid with a bottom compos

ed of smooth stones and gravel. Trenton falls 49 3500 9 8 9 8

Clifford's rift is a uniform straight rapid with a bottom Gould's rapids 463 3000 4 5 16 8

composed of stones and gravel. Scudder's rift 44 2500 4 2 24 8

Bixler's rift is a uniform straight rapid with a bottom Knowle's pt. rift 394 500 3 1

33 6

composed of stones and gravel. Buck tail rift

361
500 1 5

36 5

In addition to the above named rapids are the followWell's falls 354 4780 121 499

ing named "shallows," where the water has little depth Greenbank rift 32

without sensible fall:

500 19 58 9 Galloper's rift 31 to 32 1500 7 6

Limestone shallows 32 miles below the mouth of the

68 3 Howell's rift 31 to 32 1500 | 7 6 68 3

Lehigh. These shallows occur a short distance above Bull's falls

800 4 5

New Hope and are not discernable except at low water;

72 2 Cutsow rift 254 1000 3 10 85 4

they have 15 inches at low water. Tumbling-dam falls 24 to 25 5000 11 1 89 1

Lowreytown shallows 16+ miles below the mouth of the Marshall's islandrapids 21 to23 | 1000 11 5 100 7

Lehigh. This shallow is formed by a sand bar in the Man of war rift 20 500 1 5 102 3

pool, through which a channel is cut near the PennsylStuhl's falls

vania shore. 18 350 1 8 107 2 Firman's falls 17 700 3 7 110 11

Whippoorwill shallows 24 miles below the mouth of Nockamixon falls 14 1700 4 11 117 6

the Lehigh. This is a small gravel bar at the head of an Linn's falls 12

island of the same name near the Jersey shore.

2300 7 4 127 5 Durham falls

In addition to the above there are many shallow spots

350 | 29 130 3 Gravelly falls 8 1500 1 3 133 3

in the different pools formed by sand bars or rocks lying Rocky falls 7

near the surface.

2000 29 136 1 Ground-hog's rift 6 1700 1 11 138 Old sow rift

750 2 4 145 7

Turnpike Travelling.There has long been consideClifford's rift 3. 2000 5 1 150 10

rable dispute, as to the amount of travelling done on Bixler's rift * 2000 1 7 5 160 5

the following different roads: the Centre turnpike, run

ning from Reading to Sunbury 75 miles in length, the REMARKS.

Danville turnpike eleven miles in length, extending from Trenton falls is a rapid of nearly uniform descent, with Danville, and intersecting the Centre turnpike at the a crooked channel and very rocky.

Bear Gap. The Catawissa turnpike running from CataGould's rapids are composed of two rifts half a mile wissa and intersecting the centre turnpike 12 miles above apart, with slower and deeper water, or a semi pool be- Pottsville. I was therefore requested to keep an ac. tween.

count of the travellers that stopt at my house, and which Scudder's rift is a uniform rapid, quickest at the head, of the different roads above mentioned they travelled, having a bottom of stone and gravel.

which are as follows: Knowle's point rift is a uniform deep rapid, with a On the Sunbury road 608 wagons—70 dearborns-25 bottom of stone, gravel and rock.

gigs-11 carriages—65 horsemen and 425 footmen. Ca. Buck tail rift is composed of two rocky reefs, having tawissa road, 649 wagons-106 dearborns-10 gigs_97 deep water near the Jersey shore.

horsemen and 495 footmen. Danville road, 181 wagonis Well's falls has a bottom entirely of rock; loose rocks 23 dearborns~25 horsemen–11 gigs and 212 footmen. are scattered across the river, with a crooked channel. The above is a true account of all the wagoners and

Greenbank rift has a smooth gravelly bottom and pre- travellers that stopt at my house, and the different roads sents very little obstruction.

they travelled, from the 17th day of October 1827, to the Golloper's and Howell's rifts, although nearly a mile 1st day of January, 1828. JACOB DYER. apart, are connected together by a current not sufficient. Centre Turnpike, Broad Mountain Inn.

Fall of each Ra-
pid in feet and

Head of Rapid
above tide water
at lowest tide in
inches.

27

9

1

58

AUDITOR'S REPORT.

(Jas.

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14.

AUDITOR GENERAL'S REPORT.

Jacob Woole, Sam. Lukenback

and P. Lynn, for improving EXPENDITURES.

the road over Lehigh hills, opSUMMARY STATEMENT

posite Bethlehem, in NorthOf the Payments at the State Treasury, for the year com

ampton county,per act of 29th

Jan. 1827 mencing the first day of December, 1826, and ending Supervisors of Conemaugh town

3,000 00 the 30th day of November, 1827.

ship, Cambria county, for imInternal Improvements,

No.1. 1,083,735 973

proving a road from Bedford Expenses of Government,

2. 202,127 24

to Armagh, per act of 12th of Militia Expenses

3. 26,666 751
February 1827

293 27
Pensions and Gratuities,
4. 24,330 68+

4,676 42 Education, Deaf and Dumb Insti. &c. 5. 20,946 02

PUBLIC GROUND. Penitentiary at Philadelphia,

6. 39,124 09

Isaac D. Barnard, David Mann and William
Penitentiary near Pittsburg,

7.
15,716 56

Clark, commissioners for improving the
Conveying Convicts,

8. , 296 655 Ground attached to the public buildings Interest on Loans,

9. 89,438 97
per act of 16th April 1827

5,000 00 Commiss’rs of Internal Improv't Fund,10. 47,764 752 Pennsylvania Claimants, 11. 9,132 02

$1,083,735 97} State Maps,

12. 2,811 451 House of Refuge,

13.

5;000 00 United States,

3,238 46

No. 2. Miscellaneous,

15. 5,551- 66

EXPENSES OF GOVERNMENT.

SENATE.

1,575,881 301 Balance in treasury 1st Dec. 1827, 167,897 873

Pay and milenge of members 14,512 10
Clerks

1,697 00
Transcribing

525 00
$1,743,779 18

Sergeant-at-arms & doorkceper 1,197 50
Printing

3,891 43
No. 1.
Contingencies

6,395 93
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS,

28,218 96 TURNPIKES.

HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. Lycoming and Potter,

7,246 35

Pay and mileage of members 43,521 10
Robbstown and Mount Pleasant

208 271
Clerks

1,722 00 Philadelphia and Great Bend

2,949 30
Transcribing

1,650 00 Somerset and Mount Pleasant

4,000 00

Sergeant-at-arms & doorkeeper 1,288 00
Somerset and Bedford

6,037 99
Printing

6,334 25
Washington and Pittsburg
2,646 00 Contingencies

11,510 12 Phillipsburg and Susquehanna 750 00

66,025 47 Bellefonte, Aaronsburg and Youngmanstown 12,230 43

EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT.
Little Conestoga

127 96
Governor's salary

5,000 00
Secretary of the commonwcalth's
36,196 303 salarý

1,858 63
RIVERS.

Deputy secretary's salary 1,120 00 Jabez Hyde, jr. John McMeens and Samuel

Clerks

2,646 66 H. Wilson, Commissioners for Improving

Contingencies

2,033 72 the Susquehanna river, per act of the 31st

12,659 01) March 1823

14,000 00

JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT.
CREEKS.
Chief justice's salary,

2,314 13 IIcnry Hacket, Samuel Wallack, Thomas J.

Associate judges of the supreme McConnell, A. Patterson and William

court

8,033 27 Wharton, Commissioners for Improving

3,504 00 Tuscarora creek, per act of the 7th of

Attorney general's salary 300 00 March 1827

1,863 25 President's of courts of common CANALS.

pleas salary and mileage 27,424 92 John Sergeant and others canal

President of district courts 10,125 00 commissioners for exploring

Recorders of mayor's courts 2,100 00 certain canal routes 16,000 00

Associate judges sal. and mileage16,255 88 Commissioners of the Internal

70,057 20 improvement fund, for the construction of the Pennsyl.

TREASURY DEPARTMENT. vania Canal, per act of 1st of

State treasurer's salary

1,400 00

Clerks
April 1826 & 9th Ap. 1827,1,000,000 00

2,650 00
-1,016,000 00 Printing annual report for 1826 376 00
BRIDGES.
Contingencies

542 971 Commissioners of Berks county, per act of

4,968 971 14th April 1827

6,000 00 ACCOUNTANT DEPARTMENT. STATE ROADS.

Auditor general's salary 1,400 00 John Lindsay & William Cracroft,

Clerks

2,237 50 commissioners for improving

Printing annual report for 1826 70 00 roads in Washington county,

Contingencies

599 84 per act of 16th Jan. 1827 933 15

4,307 34 Abel Johnson and John Weaver,

LAND OFFICE. commissioners for improving

Secretary of land offie salary 1,400 00 Brush Valley Narrows, in Cen

Clerks

3,399 92 tie and Union counties 450 00

Contingencies

563 76

5,363 68

Circuit expenses

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