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CLIMATE.

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CLIMATE.

public, prove interesting and useful; and as we have in For the following Meteorological Observations we are our plan allotted a portion of the Register for information indebted to Mr. Thomas Smith, proprietor of the La- of this kind, we would be obliged to any person having byrinth Garden, on Arch-street, whose accuracy and meteorological tables, if they will forward them to us for attention to subjects of this nature, have been well insertion. It is from observations correctly made, with known for several years. We hope, hereafter, to be able suitable instruments, and not from our feelings at any to obtain from the same source, regular monthly tables. particular change of the weather, that we can accurately It is to be regretted, that in this city so little attention judge of the past by the present. We hope, therefore, has been paid to this subjeet, which has always been that those who have an opportunity of recording such considered a very important one, by scientific men, and observations, will attend to the subject and communi. is not one of mere curiosity, but which may admit of a cate the result to us. As it will be interesting to comvery beneficial practical application. Many individuals pare the state of the weather at the same time, in differ. in this city have at different times kept registers of the ent parts of the state, we would recommend the obser. weather, which are no doubt in the possession of their vations to be made at the same hours of the day, viz, families or friends, and would if communicated to the l at sunrise, at noon and at 3 o'clock.

Me

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30.25
The fractions of mean temperature are omitted to guard against confusion.
N.B. The Snow was melted, and is included in the above statement of Rain,

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Je 1828.)

CLIMATE-COMMERCE.

45

made,

eelings as

Rye flour

do

en accu

Jan. 17,

cording & nd Co. sting too

ed the ole

Do.

do

3 we have: It is a little remarkable that the average of the spring

COMMERCE. rinformes and fall months is so nearly the same—in 1826 they were

The following report of the inspection for 1827, has erson bari precisely alike. The two years appear to have been enabled us to estimate the quantity of Flour consumed hem to ui nearly of the same average temperature.

in this city.
1st. Quarter-Wheat flour, in barrels

95,575 The warmest day in

1826.
1827.
Do. do. half do

9,830

3,282 June 26 94 Aug. 6, 99

Corn meal

do

5,646' e, thered The coldest days.

Do.
hhds

1,082 Feb. 1, and Dec. 27, 4

5
2d Quarter.-Wheat flour bbls

62,134
Do.
half do

11,449 The warmest day in 1824 was the 8th June 950

do
Ditto

1825
22d July 100
Rye flour

8,196 Corn meal

do
The coldest day in 1824
5th Feb. 8

11,783 me, in i

Do.
hhds

2,220 Ditto

1825
13th Dec. 5
3d Quarter. -Wheat flour bbls

62,770 Do.

half do the dar , Mean highest for 1824–75° Mean lowest for 1824—32°

5,385 Do. 1825-72 Do. 1825–33

Rye flour

do

4,753 Do. 1826-77 Do. 1826–32

Corn meal

do

4,177
1827-74 Do.
1827-30

Do.
hhds

827 4th Quarter.-_Wheat flour bbls

111,272 Guat DEPTH OF RAIN.

Do.
half do

12,873 Rye flour

4,191 Register kept by P. Legaux, esq. at Spring Mills, nine

Corn meal

do

9,050 miles NNW, of Philadelphia.

Do.
hhds

2,032 Inches. 1. Rar.

Inches. Total for the year1810

32.65 1820 Dan

39.59
Wheat flour

bbls 331,749
1811
34.99 1821

32.17

Do.
half do

39,537
1812
39.31 1822

29.84
Rye flour

do 11

20,422 1813

35.67 9

1823

41.82
Corn meal

do

30,756
1814
43.14 1824

38.74

Do.
hhds

6,161
14
1815
34.66 1825

31.55 The consumption of the city is estimated at 3000 1816 27.98 1826

30.25 barrels per week, making 156,000 per annum. It is also 1817 36.00 1827

39.18 estimated, that one half of the consumption is taken 1818 30.18

without inspection, which added to the amount inspect1819 23.34

621.06 ed, the total receipts for the year 1827, would be 428,517 Which gives an average of 341 inches for each year,

barrels; of which, there has been exported to foreign

ports 184,476 barrels; 88,031 coastwise, and the balance Registered by Thomas Smith in Philad.

consumed. The number of days in which Rain fell was:

GRAIN.-At this season of the year the market for

grain is confined to the consumption of the city, and the In 1824-103 depth In 1826--117 depth 30.25 prices of course are nominal. About 600 bushels De1825 -89 29.67

1827 -80 39.18 laware wheat from inferior to good, were sold at 75 a 95

cents, and 500 bushels L. C. Corn, from store, for exRAIN GUAGE, 1825.

port, at 52 cents. The following are the number of

bushels measured in the city since 1824.
Months.

bushels
No. of Depth of Rain.
In 1824.—corn

471,788
Rainy Days.

Wheat

207,626
Rye

16,978
January,
3 0 inch. 84 hun.

Barley

do

27,097
February,
11 3

Oats
26

do

20,763
March,
9

1825.-corn
63

do

328,052
April,

7
83

Wheat

do

144,479
8
72

Rye

do

12,658
June

9
59

Barley

do

37,512 July,

Oats

do
06

17,749
10
August,

do
80
1826.-corn

269,684
September,

7
61

Wheat

do

191,800
October,
3

do
25
Rye

21,230
November,

Barley

do

45,604
December,
11

Oats

do

15,875
1827.-corn

do 388,2241
Totals,
89

Wheat
29 67

do

209,175 Rye

do

8,999 The Snow which fell during the year 1825, and is not

Barley

do

21,1381 included in the above table, when melted, measured

Oats

do

24,1281 nearly two inches.

(P. Cur. In the same period there were inspected in Baltimore, of wheat flour

561,279 barrels WEATHER.

Do.

22,961 do. Rye flour

1,874 do. Chester, Del co. Pa. Jan. 15, 1828.

Corn meal

5,266 casks. Within the last ten days the weather has been ex And there were imported into Boston, in 1827, from tremely moderate-the fields which surround our bo- different ports of four 271,503 bbls. and 5,403 half rough appear as green as in the month of May—and the bbls. of which were received from Philadelphia 4,566_ cattle are grazing and frisking about in the meadows as bbls. and 302 half bbls. From Wilmington 390 bbls. if it were Spring

From New Castle 100 bbls. 5,056 from the Delaware.

do do

May,

36 72

46

PENITENTIARY SYSTEM.

Jan.

do

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From the records at the Custom House, it appears, regards it'as no legitimate aim of penal enactinents. But that in 1826, 482 vessels arrived from foreign ports, it is not the mere imprisonment of the oflender which is and 1195 coastwise.--In 1827, 468 from foreign ports, to benefit the community, or improve his condition. One and 1320 coastwise.

of the first evils of which the Prison Society became The number of vessels built in 1826 were

painfully sensible, was the pernicious consequences 5 Ships,

measuring 3062 tons arising from the indiscriminate congregation of all kinds
1 Barque,

do
299

of offenders. At the commencement of their labours,
10 Brigs,

1925

they found male and female, old and young, the debtors
19 Schooners,

do
1046

and criminal, the veteran and novice, mingled together
12 Sloops,

do
355

in the most loathsome and defiling association. To at-
4 Steamboats.

do
900

tempt reasoning on the pernicious consequence of such

society as this, would now be entirely supererogatory. Total, 7587 tons. No possible hope of reformation, but rather an increase In 1827, there were

and extension of crime were to be feared from such a 4 Ships,

measuring 1248 tons. mode of confinement; the labours of the Society have
7 Brigs,

do
1426

therefore been constantly directed to a coinplete se para-
16 Schooners,

do
905

tion of prisoners.
9 Sloops,

do
368

The system of prison discipline, then, which your me-
1 Steamboat, do

247

morialists have always been anxious to establish in Penn

sylvania, possesses two strongly marked distinctive Total 4194 tons. features. 1st. The recognition of moral reforin as a

principal aim of penitentiary punishment. 2d. The com

plete separation of prisoners, as the only mode by which PENITENTIARY SYSTEM.

this end can be obtained. As our system advances toMemorial of the “Society for alleviating the miseries of wards, or recedes from a strict separation, so, in the

Public Prisons," presented to the Legislature, on the opinion of your memorialists, do we experience a diminu. 11th inst.

tion or increase of the miseries incident to promiscuous To the Senate and House of Representatives of the intercourse. In order, therefore, to show the legislature the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, in general assembly what have always been its views on this subject, the met, the memorial of the Philadelphia Society for alle society beg leave to refer to their various memorials, the viating the miseries of Public Prisons, respectfully shew. suggestions contained in which have received the kind eth:

attention of former legislatures, and have formed the That your memorialists, impressed with a continued basis of most of the enactments in regard to this subject. sense of the great interest and importance of a just and In the petition presented to the Assembly, at the inlenient penal code and system of prison discipline, feel stance of the prison Society, in 1787, we find these it obligatory upon them again to lay before the Assem- words: “Your petitioners wish the House would be bly those general views, which, from the first memorial pleased to revise the law, being fully convinced, that presented, at the instance of this Society, in 1787, they punishment by more private or even solitary labourwould have, under various circumstances and modifications of more successfully tend to reclaim the unhappy ob. detail, constantly urged, up to the time of their last ad- jects.” dress to the legislature in 1821.

Again, in 1788, in a report to the Supreme Executive To Pennsylvania belongs the honour of having begun Council of the state, solitary confinement, with labour, the whole system of prison reformation. Her illustrious is strongly recommended and enforced, as the results of founder, abolishing the indiscriminate punishment of the experience of the able and benevolent men who death, which then included in its awful doom almost were members of our society at that period. every species of crime, substituted imprisonment for all In 1790, the legislature in conformity with these offences inferior to deliberate murder, introducing, at views, went as far towards their execution as the state the same time, many wise and salutary amendments, in of the public funds at that time permitted—Solitary the entire constitution of the criminal code, For thirty cells were erected in the present prison on Walnut st. years, Pennsylvania enjoyed the benefits of this meliora- where the law directed, that “the more hardened and tion, in defiance of the repeated attempts of the mother atrocious offenders should be confined;” and also, "hat country to restore the ancient barbarous and exploded ordinary convicts should be kept apart, unless their ensystem. In 1718, however, this system was revised, and ployment did not admit of separation, in which case the from that time to the revolution, all the evils and mise- keeper or his deputy must be present." In 1794, the ries, which it plentifully engendered, were painfully ex- legislature advanced one step further, by directing, that perienced.

prisoners. for most offences, should serve some part of Before calling your attention any further to the pro- their sentence in solitary confinement, and in some ingressive advancement of Pennsylvania, from this period stances enumerated in the act, this confinement might to the present, your memorialists would beg leave to state, be extended to months, and even years. what they conceive to be the true theory and designs of The growing population of the state, and consequent crimal law and punishment, and they apprehend it can increase in the number of prisoners, soon rendered it clearly be demonstrated, that the constant and unvary- impossible, with the scanty accommodations of the Waling policy of Pennsylvania in all her legal enactments, nut street prison, to carry the plan of separation into has fully recognised the verity of these views.

effect; hence the prisons for many years have been rather When the awful punishment of death, and the barba- a school of vice, than a place of inoral instruction and rous corporeal inflictions of former ages were abrogated, reform; but we are justified in saying, that in many of the only adequate punishment remaining was the re- these instances, and these alone, where a solitary con. straint and imprisonment of the offender; and we do not finement was exercised, a well ascertained and practical hesitate to aver, that the moral reform of the person reformation was effected. thus incarcerated, by the use of mild and just treatment In the address from the prison Society to the Legislais as much the aim and interest of every good system of ture, which induced the erection of the Arch street prison discipline, as the mere restraint and coercion of prison, the necessity of more extensive buildings, for the the offender.

complete trial of the system of separate imprisonment, Herein consists a principal difference between the is strongly enforced, and with that intent'the edifice discipline of Pennsylvania and that of another prominent was erected. In the year 1818, the Society again urged system in our country--the former considers moral re. upon the legislature the necessity of the erection of perform as the primary design of prison discipline; the latter 'itentiaries, in suitable parts of the state, for the more

1828.]

PITTSBURG PENITENTIARY.

47

effectual employment and separation of criminals, and

Your memorialists cannot refrain from expressing a of proving the efficacy of solitude on the moral emen- hope, that the legislature will adopt such a penal code dation of the unhappy objects, and soon the penitentiary as may enable us to test, in the penitentiary, for the at Pittsburg was commenced. In the same year, the erection of which you have already expended large sums Society, in a letter to the London committee for the im. of money; that system, which, for nearly fifty years, provement of prison discipline, emphatically stated, that your memorialists have been desirous to put in practice, one of the chief causes of the apparent failure of the and fully and fairly to prove which, under the most fapenitentiary system, was the impracticability of confin- vorable auspices, this very prison has been built-and ing the convicts to solitary labour.

they further earnestly request, that no other system may În 1821, the Society made its last appeal to the Legis- be adopted until that of Pennsylvania, has been fully, lature. Your memorialists will not trespass further on fairly, and completely tried. your attention by entering into the details of this docu Your memorialists, in referring to the generous attenment: suffice it to say, that after forty years experience, tion with which, in former years their suggestions have they gave it as their decided opinion, that the erection been received, cannot but indulge the sincere hope, that of suitable edifices for complete practice of the system they shall not be unsuccessful in their present final effort. of separate confinement, was the only means by which By order of the Society. the designs of benevolence, in regard to the improve

WM. WHITE, President. . ment of prison discipline, could be achieved. During Roberts Vaur, Secretary. that session, the Legislature were pleased to order the Philadelphia, Dec. 1827. erection of the Penitentiary, now nearly completed, in

PITTSBURG PENITENTIARY. the neighbourhood of Philadelphia, with the definite object and design, that in it the system of separate con

The Secretary of the Commonwealth being introduced finement might be tried, under the most favorable aus

presented to the Senate a message from the Governor, pices.

accompanied with the following document: Your memorialists have been thus particular in trac- To his excellency J. Andrew Shulze, Governor of the Coming the progress of prison reform in Pennsylvania, in

monwealth of Pennsylvania. order to remind the assembly that the constant aim of The Commissioners for the erection of a State Peniall the legislation which has taken place upon this sub- tententiary near Pittsburg, respectfully report: ject, has been the final adoption and prosecution of the That they have at length the pleasure of announcing system of separate confinement; and also to show, that the termination of their labours and the coinpletion of the Society which now approaches you has always re- the building: ceived the kindest attention to its suggestions, and the The penitentiary has been delivered over to the Board utmost facilities for executing its plans, which the legis- of Inspectors, and the books, accounts and vouchers lature could afford.

have been submitted to the examination of the Board Your memorialists would carnestly entreat the legis- of Commissioners appointed by your excellency for that lature now to perfect and consummate, by the passage of purpose. To their report, this board begs leave to refer a penal code and system of prison discipline founded on for information as to the manner in which this important the principle of solitary confinement, that great scheme duty has been performed. of christian benevolence, which has its inception in The cost of this splendid edifice, exclusive of the sum Pennsylvania, and to effectuate which, you have expen- required for its furnishing, is $178,206 854; which leaves ded large sums in the erection of cominodious edifices in the treasury $714 144, the unexpended balance of Your memorialists are aware, that great efforts are mak- the different appropriations for its erection. ing to bring the system of Pennsylvania into disrepute, In addition to the sum above mentioned as expended and to promote the adoption of a system which is of a in the erection of the building, 4,885 dollars 2 cents totally dissimilar, and in the opinion of your memorial- have been expended in making fences, procuring locks, ists, of a severe and cruel character; but without enter- stoves, grates, furniture, &c. according to the provision ing into a detailed examination of the respective merits of the act of the 1st April 1826, entitled “An act furof the two systems, they deem it right, in a few words, ther supplementary to the act, entitled an act to provide to correct some misrepresentations, with regard to their for the erection of a State Penitentiary on the public

views and wishes on the subject of solitary confinement, land adjoining the town of Allegheny opposite Pittsburg • which they believe to have been extremely injurious to in the county of Allegheny, and for other purposes, the progress of prison reformation.

which makes the total cost of this building and its equipSolitary confinement has been represented as extrem- ments $183.091 87). ly barbarous. The idea has been inculcated, that every The Commissioners appointed to examine the accounts offender, on his entrance into prison, is to be immured of this Board, having in pursuance of the powers vested in some narrow, gloomy cell, out of sight or hearing of in them, made an award in favour of 'Thomas Fairman, any of his species Insanity, idiocy, and great physical John Hannen, James Anderson and Richard Gray of injury have been predicted as the certain consequences $1,402 92, it became the duty of the Board, in obedience of so dreadful a system. The dungeons of the Bastile to the provisions of an act relative to the Eastern and and Inquisition have been held up as parallels to our Western Penitentiaries, passed April 9th 1827, to pay places of confinement-Pennsylvanian benevolence has to the said Thomas Fairman, John Hannen, James Anbeen affirmed to be in iminent danger of degenerating derson and Richard Gray, the above mentioned balance into Austrian tyranny. Permit us to say, that the whole of $714 144, together with the sum of $114 98 remainof this horrible creation is the offspring either of igno- ing unexpended of the appropriation of $5,000, made rance or misconception.

the 1st April 1826. But the Board having as they conPerhaps the term separate, rather than solitary confine fidently believed, faithfully discharged the public trust ment, would more appropriately describe the kind of reposed in them, and having by the completion of the durance which we propose to inflict. Completely to Penitentiary and its appertinances, no further claims upseparate one prisoner from another: to take away every on their attention, dissolved on the 22d day of Novempossible chance of communication in prison, and mutual ber last, before any intimation of the award was received. recognition, after discharge, is what we greatly desire. Their books and accounts were closed, and they con. Suitable books and private religious instruction we ceived these balances to be in the State Treasury and not would afford to all: but if labour should be introduced, subject to their order: we hope that no other will ever be permitted than such Previously to closing this final communication, it is as can be performed in their private separate apartments, proper to inform your excellency, that the Board on the and that this will be employed as an alleviation, not an occasion of its dissolution, passed over to the Inspectors aggravation of their punishment.

for the use of the Commonwealth, all the remaining ma

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terials and tools, with the request that they would dis- solemn promise never to betray her individually, as her pose of them, and place the proceeds to the credit of life might be at stake with the British. the state. They have also respectfully solicited the In He conducted her to a house near at hand, directed spectors to inquire into the manner and cause of the something for her to eat, and hastened to head-quarters escape of Hiram Lindsay and other convicts. Their when he brought Gen. Washington acquainted with what report has not yet been made, but it is firmly believed, he had heard. Washington made, of course, all prepathat notwithstanding their escape, the Penitentiary will ration for baffling the meditated surprise. Lydia rebe found to be fully adequate to the secure confinement | turned home with her flour, sat up alone to watch the of prisoners, and that the escapes are neither attributable movements of the British troops; heard their footsteps; to a want of strength in the prison, nor vigilance in the but when they returned in a few days after, did not dare keepers, but to the unfortunate necessity of receiving to ask a question, though solicitous to learn the event. convicts before the workmen were completely excluded The next evening the Adjutant-general came in, and from the yard, and thereby placing within the reach of requested her to walk up to his room as he wished to those prisoners who had effected their liberation from put some questions. She followed him in terror; and their cells, boards and scantling, serving the purposes of when he locked the door and begged her, with an air of ladders, whereby they obtained an easy passage over mystery, to be seated, she was sure that she was either the outward wall, which, under other circumstances, suspected or betrayed. He inquired earnestly whether would have been impracticable.

any of her family was up the last night when he and the With high respect, I have the honour to be your most other officer met: she told him they all retired at eight obedient servant,

o'clock. He observed, "I know you were asleep, for I WM. WILKINS, knocked at your chamber door three times before you President of the Board of Commissioners. heard me: I am entirely at a loss to imagine who gave Attest,

Gen. Washington information of our intended attack, unMags. M. MURRAY, Clerk.

less the walls of the house could speak. When we ar Pittsburg; Jan. 2, 1828.

rived near White Marsh we found all their cannon

mounted, and the troops prepared to receive us, and we REVOLUTIONARY REMINISCENCE. have marched back like a parcel of fools." The following anecdote is quoted from the new Phi

CHRONICLE. ladelphia Quarterly Review.

The commissioners of the County of Philadelphia have When the British army held possession of Philadel- made the following appointments for the present year: phia, Gen. Howe's head-quarters were in Second-street, WILLAM MOULDER, Treasurer. the fourth door below Spruce, in a house which was be WILLIAM RODERFIELD, Chief Clerk. fore occupied by Gen. Cadwallader. Directly opposite PETER F. FRITEZ, Assistant Clerk. resided William and Lydia Darrah, members of the soci THOMAS SERGEANT, Solicitor. ety of Friends A superior officer of the British army,

ARCH. RANDALL, S Counsels for the collection believed to be the adjutant general, fixed upon one of

of fines and forfeited re

JOHN R. VOGDES. their chambers, a back room, for private conference;

cognizances. and two of them frequently met there, with fire and JACOB ZEILEN, Superintendant of public buildings candles in close consultation. About the 2d of Decem WILLAM GILBERT, Messenger. ber, the adjutant-general told Lydia that they would be in the room at 7 o'clock, and remain late; and that they ceived and read.

The following communication from the Mayor was rewished the family to retire early to bed; adding, that when they were going away they would call her to let To the president and members

Mayor's Office, Philadelphia, Jan. 6, 1828. them out, and extinguish their fire and candles. She

of the Select and Common Councils, accordingly sent all the family to bed; but as the officer had been so particular, her curiosity was excited. She spected townsman William Meredith, Esq. I have recent

GENTLEMEN—Through the instrumentality of our retook off her shoes, and put her ear to the key-hole of ly obtained possession of the missing minutes of the the conclave, and overheard an order read for all the councils of this city. I have caused them to be interBritish troops to march out late in the evening of the 4th leaved, and securely and carefully bound up in a single and attack Gen. Washington's army, then encamped at large volume. These minutes commence on the 3d day White March. On hearing this she returned to her of October, 1704, and end on the 17th February, 1776. chamber and laid down. Soon after the officer knocked They present an interesting mass of information, being at the door, but she rose only at the third summons,

an almost unbroken series of record of the incipient having feigned herself asleep. Her mind was so much proceedings and wise doings of the Fathers of the City, agitated, that she could neither eat nor sleep; supposing developing the origin and gradual progress of many of it to be in her power to save the lives of thousands of our important local establishments

. I have much pleaher fellow countrymen, but not knowing how she was to

sure in laying this volume on the table of Councils. With the information to Gen. Washington, not daring convey to confide it to her husband. The time left, however, great respect, I am, your obedient servant,

JOSEPH WATSON, Mayor. was short. She quickly determined to make her way as soon as possible, to the American outposts. She in.

Greensburgh, (Pa.) Jan. 11. formed her family that, as she was in want of four, she

The Flood.-At no period since the settlement of this would go to Frankford for some; her husband insisted country, is there known to have been so much rain as she should take her servant maid with her, but to his within the last six weeks. The Kiskimine tas was so high surprise she positively refused. She got access to Gen. that the water ran into the salt pans in the manufacturing Howe, and solicited what he readily granted, a pass establishments

. Mill-dams and bridges have suffered through the British troops on the lines. Leaving her severely. bag at the mill, she hastened towards the American lines and encountered on her way an American lieutenant Printed every Saturday morning by William F. Ged colonel (Craig) of the light horse, who, with some of his des, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at men, was on the look out for information. He knew the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, Subscripher and inquired where she was going? She answered, tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per in quest of her son an officer in the American army, and annum--payable in six months after the commencement prayed the colonel to alight and walk with her. He did of publication--and annually thereafter, by Subscribers so, ordering his troops to keep in sight. To him she resident in or near the city-or where there is an agent. disclosed her secret, after having obtained from him a Other Subscribers pay in advance.

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