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PENNSYLVANIA CANAL,

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passage, met at the Bull's Head in this city, on the 23d no place, less than eight feet above the water line of inst. and expressed a general satisfaction with captain dam or 14 feet above the bottom of canal. Considering Swaine's proceedings during his voyage, though he the magnitude of this work, its great utility, and the could not accomplish his purpose, and unanimously vo- perseverance of the contractors to complete their work ted him a very handsome present.”

in a permanent manner, I have no hesitation in saying, Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 29, 1753. that no public work of the kind can, to any extent, be “On Saturday last several habits wore by the Eske. found in the United States, which may be compared to maux Indians, who inhabit the southern parts of the this section of the Pennsylvania canal. It is further Labrador, with their utensils, and other curiosities, be- premised, that had the dam above mentioned, been lolonging to that people, were delivered by capt. Swaine, cated as far up the river as to enable the engineer to into our library, being a present from the North West reduce the height to 12 feet, the total expense of conCompany to the Library Company of this city."* structing canal would stand as follows, agreeably to my

Pennsylvania Gazette, Nov. 14, 1754. estimates:
They are not now in possession of the Library, To 12 miles and 48 chains of canal, inclu-

ding all items not enumerated,

}$195,866 and probably have been lost or destroyed. As they

Dam 12 feet high,

8,000 were presented soon after captain Swaine's return from Guard lock.

6,000 the second voyage, they were probably collected during

$209,865 that voyage.--Ep.

Amount of expenses as located,

158,188 04 PENNSYLVANIA CANAL.

Difference in favor of present location, $51,676 96 Report of Engineer on the Kiskeminetas division of the The principal reason why a canal would have been so Pennsylvania Canal.

expensive, had it been adopted in the present instance, To Abner Lacock, Esquire, acting commissioner on the is owing to the necessity of having to continue the level

western division of the Pennsylvania canal. without locking. You, sir, will readily perceive that a SIR,-In obedience to an act of the general assembly continued level, which in one situation might afford a of Pennsylvania, and agreeably to a requisition of the proper cutting for a canal, would if extended and adoptcanal board, I have the honor to submit to you a full ed as the ground riscs with the river, cause an increase and detailed statement of the costs for the construction in the depth to be excavated, and by consequence augof the canal from the termination of the Kiskeminetas ment the amount of labor, costs, &c. The construction river, into the Allegheny, to the end of section No. 123, of a canal under such circumstances would not only be as located and under contract. The items of each con- extremely difficult, but attended with incalculable extract are enumerated; the aggregate amount the work pense; when if locks could be adopted, should afford will have cost when completed, and the contractors canal navigation comparatively cheap. In a word, the names are given. It will also be perceived, that all situation of the ground along the bottom lands, throughworks, not as yet under contract on this division, I have out the foregoing distance, is generally from 12 to 18 set down the probable amount for their complete con- feet above the bottom of the feeder line. struction. For the purpose of comparing the final cost The second division embraces a line of 31 miles and with former estimates, I have, in the present communi- 55 chains, and commences at the end of 64th mile as cation, divided the line committed to my superintend- located by Mr. Olmstead, being the end of section No. ance, into two sections or parts. The first of which I 48, and terminates at the end of section No. 123, or the commenced locating at the mouth of the Kiskeminetas, 31st mile of Mr. Olmstead's location. This division on the 21st day of May last, assisted by William B. Fos- cmbraces in the whole distance, four dams; one of 16 ter, jr. and Theophilus Williams. This location extends feet, two of 17} feet, and one of 11 feet perpendicular no further than the 78th section, and was ready to be rise above the bed of the river; affording in all 91 miles put under contract by the 28th of June last.

of slack water navigation. These four dams, including The whole of the first division is 12 miles and 48 the cost of constructing a substantial towing path along chains; and consists of what was originally called the the bank of the river, will have saved the state, agreeas-feeder line.” It was surveyed by judge Roberts, in bly to my calculations, at least $30,000. But when it is 1826, but as no estimates made by him, were published taken into view, that the valuable salt works in operain any of the canal reports, I have no data wherewith to tion on the banks of the Kiskeminetas are neither dacompare the contemplated cost herein submitted.

maged nor removed (which must have been the case The line commences upon a level with the aqueduct had a canal been constructed) then indeed, with all across the Allegheny river, and is about 40 feet above moderation, it can be asserted, that not less than $50,000 low water mark. The height of this level above the more are saved by the line now under contract; making river being considerably too much of an elevation for an aggregate sum of actual saving when compared with the situation of the ground proceeding a distance of five former estimates predicated upon canal navigation, equal miles up the river, has in a great measure, enhanced the to $80,000. The total extent of slack water navigation .expense of canal navigation along this distance. is 164 miles.

At the end of section No. 23, 1 located a dam 27 feet With respect to that part of the line situate between perpendicular from the bed of the river; the top of the 78th section, and terminating at or near Blairsville,' which will be two feet above high water line of canal, I commenced the location on the 12th of September, and is expressly designed to retain the surplus water of assisted by D. K. Bishop and Michael Kennedy. Our the spring freshets as a reserve for any deficiency that labors were performed and the division ready to be put might occur in dry seasons, or result from unforeseen under contract by the 23d day of October last. providences. The water thus accumulated in the river No material variation has been made in the course and detained for contingencies by the two cxtra feet of pursued by Mr. Olmstead, until the end of the 43 mile elevation in the dam, amounts to 33 millions of cubic or the 104th section of our present location. From feet, or 3300 locks full. This dam furnishes a slack this point, the north side of the river presents but a water navigation of six and a half miles, the remaining continued series of difficulties to canal navigation. The distance of the feeder line. A substantial towing path lofty mountains on either side of the river, are literally will be constructed along the shore: a considerable part walls of solid rock. The river winds its way as if at a of which is now completed, and all in a certain pros-loss which course to pursue, being interrupted in its pect of being speedily done to my entire satisfaction. meandering by those stupendous, and almost impassible I may here state, that the top of the towing path is in I barriers. For some time I was at a loss to conceive

PENNSYLVANIA CANAL.

1828.]

383

what should be done, and after having examined every ed from a stcady communication between all parts of ravine and valley in the neighbourhood, I availed my- the state would be superfluous on the present occasion. self of the local information of the oldest settlers in the However, even the completion of the line between vicinity; who, to their credit and patriotism beit spoken, Johnstown and Pittsburg, is of itself sufficient to conafforded me every possible aid in my examinations. I vince every friend to the interests of this state, that apprehend it would be doing the citizens of this section Pennsylvania is destined to be the key stone, in the arch of country injustice, not to make this public expression of our agricultural and manufacturing confederacy. The of my acknowledgments, and to say that without refer- majestic forests upon the Chesnut ridge, and Laurel ence to sectional or local interests, each appeared willing hill, which at present exhibit but an unimproved soil, to sacrifice sordid views on the altar of public good. must by the extension of our canal line, in all probabiliHappily, bowever, I discovered a passage, where by ty be the market of supply for timber, stavess &c. to crossing the river to the south side and making a tunnel many foreign nations. of 750 feet in length, through a hill of about 300 feet Respecting the two dams first put under contract; elevation, I could cut off in distance 21 miles of the they were until the middle of October, under a rapid most unfavourable obstacles to canal navigation; and by advancement, toward completion; no doubt could be keeping the south side of the river, to a point “at or entertained, at that period, but the work of both would near Blairsville,” should save the state to the actual be completed, by the stipulated time. But the latter amount of $83,000 on this particular location, according part of October, the whole month of November, and up to the contract prices agreed on at the sales in Octo- to the present date, the weather has been unusually unber last. This saving, it is evident, is the difference be- favourable. The heavy rains, and consequently freshets tween the survey of Mr. Olmstead, and my estimate, that in the river, have not only retarded the work generally, gentleman having continued his exploring line around but the food that happened upon the 7th of November, the bend of the river. I may further remark that the raising the river nearly 10 feet perpendicularly, in a distance to Blairsville from the mouth of the Kiskemine- short space of time, did considerable injury, to each of tas on the north side is 46 miles; and that the present these works, but more especially to dam No. 1:- This location by the tunnel route to the same place is but 43+ flood tock off near 200 feet of the north end, that was miles.

raised to a considerable height. The actual damage to A few contracts liare as yet to be entered into, but in the contractors, could not be less than $3000. The part all such cases I have made a liberal estimate. A sum of of the dam thus injured, would have been in five or six $10,000 is added to cover incidental expenses of super- days more of good weather, secured from danger. How intendance, &c.

far the contractors should be relieved in this case it is It remains to take a general view of the whole line un not for me to say, but in justice to them, I am free to der my care and to submit some remarks in relation state that they prosecuted their work with diligence, thereto. Respecting the actual amount of work done, activity and great energy. Nor did they relax their exyou have a detailed statement in my last estimates; a ertions, in consequence of this disaster, but prosecuted correct schedule is annexed, showing the whole amounts the work with increased vigour, and in two weeks by of cach contract, with the contractors names, &c. great exertions and expense, had once more a prospect,

An erroneous idea is somewhat prevalent in this sec. of repairing the injury and completing their contract.tion of country, respecting the interruption of the river At this critical period, a second food succeeded, as sudtrade, in consequence of the erection of the dams, above den, and of greater magnitude, frustrated their hopes, mentioned. Were such the fact, no liberal mind would and swept away what was placed in the former breach cavil on reflecting upon the vast importance of the ca. Under these circumstances, and especially, as the rain nal to every part of the state, but particularly to this continues, at this time, and the food is still increasing,, highly favoured manufacturing district. Partial and I should recommend a suspension, of the work upon momentary inconveniences ought at all times to give the dams, until a more favourable season;- The other, place to general ard permanent benefits. Indeed, I contracts, might have been completed by the proper must acknowledge, know of no intelligent citizen, time, but as one part of the line is of no consequence with whom I have conversed on this subject, but has without the whole, it will probably be better to let the unlesitatingly declared in favour of submitting, all na contractors do as they think proper in regard to the protural advantages towards the completion of the Penn-secution of their contracts, during the unfavourable sylvania canal. In the mean time I would respectfully season. suggest that where persons trading on the river might The contractors upon the last letting, have mostly be anxious to avail themselves of an uninterrupted navi- commenced operations, a great proportion of the grub. gation at the seasons of high water, (should the legisla-bing has been done, on the different contracts, The tive wisdom of the state deem it advisable,) locks might contractors of the tunnel, have commenced work; they be constructed at a moderate expense, adjoining the have excavated to the solid rock, upon each end. Their dams, to communicate immediately with the channel of present prospects are highly favourable. the river. But if any part of the state is erentually to be It can almost be calculated to a certainty, that the benefitted by the canal, I say without fear of reasonable canal will be completed to Blairsville, by November, contradiction, there is none can be more advantaged by 1828, for this season, in the space of four months, alits completion than the numerous enterprising manufac- though the weather has proved uncommonly unfavouraturers in this vicinity. When the canal shall be in suc. ble for canal operations, considerable more ihan one half cessful operation, thie Kiskeminetas salt merchants will the work has been done upon the line first put under no longer complain of an uncertain facility to a good contract. market, nor will the transient passenger witness thou

All of which is respectfully submitted, sands of barrels of salt under roof for miles along the

ALONZO LIVERMORE, Engineer: the river, owing to an uncertain river navigation; be December 10, 1827. sides the innumerable coal pits in this neighbourhood must then become a source of profitable trade to a hardy

LONGEVITY.-1810. and honest portion of our citizens. Markets will also be equalized to our farmers and manufacturers to an incal Died on the third of last month, after a few days illculable extent. And in addition, the surplus water re-ness, GEORGE WARNER, in the ninety-ninth year of his tained by the dams can be converted into a productive age. revenue to the statc, by the superabundance of water He was a native of Great Britain, and came to this rower which may be rented to industrious capital- country in the year 1726, when it was a mere wilderness ists.

in comparison to what it now is. To dwell upon the numerous advantages to be deriy. 1 About eighty passengers came with him, chiefly fru

MISCELLANEOUS.

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384

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47 2 Dropsy

394

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DISEASES.

DEATHS.

Herefordshire and Staffordshire, in a ship whereof The Inspectors of the Prison of the city and county Dicks, was master, from Bristol; they were chiefly of Philadelphia, present the following tables for the infarmers and industrious mechanics: among them were formation of the public. The number of persons comWilliam Shipley, Thomas Tatnal, William Taylor, and mitted to the county prison, in Arch street, for the year others, who settled at Derby, Chester, and in the neigh- 1823, was 3582—two thirds of whoin were as vagrants, bourhood of Brandywine creek. In the former of these disorderly persons and disturbers of the peace. To places Taylor commenced business; and made the first this cause is to be attributed the quantum of disease pair of Smith's bellows, that was manufactured in Penn- which prevailed in that institution during the last sylvania.

year. At the time of their arrival, the small pox raged on board the ship, which alarmed the town, as it was then The diseases and Deaths which occurred in each month of called, so much that the people assembled and ordered the year 1823, in the Penitentiary, or Wabut street her off, upon which she proceeded as low as the Swedes Prison, were as follows: church, where they landed, and were received by one Barnes, who treated them with a little of the first rum George Warner had ever heard of or seen, and which on sipping it only, he thought was a dangerous thing,

Months.

Diseases. that would burn up his entrails. From this landing they were conducted by Barnes, to Jauary

22 2 Asthma the Blue house tavern, in South street, through swamps February

21 2 Bleeding at Nose and high forest trees, in which he observed no houses, March

33 2 Consumption

35 2 Debility but plenty of game. When they recovered of the small April

27 1 Diarrhea

1 pox, they were in like manner conducted, without see- May,

1 ing a house, to the Boatswain and Call tavern, near the June Drawbridge, lately kept by Peter Evans, now the to- July

65 O Fever, Bilious

44 0 bacco manufactory of Levi Garrett; from this house August

Remittent southward to the Swedes church, he found but 3 or 4 September

- Typhus

21 OInflammation of the dwellings, with small lots, without fences and the trees October

2

14 1 Breast cleared round them-his first walk to the northward was November

46 5 Small Pox

i near the river side up to Market street, in which dis December tance, were the only two wharves within the limits of

Total.. Philadelphia,

Total..

.21 one belonging to Anthony Morris, and one to the estate of the late William Allen. In proceeding westward through the market, he found

Of whom there were: the street paved about the court house, which were the only street pavements in town, the market house then extended but half a square westward of Second street. Males,

.382

18 Between Third and Fourth streets, he met a drunken Females,

32

3 woman; as he had never before seen such an object,

Totals....

.414 21 she surprised him so much with her wild capers, that he was induced to cross from the south to the north side of the street to give her elbow-room; this walk he continued to the middle ferry, on Schuylkill, and as far up The diseases and deaths which occurred in each month of the river, as the burial ground, which on enquiry, he

the year 1823, in the County Prison of city and county found belonged to Friends, in which the first seitlers

of Philadelphia, in Arch street, were as follows: amongst them, who lived about Merion, &c. buried their deac,

From this walk he returned to his lodging, admiring all round him, the high forest trees, in Market st eet, Months.

Diseases:
which extended from the banks of the Schuylkill to
Delaware Ninth street.

January
51 5 Consumption

3 To repeat more of his knowledge of the city would

February
528 Debility

4 fill too much of thy paper-it will, therefore, suffice March

70 10 Diarrhea

1 simply to mention, that his memory, which remained

April

36 6 Dysentery perfect, qualified him to give clear evidence, on his affir

May

58 2 Fever mation, within the last year of his life, on trials for land

June

52 1 - Inflammatory 2 before the Court and Legislature of Pennsylvania.

July

36 2 Intermittent His sight, for several years before his departure, be

August

53 4 Remittent 'came dim, and he was somewhat hard of hearing.

September

61 11 Typhus Under all these disadvantages, this venerable old gen- October

the 2 tleman was cheerful, and happy in detailing to the chil

November

38 3 Lungs dren of his relations and friends, anecdotes of their fa.

December
599 Intoxication

2 thers and mothers, after he had out-lived every man,

Jaundice

1 woman and child that he knew in the days of his youth.

Totals... ..604 63 Mania a potu

1 (Poulson.

Pleurisy

1 ERRATA.

Small Pox

5 Our readers are desired to correct the following typographical errors in the letter from Chester county, in our

Total..i..

.63 last number.

Page 364, for “you may stand on the top of Os. borne's hill, or the place,” &c. read at the place.

Of whom there were: Page 365, for “West Chester is situated about ten miles,” &c. read two miles; for “Darlington's Florida

Males,..

.452 33 Cestrica,” read Florula Cestrica; for “ bury under the

Females,..

. 152 10 plough,” read bring under, &c.; for “wherein required,” read wherever; 366, for “ Sterdes," read “Strodes;' Total.....

.604 63 for "Pocopsan," read Pacopson.'

Deaths

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DISEASES.

DEATHS.

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THE

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATY.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

VOL. I.

PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 21, 1828.

NO. 25.

EBELING'S HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA. vor of the English government. Markham's son-in-law (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 373.)

was accused of being one of the principal parties con

cerned in these ofences; on that account he was exCHAPTER VII.

pelled the house, prosecuted and imprisoned; and was

only liberated on his father-in-law becoming bail for his Wilkam Penn's Second Voyage to Pennsylvania— Yellow appearance. Of the offence of carrying on a contra

Fever-State of the Colony-Disagreement between band trade, the legislature declared the province en. the ProvincesIndian Affairs-New Constitution-- tirely clear, and Penn himself appeared convinced of Penn returns to England--Hamilton Governor ---The the innocence of the inhabitants, and willingly sent their lower counties again separate-Dissentions---- Governor justification to England, which, however, could not be Hamilton dies--- Edward Shippen, President, and the complete, as the inquiry which had been set on foot had Council.

been broken off before it was ended. (1)

The proprietor now believed that every thing was These were the first objects that engaged the atten- prepared for introducing a new form of government, tion of the legislature which William Penn convened which should be free from the defects of the former immediately upon his arrival

. He had sailed from Eng- ones, and impart strength as well as unity to the admi. land in September 1699, with his second wife and his nistration. He, therefore, in May 1700, called an ex children; but he did not land until after a tedious voy-traordinary meeting of the assembly, which was also age of nearly three months. Fortunate, indeed, it was extraordinary in these respects, that it consisted of a for him, for had he arrived sooner, he might have fallen larger number of members than those which preceded a victim of the yellow fever. It had been imported it, and held a session of unusual length. (2) Before from the West Indies, and had occasioned a considerable this assembly he laid his new charter, on which there imortality. In later times, that city was visited by the were long deliberations and joint as well as separate same plague in the most dreadful manner, and it then discussions between the two houses. Although they carried off, as it did at the time we are speaking of, a were agreed as to the maiti object, yet this weighty great number of the inhabitants, but then, as afterwards, matter was not carried through in this session, the legis. the cold weather put a stop to its destructive progress. lature was dissolved, and even the ensuing general as(1)

sembly, which met in October of the same year, did not Penn was received in his province with so much the accomplish the work; but brought it nearer to a congreater pleasure as it was firmly believed, that he came

clusion. with the determination of spending there the remain This assembly was held at New Castle, probably with der of his life. Nevertheless, he did not find among a view to gain over the lower counties, and consisted his planters that warm feeling of affection, and that unof twenty-four members. To the principal object of bounded confidence by which he had been enabled, this meeting, were added those of completing à code when among them the first time, to lead them entirely of laws, securing the titles to landed property, and according to his will. Many strangers and foreigners granting an aid for the support of government. The had come into the country, the bond of union between formation of the code was carried on with great zeal the two colonies was rather loosened than strengthened and with the best effect; but less so the new form of þy the government of the Quakers, and they themselves, government which was drawn up by a joint committee by Penn's fifteen years absence, and by the conduct of of the two houses and submitted to discussion. There his and the king's lieutenants, had been in a degree was found at the very threshhold, a dangerous impedialienated from him; many things were wanting in the ment in the question witich was now generally discusslaws of the province, and the property of the land own. ed, whether the act of the union of the two colonies ers was not yet fully secured. Penn had first to become was yet in force? The lower counties were willing to better acquainted with the situation of his colonies, and acknowledge it, provided an equal freedom was secured the views and feelings of the inhabitants, and therefore to them; by which they understood that they should not much was done by the legislature at their first meet- always have in the legislature an equal number of re. ings. “At last, he found it necessary to conform to their presentatives with Pennsylvania, a pretension which the ideas and wishes; after all he showed the same zeal and evident prospect of an increase of population rendered disposition as formerly to promote the bappiness of the even then inadmissible. In vain did the proprietor procolonists. His speeches to the legislature were friendly, pose a middle course. To prevent an immediate sepa. mild and conciliating. They produced a good under. ration, it became necessary to postpone the decision of standing between the different branches of the govern- the question, and remain satisfied that the lower coun. ment.

ties by taking part in the legislation, still held in some The first assembly, which met in January, 1700, (2) manner to the union. had principally in view to increase the severity of the The majority of the house of assembly was now will. laws against piracy, and the violation of the British sta- ing to adopt a newly draughted frame of government, tutes concerning navigation. This had been particular. but as it was laid before the proprietary, he thought ly enjoined by the king on the proprietors, and he felt proper to dissolve the legislature. Yet they, besides it the more incumbent upon him to exert himself on this subject, in order to preserve the newly acquired fa 1 1 Votes. 117.

2 This assembly met on the 10th 3d month, and se1 1 Proud, 421. Rush.

parated on the 8th, 4th month. (That would not be 2 1 Votes. 117.

called a long session at the present time.)

386

HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA

Joss

a great many other laws, (1) had passcd an important act hannah and of the Minquay or Conestogo Indians, to to confirm the titles of the land owners, and had voted whom were joined the Shawanese, the Kanbawas, inhasome taxes for the support of the government. In the biting the head of Potomack, and the Five Nations by discussions on this last subject, the disunion which pre. which treaty he certainly promoted not a little the safevailed between the two colonies, manifested itself, as ty of his colony, and probably rendered an essential serthey voted on every question in opposition to each other, vice to the neighbouring provinces. at last it was agreed to lay a tax of one penny in the William Penn's situation now became uncomfortable, pound for the expenses of the government with a poll | in consequence of the news that he received from his tax of six shillings per head, (2) to raise £2000 for the friends in England. The enemies of the Quakers, and governor by another poll tax, of which the city of Phila- perhaps, his own personal enemies, had improved the delphia paid more than one half, and Pennsylvania more time of his absence, in order to prejudice the king than three fourths. (3)

against the proprietary government in the colonies. The These laws, which laid the foundation of the provin king, as well as his ministers, did not see without apprecial code, were chiefly penal laws; the remainder con- hension their rapid increase, and began to fear lest they cerned the police. (4). A good law was also made for should become too powerful for the crown; therefore the protection of bound servants, (5) and others for the it was thought advisable to convert them into royal go security of the Indians, and the regulation for the trade vernments, and to purchase off the proprietary interests. with them. (6) A proposition which was made for bet. A bill to that effect was, in fact, brought into the house tering the condition of the negroes was not carried into of lords. When the owners of lands in Pennsylvania, of effect until a later period, although William Penn had which there were many in England, particularly among warmly exerted himself at the meeting of the Quakers, the Quakers, came to be informed of this, they petitionas well in favour of the Indians as the negro slaves. -ed the parliament against the measure, and begged at He succeeded, however, in obtaining that a meeting of least that time should be allowed for Penn to come over worship should be held every month for the latter, and and defend his right. They therefore urged his speedy he undertook himself to establish more frequent meet- return, the necessity of which he himself perceived, alings with the Indians. (7)

though this request came upon him at a most inconveÅ second session of the same assembly was convened nient time. He immediately convened the legislature for the sole object of obtaining aid of £350 sterling to to meet on the 16th September, 1701; having a great the government; but partly because the people were deal of business to transact with them, and much that realready too much loaded with impositions, and partly quired to be completed. The number of representabecause the neighbouring colonies did not contribute tives in the assembly consisted of twenty-four, accordtheir shares, the assembly would not grant this tax, ing to the last resolution taken at New Castle. In his and the subject was postponed to the next meeting of opening speech he declared to them the melancholy nethe legislature. (8) Penn did not press farther this re- cessity he was under of leaving the province; that their quisition in the king's name, which, in fact, was op- own welfare, indeed, required it, but that he was deter posed to the pacific principles of the Quakers, and to mined to return, and settle his family and posterity in the main object of the foundation of their colony, and the province. (1) He invited them to find some suitaperhaps, had been suggested by their enemies at court. ble expedient and provision whereby he might secure On the other hand, he set on foot friendly negotiations their privileges and property, and effect a nearer union with the Indians, and concluded at Philadelphia, in of their interests. Then he particularly recommended to April, 1701, a formal treaty of amity and commerce (9) them a new royal requisition of £350 sterling, in aid of with the numerous chiefs and deputies of the Susque- the frontier province of New York, and praised the trea.

ty which the governor of that colony had made with the 1 The whole number of laws passed during William Five Nations, and which was advantageous to PennsylvaPenn's second residence in Pennsylvania, exceeded one nia. (2) He was induced to this as much by prudence, hundred, of which the greatest number were enacted as by his devotion to the king, whom he hoped thereby during the session at New Castle.

to incline more favourably to him. 2 In the preceding assembly a tax of four pence in The assembly's answer to this speech was couched in the pound, and a capitation of twenty-four shillings had the most respectful and affectionate language. They been demanded, which were, however, refused. 1 Votes, immediately prepared an address, in which they set 122.

forth in detail their wants and wishes. These related 3 1 Votes, 139.

particularly to the appointment of a lieutenant governor 4 One of them according to Quaker principles, de-in his absence, the security of their land titles, and the clared health-drinking to be a punishable offence; ano- allowance connected with them (3) which they claimed ther laid a heavy penalty on the grievous sins of cursing by virtue of the governor's promise. They proposed and swearing. He who was convicted of it the fourth the establishment of a patent office, and that the quittime, was liable to a very heavy fine, or was condemned rents should be made redeemable. The lower counties to hard labour, declared a common curser and swear- in the twenty-one articles of which this address consister, and the court might sentence him to receive ed, had asked much for themselyes in direct opposition twenty-one lashes four times a year, during seven years; to the proprietary's interest, (4) nevertheless he grantalso against challenging to fight a duel, a severe impri- ed the most of what was asked, and refused only some sonment and a fine of £20 were inflicted. Law, c. 44, unjust demands, and some others with which the legis45. 82.

lature had no right to interfere, as they merely concern5 Laws, c. 49. (Galloway's laws of Pennsylvania, ed the contracts between the proprietary and the pur

chasers of lands. On the other hand, the assembly inỔ No man could purchase lands of the Indians, with. sisted on all their demands being granted, although out the permission of the proprietary; no foreigner could trade with them; and all the inhabitants were strictly 1 He took his wife and children with him to Engprohibited from selling them spirituous liquors.

land. 7 1 Proud, 423.

2 1 Votes, 143. 8 1 Votes, 141.

3 [Of ten for every hundred acres.) 9 This treaty is recorded in 1 Proud, 428-433. 4 They asked that William Penn should grant them Every thing that it contains is highly favourable to both lands in future, as the Duke of York had done, at the parties. In one of the articles the Indians acknowledge rate of a bushel of wheat for a lot of one hundred acres. the supremacy of the crown of England, not indeed, to This, as well as the redemption of the quit-rents was rehold them in subjection, but to protect them against the fused; the latter under the pretext that it had been once French.

offered to them, and was not accepted.

page 7.

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