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INSTITUTION FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB.

367

FROM THE NATIOYAL GAZETTE.

cabins, as it was a warm night. As soon as day appear. Captain Wards Company. 1 killed, 1 wounded and ed and the town could be seen, the attack began in the 3 missing. corn field, through which our people charged, killing Captain Potter's company. Ensign James Potter and several of the enemy and entered the town. Captain | 1 man wounded. Jacobs, the chief of the Indians, gave the warwhoop, Captain Steele's company. I missing. and defended his house bravely through loop holes in Captain Mercer and Ensign Scott, with one woman, a the logs, and the Indians generally refusing quarters hoy and two girls, separated from the main body as they which were offered them, declaring they were men began their march from Kittanning, but afterwards reand would not be prisoners. Col. Armstrong (who had turned safe. received a wound in his shoulder by a musket ball) ordered their houses to be set on fire over their beads, which was immediately done: when the Indians were told, that they would be burned to death, if they did not surrender, one of them replied, “he did not care, Annual Report of the Pennsylvania Institution for the as he could kill four or five before he died," and as the

Deaf and Dumb, made to the members at the Annual heat approached, some began to sing: Some, however,

Meeling, May 7, 1828. burst out of their houses, and attempted to reach the river, The Directors of the Pennsylvania Institution for the but were instantly shot down. Captain Jacobs, in get. Deaf and Dumb, in obedience to the act of incorpora ting out of a window, was shot, as also his squaw, and tion and by-laws, respectfully submit the following rea lad called the king's son. The Indians had a number

port-of spare arms in their houses, loaded, which went off in

The present number of pupils in the institution is quick succession as the fire came to them; and quanti- seventy-six, viz. forty-seven males, twenty-nine females. ties of gunpowder, which had been stored in every Of this number forty-nine from Pennsylvania are suphouse, blew up from time to time, throwing, some of ported by the bounty of the commonwealth; one from their bodies a great height in the air-a body of the New Jersey is supported by that state; one is retained enemy on the opposite side of the river fired on our

as a monitor; two females support themselves by their people, and were seen to cross the river at a distance, services in the institution; fifteen are supported by their as if to surround our men; they collected some Indian friends. The remaining eight are supported in whole horses that were near the town to carry off the wound- or in part on the private funds of the institution. ed: and then retreated, without going back to the corn The board have to lament the decrease of the numfield to pick up those killed there at the beginning of ber of annual contributors, arising from a mistaken imthe action. Several of the enemy were killed in the river as they institution; and deeply regret that the limited state of

pression of the prosperous condition of the funds of the attempted to escape by fording it; and it was compu- its finances prevents them from extending its benefits ted that in all between 30 and 40 were destroyed

as widely as their own feelings, and the mute but paeleven English prisoners were released and brought thetic appeals of the interesting and unfortunate beings away, who informed the Colonel, that besides the pow- for whose benefit it was instituted, so strongly demand. der, (of which the Indians boasted they bad enough for with a view to disseminate more extensively the knowten years war with the English) there was a great quan- ledge of the advantages offered by the institution, Mr. tity of goods burnt, which the French had made them Lewis Weld, the principal, accompanied by one of the a present of but ten days before. The prisoners also pupils, by direction of the board, made an excursion informed, that that very day, two batteaux of French during the past summer through several of the counties Indians were to join Captain Jacobs, to march and take of the state, directing his attention particularly to those Fort Shirley, and that 24 warriors had set out before counties which had not before been visited by any of them, the preceding evening, which proved to be the

our pupils. Of twenty scholars admitted by him on party that kindled the fire the night before: for our peo- this tour, ten have since arrived. We beg leave to subple returning, found Lieutenant Hogg wounded in three mit the following extract from the report of bis journey, places; and learned that he had in the morning attacked made by him to the board: the supposed party of three or four, at the fire place

“In the course of the journey we met with several of according to order, but found them too numerous for our former pupils and heard from others, all of whom him. He killed three of them however at the first fire are doing well, and by their conduct and acquirements and fought them an hour, when having lost three of his are creditable to the institution. Two of them are marbest men the rest as he lay wounded, abandoned him ried, and two have connected themselves with some and fled, the enemy pursuing. Captain Mercer* being denomination of Christians by a public profession of wounded in the action, was carried off by his ensign and their faith; of these last, however, I had no personal eleven men, who left the main body, in their return, to knowledge. In almost every place we visited we found take another road. On the whole it is allowed to be the traces of impostors, who for the last few years have greatest blow the Indians have received since the war often excited the sympathies, received the contributions, began. The conduct of Col. Armstrong in marching so and sometimes disgusted the feelings of the benevolent, large a body through the enemy's country and coning thus materially injuring our cause." so close to the town withou: being discovered is de

No change has been made in the Teachers or course servedly admired and applauded—as well as the bravery | of instruction since the last report, and the board bave of both officers and men in the action.” Return of killed, wounded and missing at Fort Little with the exertions and ability of the Principal and his

again the pleasure to express their entire satisfaction ton, September 14, 1756: Lieut. Col. Armstrong, wounded. In his company 2 advantage to the pupils.

assistants. The manufactures are still carried on with private men killed and 3 wounded.

The health, morals and comfort which continue to Captain Hamilton's company. 1 killed.

distinguish this large family, bear testimony to the exCaptain Mercer's company. Himself and one man cellent domestic arrangement of the faithful matron and wounded, 7 killed; bimself his ensign and 7 missing. with all other blessings call for our gratitude to that Di

Captain Armstrong's company, Lieut. James Hogs vine Giver of all good who has so beneficently smiled on and 5 men killed; 5 wounded and 6 missing.

our exertions to extend the knowledge of Himself to

those who would otherwise have been, not only mute, - Believed to be General Mercer of the United States but unintelligent recipients of his goodness. Army, who died near Princeton, of the effects of the By order of the Board, wounds received in the battle at that town in 1777, (Signed) WILLIAM WHITE, President. January 12.

George W. Toland, Rec. Secretary.

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METEOROLOGICAL NEGISTER, KEPT BY THOMAS SMITH, LABYRINTH GARDEN.

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DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUI INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 14, 1828.

VOL. I.

NO. 24.

1

EBELING'S HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA. the exiled king. (4) Having been acquitted also of the (CONTINUED FROM PAGE 357.)

charge, he thought at last to return to his province, with a view to which, he published new conditions for those

who might chuse to accompany him thither. He had CHAPTER V.

employed considerable funds in the preparations for this Governor Blackwell returns to England. Distracted state follow him, they were to have sailed under the convoy

voyage; already five hundred families were ready to of the Colony. William Penn suspected at home. The of a ship of war; which had been granted him by the Lower Counties separate from Pennsylvania. Religious Schism among the Quakers.

government, (5) when a wretch, whom the parliament

afterwards declared to be a cheat and an impostor; lodgThus the first attempt to govern the province by a ed an information against him upon oath. He found it deputy, to which Penn had suffered himself to be per. now adviseable to keep out of the way of an arrest; and suaded by Thomas Lloyd, was unsuccessful. «Blackwell remained concealed during two years, until at last, in returned to London in February, 1690. He left the go- 1693, through the intercession of Lords Sidney and Sovernment in a distracted state which affected the pro- mers, of the duke of Buckingham and other great men, prietary so much the more as he found himself in Eng- he obtained his liberty from the king; while in his re. land in a very melancholy situation. Since James II. tirement, he employed his solitary hours in composing had ascended the throne, he had availed himself of that works, chiefly in defence of his co-religionists, ånd in monarch's confidence, to obtain a milder treatment for preparing for the press a collection of the works of Rohis religious brethren; nay, he had endeavoured to per- Ibert Barclay. suade the king to introduce a general system of tolera The first years of his freedom were chiefly employed tion of all religions in England.” (1) The king followed in travels through England and Ireland, in which he ofthat plan, not so much from principle, as in order there- ten preached to his religious brethren. He also aided in by to be able to gain a footing for the Roman Catholic obtaining for them of the parliament, a dispensation from religion, which he professed, and to which he was much oaths, and was several times engaged in polemical conattached. This could not remain unobserved by the troversies in support of his doctrines; but principally bishops of the dominant church; Penn soon became the against Keith, a Quaker, who had gone over to the object of their suspicions, and was even believed to be church of England after exciting in Pennsylvania a great secretly a Jesuit. He justified himself in a letter to his deal of disturbance among his sect. These religious friend Tillotson, then bishop of London, to the full sa- disputes, joined to the unsteadiness of the government tisfaction of that prelate; but few of the ministers of the of the province, and the constantly increasing disunion high church, were convinced as he was. (2) That, and between its representatives and those of the lower coun. the release of a number of imprisoned Quakers, together ties on Delaware, must have operated so much the more with James' proclamation of liberty of conscience, which to the detriment of that colony, as Penn was much less had been drawn up by William Penn, and the warm ad- than before in a situation to remedy these evils. Little dress of thanks of the Quakers to the king for that more was wanted to make him lose for ever all right to measure which was presented by him, and which coin the government of his province, and as it was, he was cided with the attempt to introduce the Popish religion for some time actually deprived of it. The union of into England, made Penn and his co-religionists more the lower counties, with Pennsylvania, could hardly than suspected, for it drew upon them the hatred of a combine these two territories into one whole, so estrangnation who justly viewed with a jealous eye, the con. ed were they from each other. Here was a Quaker duct of their sovereign. (3). It is much to be wonder-population, with a number of German settlers, who were ed at, that he did not avail himself of that critical mo- ruled by them in a certain degree; there, Swedish and ment, to return to his province, whither thousands would Dutch inhabitants, with entirely different manners, (6) have followed him. The hope of seeing realized his fa- and principles, from those of their younger neighbours, vourite wish of universal toleration, kept him, much to who began soon to be jealous of the rising prosperihis own and the colony's detriment, in England, where ty of Philadelphia, situated in their neighbourhood, the revolution soon after broke out.

and which already began to draw to itself all the mari. As William Penn had enjoyed the friendship of James, time commerce of that country. it was believed that he must in consequence be William's

's enemy. He was, therefore, arrested, rigorously 4 Belknap says, that the true reason why Penn was, interrogated before the privy council, and obliged to so often suspected, was the attachment of his wife to the give bail to appear before a competent tribunal. At queen, which was carried so far, that she every year last, as nothing could be proved against him, he was set went to St. Germains and carried to that princess preat liberty. He several times experienced the same treat- sents from the Jacobites. She died in 1694. Biog. vol. ment, being accused of holding a correspondence with 2, p. 435. If this be really true, then Penn was not

suspected without some foundation. 1 See Penn's letter in 1 Proud, 308.

5 See his letter to Thomas Lloyd, in 1 Proud, 348. 2 Chanfepie, Dictionn, vol. 3, p. 102, note X. Bio 6 There were, without doubt, complaints made to graphia Britann, art. Penn.

William Penn by the Quakers, respecting their moral 3 See William Penn's correspondence with William conduct, and these might be, probably, not altogether Popple, secretary of the board of trade and the colo- unfounded; at least, they laid themselves open to the nies, 1 Proud 315-331 in Chaufepie, and in 2 Marsil- charge of selling rum to the Indians. See Penn's letter, lac, 48.

in 1 Proud, 357.

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870

HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA

(JUNE

After Blackwell's departure, the council elected will be sufficient to relate the most prominent facts, Thomas Lloyd, their president, and agreeably to the as after all, the whole business had but little influence constitution took upon themselves the government of on the progress of the colony and its government. the province. But six counsellors from the lower coun The first public school in the city of Philadelphia was ties, dared, without the knowledge of the president, to established in the year 1989; afterwards, in 1697 it was form themselves into a separate council, to appoint incorporated by Markham, then lieutenant governor, and judges for those counties and to make ordinances. — at a later period, Penn himself confrnied the establishThis happened towards the end of the year 1690, al- ment, and granted it several franchises. In this school, though at the beginning of that year, a general assembly children of both sexes were instructed in the useful arts had been held with much unanimity, who employed and sciences. The first master that was placed at the head themselves in re-enacting the former laws. The cause of of it, was the said George Keith, a Scotchman by birth, this may, perhaps, be found in the postponement of the who was a surveyor in the colony of New Jersey. (2) business of John White's complaint against those who He was much respected among the Quakers; he had had imprisoned him, which was laid aside until Penn the reputation of being eminently gifted, and was posshould arrive. Howerer that may be, it was soon fol- sessed' of much learning. He had acquired credit by lowed by a total separation. The president and coun- the publication of several writings in defence of his cil of Pennsylvania immediately published a proclama- sect, and had accompanied Penn on his travels in Ger. tion, in which they declared all the acts of the six se many. (3) But he had a quick passionate temper and ceding members to be illegal. These made some pro- an overbearing disposition, and was moreover, fond of posals towards an accommodation, in which they princi- disputation; so that he created much disturbance among pally required that the judges and all officers of govern- his religious brethren. He held it now to be unlawful, ment should be appointed by the nine counsellors from for the civil authority to use force in the execution of the lower counties; (1) but this was not allowed them. the laws; he also fell off from the principles of his sect, On the other hand, Penn himself made an attempt, per- and among other things maintained that the inward light haps too condescending, to restore a good understand was not necessary to salvation. The Quakers resented ing between the two colonies, between whom the breach the more those supposed errors, as he had been for was becoming wider and wider, and gave them the eight and twenty years a member of their community, choice of three modes of executive government, to wit, and now began to accuse their preachers of erroneous by a joint council, by five commissioners or by a lieu- doctrines respecting the fundamentals of the Christian tenant governor. The majority of the council were for religion. He was arraigned before the monthly meetthe latter mode, but seven of the members for the lower ing, which only served to exasperate him and draw from counties, entered a solemn protest against it, in which him bitter and disrespectful language. The cause was they declared themselves in favour of the commissioners, carried to the yearly meeting at Burlington, and even which form of government, in case those of Pennsylva- to the general meeting in London. Keith became still nia should persist in their opinion in favour of a lieute more obstinate, allowed himself to make insulting nant governor, they meant to introduce into their terri- speeches, and with some of his followers, held separate tory until the will of the proprietary should be known. meetings, in which he held forth violently against the Their principal objections against a lieutenant governor, other Quakers. For this, the yearly meeting, in 1692, were the expense of his maintenance, and the fear lest formally disowned him, and a declaration or testimony the officers should be arbitrarily dismissed. Although of denial was drawn up and signed by twenty eight of the council of Pennsylvania took great pains to obviate the most respectable members, among whom was Thothese objections, and although four of their members mas Lloyd, which was soon after confirmed by 214 more; even went in person to New-Castle, all their efforts also by ihe general meeting at London; on the other proved fruitless. The three upper counties now chose hand, the number of his adherents in Pennsylvania in. Lloyd for their governor, which office he accepted at creased considerably, and even some persons of respecthe pressing instance of the province, but the lower tability joined his party. counties rejected him. Penn, therefore, perceiving So far this was only a religious controversy, and an that it was impossible to bring about an union, confirmed ecclesiastical schism, but Keith found means to make it the appointment of Lloyd, and conferred the govern- a matter of civil concern. In the preceding year, a ment of the lower counties on William Markham, the small sloop had been stolen by a pirate from the wharf former secretary of the province, who had joined with in Philadelphia, and a warrant of hue and cry bad been the protesting members. This was done by William issued to take the criminal, who was in consequence ap, Penn much against his will. (2) But the consequence prehended and brought into the city: Keith declared was as he predicted: the king, as will presently ap. himself against this act of the magistracy, as being con. pear, annexed the two colonies to the government of trary to the principles of the Quakers against carrying New York. (3)

arms and the use of force. Nay, he went so far as to The Pennsylvania counties in May 1691, held a gene- make use of insulting and threatening language against ral assembly at Philadelphia, in which the former laws the Governor. He had before published several pamof the colony were confirmed. Once only the two le phlets in defence of his opinions, in which he had not gislatures met together, and it was merely to inform the been sparing of abuse against his opponents; but the proprietary, that they were satisfied with the separate Quakers had taken no notice of them, and had not called lieutenant governors. (4)

him to account for these publications; but now he was In the preceding year, there arose a violent schism endeavouring to bring the magistrates and the goveramong the Quakers, which was occasioned by one ment into contempt. Therefore the printer, who, more. George Keith. A particular account of it belongs prop-orer was in the pay of the administration, was brought erly to the ecclesiastical history of that sect, here it before a court of justice, which, as he treated contempt

tuously, an order issued for his imprisonment, which, 1. This seems to have been the principal objection to however, was not fully executed; but his printing press a joint council, 1 Proud, 355.

had been some time before taken from him. (4) 2 In the votes of the general assembly of Pennsylva. nia, the journal of the year 1691, is entirely wanting, and 2 He was allowed for the first year a salary of £50. even Franklin las not been able to fill up the chasm. besides his lodging, the next year that salary was raised Therefore the relation of the events which Proud has to £120. first brought to light, and which were unknown even to 3 (See above.] Chalmers, is here given somewhat at large.

4 This printer was William Bradford, who had set 3 1 Proud, 351-358.

np the first printing press in Philadelphia; he afterwards 4 April, 1692. 1 Proud, 362.

transferred himself to New York.

1828.)

HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA,

371

Keith and one of his friends now published a defence At first William Penn was much dissatisfied with the under the title of “Plea of the innocent," in which proceedings of the Pennsylvania Quakers, and particuthey personally abused Samuel Jennings, one of the larly of the Judges against his old friend Keith, until he judges. They were brought before the court, and ad- was convinced by clear proofs and by that man's con. judged to pay each, a fine of five pounds, being the duct afterwards in England of the great change that punishment which the law had prescribed for the of had taken place in him from what he formerly was. The fence. These fines were never exacted.

separation of his two colonies lay still nearer to his heart. Now, Keith and his adherents made a great outcry, He had reason to fear that it would produce evil consecomplaining of religious persecution. The numerous quences, so much the more as he was looked upon in publications which appeared on this occasion, and par. England with a suspicious eye, as a friend of the late ticularly those written by Keith himself, undeniably King. No doubt it was observed that neither the laws show, that this accusation, at least, to judge from the of the young province, nor even the alterations that had open acts of the Quakers, was entirely unfounded, been made in its form of Government had been laid nevertheless, the judges (among whom, however, it before the King; nc doubt, also it was remarked that must be said, that Jennings, who was one of them, had Pennsylvania hesitated for a long time before William not behaved with the mildness by which the Quakers and Mary, were openly recognized; for the Government are otherwise distinguished) thought it necessary, in continued to be administered in the name of James II. August, 1692, to publish a declaration, in which they until September, 1689. (1) Not only the enemies of set forth Keith’s illegal conduct in calumniating and in the Quakers in general, but also those who were persulting the governor and other authorities, and protested sonally inimical to William Penn did not fail to reprethat he had been only punished for the parts of his sent the civil and religious dissentions which prevailed writings which contained these offences, and not for any in the province, in the most exaggerated point of view; opinion that he had expressed, and that they had only Penn could not openly step forward in defence of his in view to protect the magistracy from insult and abuse. colony, nor could he put an end to his absence from it,

Keith remained two years longer in the country with which had been the principal cause of those disturbanhis separate congregation, and afterwards went to Eng. ces. Perhaps he was not altogether dissatisfied to sea land. As he could not justify himself there with the that the King was about to take the government from Quakers, he went over to the Church of England, in his hands, and substitute another that would be more which he obtained a curacy. In 1702 he was sent to efficient.' His comfort after all, was that Pennsylvania, America as a missionary by the society for propagating notwithstanding her troubles, still Aourished in an unthe gospel among the heathen. He was not sent thither, common manner, and was rising fast above her neighhowever, to convert the heathen Indians, but to make bours. It seemed as if those contentions gave a keener proselytes to the high church, principally from among edge to the minds of the inhabitants, and enabled them the Quakers. He remained there two years, which he to pursue with greater energy the objects that were employed in travelling through the different colonies, most conducive to her welfare. but he remained longest in Pennsylvania and New-Jer. sey, where he preached with indefatigable zeal. In the

CHAPTER VI. account which he has published of his Travels, he relates, evidently with malicious pleasure, his victories The Government of the two Provinces is taken from Wm, over the Quakers, of whom he brought over many, a

Penn and given to the Governor of New York, admipart of whom, however, afterwards returned to their

nistration of Governor Fletcher. Penn re-instated. profession. His mission being ended, Keith returned to

Markham Lieutenant Governor. Third frame of goEngland, was settled in a living in Sussex, and conti

vernment. nued, with the usual bitterness of an apostate, to write In October, 1692, William and Mary, King and Queen against those to whom he had formerly been united in of England, appointed Benjamin Fletcher, Governor of belief. (1)

New-York, to be also Governor of Pennsylvania and

the lower counties on Delaware. Thus Penn lost the (1). See on these disputes, which also made much government and jurisdiction over these provinces, withnoise in England, 1 Proud, 363—376-See also Samuel out, however, being deprived of his right as proprietaJenning's state of the case, briefly "and impartially ry. In making this appointment, he was as little thought "given between the Quakers in Pennsylvania and in of as the charter that had been granted to him; in or. “America, who remain in unity, and George Keith;" der, however, to strengthen the royal authority, the new London, 1694. 8vo. "John Whiting's Truth and Inno- governor was invested with the power of negativing all cence defended," Lond. 1702, 8vo.-also a defence laws, and none was to be in force, unless approved by against Cotton Mather, of Boston, New England, which the King. (2) In April, 1693, Fletcher made his so. is also found in G. Bishop's New-England judged,” lemn entry into Philadelphia, where Governor Lloyd Lond. 1703. 8vo. p. 124, &c. This last book also con- and his council gave up the government to him, withtains Keith's enthusiastic defence of the Quakers, enti- out being thereto authorized either by the crown or the tled, "Presbyterian, &c. churches in New England, proprietary. Indeed, the latter blamed the governor brought to the test”-See also William Sewell's History for this hasty step; but he had the good sense to excuse of the Quakers –J. Ellwood's answer to Keith's first him on account of the honesty of his motives. He also narrative" - J. Whiting's "Judas and the Chief Priest.” wrote himself a letter to Fletcher, who was under par. G. Keith's Plea of the innocent against the false judgment "of the guilty,” Philad. 1697, which is also found court of Quakers,” Philad. and Lond. 1693.40-G. in the “account of the great division among the Quakers Keith's “ Further Discovery of the spirit of falsehood in Pennsylvania." Lond. 1692. 4to.---also Keith’s “Rea- and persecution in Sam. Jennings and his party;" Lond. sons and Causes of the late separation;" Philad. 1691, 1694. 4to. (an answer to Jenning's state of the case.) and in the "Further account of the great divisions, &c.” Lond. 1693. 4to. “More divisions among the Quakers,” sefull clearing of faithful friends,” by G. Keith, Lond.

"Thę causeless ground of surmises, &c. removed, in a Lond. 1693. 4to, in which is contained Keith's "Discov- 1694. 4to.-Keith's “ Journal of Travels from New ery of the mystery of iniquity.” Also, his “Christian Quaker,” Philad. 1792. 4to. and London, 1693.-“The Hampshire to Caratuck;' Lond. 1706.-40.-"His ma. Judgment given forth by 28 Quakers against G. Keith, gic of Quakerism laid open;" Lond. 1707. 8vo.-

William

Penn's "more works for G. Keith." Lond. 1694.-8vo. "with answers declaring them to be no Christians, as "also an appeal by the said George Keith to the yearly meeting;" Philad. and Lond. 1693, 4to. “The trials

1 Chalmers, 667. "of G. Keith, Th. Budd and Wm. Bradford, before a 2 Proud, 378. 1 Votes, 67.

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