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REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.
DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STAT..
EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.
PHILADELPHIA, MAY 31, 1828.
ment; and which must have followed the peopling of
the world, had Adam never fell, and will continue among The frame of the Government of the province of Pennsyl. men on earth under the highest attainments they may
vania in America: together with certain laws agreed arrive at, by the coming of the blessed second Adam, upon in England, by the Governor and divers Freemen the Lord from heaven. Thus much of government in of the aforesaid Province, to be further explained, and general as to its rise and end. continued there, by the first Provincial Council that For particular frames and modes, it will become me shall be held if they see meet.
to say little; and comparatively I will say nothing. --My reasons are: first, that the age is too nice and diffi
cult for it; there being nothing the wits of men are When the great and wise God had made the world, of more busy and divided upon. 'Tis true, they seem to all his creatures it pleased him to chuse man his deputy agree in the end, to wit, happiness; but in the means to rule it; and to fit him for so great a charge and trust, they differ, as to divine, so to this human felicity; and he did not only qualify him with skill and power, but the cause is mueh the same, not always want of light and with integrity to use them justly. This native good knowledge, but want of using them rightly.. Men side ness was equally his honour and his happiness; and with their passions against their reason, and their sinister whilst he stood here, all went well; there was no need interests have so oti ung a biass upon their maids, trat of coercive or compulsive means; the precept of divine they lean to them against the good of the things they love and truth in his bosom was the guide and keeper of know. his innocency: But lust prevailing against duty, made Secondly, I do not find a model in the world, that a lamentable breach upon it; and the law, that bad be time, place, and some singular emergencies have not fore no power over him, took place upon him and his necessarily altered; nor is it easy to frame a civil godisobedient posterity, that such as would not live con- vernment, that shall serve all places alike. formably to the holy law written, should fall under the Thirdly, I know what is said by the several admirers reproof of and correction of the just law without, in a of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy, which are the judicial administration.
rule of one, a few and many, and are the three common This the apostle teaches in divers of his cpistles: the ideas of government, when men discourse on that sub. law (says he) was added because of transgression: in ject. But I chuse to solve the controversy with this another place, knowing that the law was not made for small distinction, and it belongs to all three: any gothe righteous man; but for the disobedient and ungodly, Ternment is free to the people under it (whatever be the for sinners, for unholy and prophane, for murderers, for frame) where the laws rule, and the people are a party whoremongers, for them that defile themselves with to those laws; and more than this is tyranny, oligarchy, mankind, and for men-stealers, for liars, for perjured or confusion. persons, &c. But this is not all, he opens and carries But lastly, when all is said, there is hardly one frama the matter of government a little further: let every soul of government in the world so ill designed by its first be subject to the higher powers; for there is no power founders, that in good hands would not do well enough, but of God; the powers that be are ordained of God: and Story tells us, the least in ill ones can do nothing Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the that is great or good: witness the Jewish and Roman ordinance of God. For rulers are not a terror to good states governments, like clocks, go from the motion works, but to evil. Wilt thou then not be afraid of the men give them; and as governments are made and power? Do that which is good and thou shalt have praise moved by men, so by them they are ruined too. Wheof the same. He is the minister of God to thee for ther governments rather depend upon men than men. good. Wherefore ye must needs be subject, not only upon governments
. Let men be good, and the governfor wrath, but for conscience sake.
ment cannot be bad; if it be ill they will cure it. But This settles the divine right of government beyond if men be bad, let the government be ever so good, they exception, and that for two ends: first, to terrify evil will endeavour to warp and spoil it to their turn. doers; secondly, to cherish those that do well; which I know some say, Let us have good laws, and no matgives government a life beyond corruption, and makes ter for the men that execute them: but let them conit as durable in the world as good men shall be. So sider, that though good laws do well, good men do betthat government seems to me a part of religion itself, a ter; for good laws may want good men, and be abolishthing sacred in its institution and end. For if it does not ed or evaded by ill men; but good men will never want directly remove the cause, it crushes the effect of evil, good laws, nor suffer ill ones. ”Tis true, good laws have and is as such (though a lower yet) an emanation of the some awe upon ill ministers, but that is where they have same divine power, that is both author and object of no power to escape or abolish them, and the people are pure religion; the difference lying here, that the one generally wise and good: but a loose and degraded peois more free and mental, the other more corporal and ple (which is to the question) love laws and an adminiscompulsive in its operations: but that is only to evil tration like themselves. That therefore which makes doers; government itself being otherwise as capable of a good constitution must keep it, viz. men of wisdom kindness, goodness, and charity, as a more private so- and virtue, qualities, that because they descend not ciety. They weakly err, that think there is no other with worldly inheritances, must be carefully propagated use of government than correction, which is the coarsest by a virtuous education of youth; for which after-ages part of it: daily experience tells us, that the care and will owe more to the care and prudence of founders and regulation of inany other affairs, more soft and daily the successive magistracy, than to their parents for their necessary, make upmuch the greatest part of govern- private patrimonies.
FRAME OF GOVERNMENT.
These considerations of the weight of government, longer; and that the said third part shall go out accordand the nice and various opinions about it, made it un- ingly: and on the twentieth day of the twelfth month easy to me to think of publishing the ensuing frame and as aforesaid, yearly for ever afterward, the freemen of conditional laws, foreseeing both the censures they will the said province shall in like manner meet and asseinmeet with from men of differing humours and engage-, ble together, and then chuse twenty-four persons, being ments, and the occasions they may give of discourse be- one third of the said number, to serve in provincial yond my design.
council for three years: it being intended, that one third But next to the power of necessity, (which is a solici- part of the whole provincial council (always consisting, tor that will take no denial) this induced me to a com- and to consist of seventy-two persons as aforesaid falling pliance, that we have (with reverence to God and good off
' yearly, it shall be yearly supplied by such new yearly conscience to men) to the best of our skill
, contrived elections, as aforesaid; and that no one person shall conand composed the frame and laws of this government, tinue therein longer than three years and in case any to the great end of all government, viz. To support member shall decease before the last election during power in reverence with the people, and to secure the his time, that then at the next election ensuing his depeople from the ahuse of power; that they may be free cease, another shall be chosen to supply his place for by their just obedience, and the magistrates honourable the remaining time he was to bave served, and to for their just administration: for liberty without obedi- longer. ence is confusion, and obedience without liberty is sla
IV. very. To carry this evenness is partly owing to the constitution, and partly to the magistracy: where either
That after the first seven years, every one of the said of these fail
, government will be subject to convulsions; I third parts that goeth yearly off, shall be uncapable of but where both are wanting, it must be totally subvert- being chosen again for one whole year following: that ed: then where both meet the government is like to en
so all may be fitted for government, and have experience dure. Which I humbly pray, and hope God will please of the care and burden of it. to make the lot of this of Pennsylvania. Amen.
That the provincial council in all cases and matters of
moment, as their arguing upon bills to be passed into
laws, erecting courts of justice, giving judgment upon To all people, to whom these presents shall come. criminals impeached, and choice of officers in such manWhicacas isins Olalco de Ouvind, by his lettere pa nor as is herein after mentioned; not less than two tent, under the great seal of England, for the consider, thirds of the whole provincial council, shall make a ation therein mentioned, hath been graciously pleased quorum; and that the consent, not approbation, of two to give and grant unto me William Penn, (by the name thirds of such quorum shall be had in all such cases and of William Penn, Esq. son and heir of sir William Penn, matters of moment. And moreover, that in all cases and deceased) and to my heirs and assigns for ever, all that matters of lesser moment, twenty-four members of the tract of land, or province, called Pennsylvania, in Ameri- said provincial council shall make a quorum, the majorica, with divers great powers, preheminencies, royalties, ty of which twenty-four shall and may always determine jurisdictions, and authorities, necessary for the well-be- in such cases of lesser moment. ing and government thereof: now know ye, that for the well-being and government of the said province, and for
VI. the encouragement of all the freemen and planters that That in this provincial council the governor, or his may be therein concerned, in pursuance of the powers deputy, shall or may always preside, and have a treble afore-mentioned, I, the said IVilliam Penn, have de- voice; and the said provincial council shall always conclared, granted, and confirmed, and by these presents, tinue, and sit upon its own adjournments and commitfor me, my heirs and assigns, do declare, grant and confirm, unto all the freemen, planters, and adventurers,
VII. of, in, and to the said province, these liberties, franchises, and properties, to be held, enjoyed, and kept by and propose to the general assembly hereafter mention
That the governor and provincial councils shall prepare the freemen, planters and inhabitants of the said pro- cd, all bills which they shall at any time think fit to be vince of Pennsylvania for ever.
passed into laws within the said province; which bills INPRIMIS.
sball be published and affixed to the most noted places
in the inhabited parts thereof, thirty days before the That the government of this province shall, nccord- meeting of the general assembly, in order to the passing ing to the powers of the patent, consist of the governor them into laws, or rejecting of them as the general asand freemen of the said province, in form of a provincial sembly shall sce meet. council and general assembly, by whom all laws shall be made, officers chosen, and public affairs transacted,
VIII. as is hereafter respectively declared. That is to say, That the governor and provincial council shall take
care, that all laws, statutes and ordinances, which shall II.
at any time be macie within the said province, be duly That the freemen of the said province shall, on the and diligently executed. twentieth day of the Twelfth month, which shall be in this present year one thousand six hundred eighty and
IX. two, meet and assemble in some fit place, of which timely That the governor and provincial council shall at all notice shall be beforehand given by the governor or his times have the care of the peace and safety of the prodepaty, and then and there shall chuse out of themselves vince, and that nothing be by any person attempted to seventy-two persons, of most note for their wisdom, vir- the subversion of this frame of government. tue and ability, who shall meet on the tenth day of the
X. First month next ensuing, and always be called and act as the provincial council of the said province.
That the governor and provincial councils shall at all
times settle and order the situation of all cities, ports, III.
and market towns, in every county, modelling therein That at the first choice of such provincial council, one all public buildings, streets
, market places, and shall third part of the said provincial council, shall be chosen appoint all necessary roads and highways in the proto serve for three years then next ensuing, one third vince. part for two years then next ensuing, and one third part
XI. for one year then next following such election, and no That the governor and provincial council shall at all
times have power to inspect the management of the deputy, shall give their affirmative or negative, which public treasury, and provide those who shall connect to them seemeth best in such manner as herein after is any part thereof to any other use, than that which hath expressed. But not less than two thirds shall make a been agreed upon by the governor, provincial council, quorum in the passing of laws, and choice of such offi. and general assembly.
cers as are by them to be chosen. XII.
XV. That the governor and provincial council shall erect That the laws so prepared and proposed as aforesaid, and order all public schools, and encourage and reward that are assented to by the general Assembly, shall be the authors of useful sciences and laudable inventions enrolled as laws of the province, with this stile: By the in the said province.
governor, with the assent and approbation of the freemen XIII.
in provincial council and general assembly. That for the better management of the powers and
XVI. trust aforesaid, the provincial council shall from time to That, for the better establishment of the government tíme divide itself into four distinct and proper commit. and laws of this province, and to the end there may be tees, for the more easy administration of the affairs of an universal satisfaction in the laying of the fundamen. the province, which divide the seventy-two into four tals thereof; the general assembly shall, or may for the eighteens, every one of which eighteens shall consist of first year, consist of all the freemen of and in the said six out of each of the three orders or yearly elections, province, and ever after it shall be yearly chosen as each of which shall have a distinct portion of business, aforesaid, which number of two hundred shall be en. as followeth: First, a committee of plantations, to situ- larged as the country shall increase in people, so as it ate and settle cities, ports, and market towns, and high- do not exceed five hundred at any time: the appointways, and to hear and decide all suits and controver- ment and proportioning of which, as also the laying and sies relating to plantations. Secondly, a committee of methodizing of the choice of the provincial council and justice and safety, to secure the peace of the province, general assembly in future time, most equally to the diand furnish the male administration of those who sub- visions of the hundreds and counties, which the country vert justice to the prejudice of the public or private in shall hereafter be divided into, shall be in the power of terest. Thirdly, a committee of trade and treasury, the provincial council to propose, and the general aswho shall regulate all trade and commerce according to sembly to vosotro law, encourage manufacture and country growth, and
XVII. defray the public charge of the province; and Fourthly, a committee of manners, education and arts, that all That the governor and the provincial council shall wicked and scandalous living may be prevented, and crcct from time to time standing courts of justice, in that youth may be successively trained up in virtue and such places and number as they shall judge convenient useful knowledge and arts: the quorum of each of which for the good government of the said province, and that committees being six, that is, two out of each of the the provincial councils shall on the thirteenth day of the three orders or yearly electors, as aforesaid, make a con. first month yearly, elect and present to the governor or stant and standing council of TWENTY-FOUR, which will his deputy, a double number of persons, to serve for have the power of the provincial council being the quo- judges, treasurers, masters of rolls, within the said prorum of it in all cases not excepted in the fifth article; vince for the year next ensuing; and the freemen of the and in the said committees and standing council of the said province in the county courts, when they shall be province, the governor or his deputy shall or may pre- erected, and till then in the general assembly, shall on side as aforesaid; and in the absence of the governor or the three and tu entieth day of the second month yearly, his deputy, if no one is by either of them appointed, the elect and prcsent to the governor or his deputy, a dou. said committees or councils shall appoint a president for ble number of persons to serve for sheriffs, justices of that time, and not otherwise; and what shall be resolved the peace, and coroners, for the year next ensuing; out at such committees, shall be reported to the said council of which respective elections and presentments, the go. of the province, and shall be by them resolved and con- vernor or his deputy shall nominate the proper number firmed before the same shall be put in execution; and for each office the third day after the said presentments; that these respective committees shall not sit at one and or else the first nained in such presentment for each of the same time, except in cases of necessity.
fice, shall stand and serve for that office the year en.
XVIII, And, to the end that all laws prepared by the governor and provincial council aforesaid, may yet have But forasmuch as the present condition of the pro. the more full concurrence of the freemen of the pro- vince requires some immediate settlement, and admits vince, it is declared, granted, and confirmed, that at the not of so quick a revolution of officers; and to the end time and place or places for the choice of a provincial the said province may, with all convenient speed, be council as aforesaid, the said freemen shall yearly chuse well ordered and settled, I, William Penn, do there. members to serve in a general assembly as their repre- fore think fit to nominate and appoint such persons for sentatives, not exceeding two hundred persons, who judges, treasurers, masters of the rolls, sheriffs, justices shall yearly meet from the twentieth day of the Second of the peace, and coroners, as are most fitly qualified month, which shall be in the year one thousand six hun- for those employments; to whom I shall make and grant dred eighty and three following, in the capital town or commissions for the said officers, respectively, to hold city of the said province, where during eight days the to them to whom the same shall be granted, for so long several members may freely confer with one another, time as every such person shall well behave himself in and if any of them see meet, with a committee of the the office or place to him respectively granted, and no provincial council (consisting of three out of each of longer. And upon the decease or displacing of any of the committees aforesaid, being twelve in all) which the said officers, the succeeding officer or officers shall shall be at the time, purposely appointed to receive be chosen as aforesaid. from any of them proposals for the alterations or amend
XIX. ments of any of the said proposed and promulgated bills: and on the ninth day from their so meeting, the said ge That the general assembly shall continue so long as neral assembly, after reading over the proposed bills by may be needful to impeach criminals fit to be there imthe clerk of the provincial council, and the occasion and peached, to pass bills into laws that they shall think fit motives for them being opened by the governor or his I to pass into laws, and till such time as the governor and
HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA.
provincial council shall declare that they have nothing the late Professor Ebeling of Hamburg; and that from further to propose unto them for their assent and appro- the learning and high character of the Professor, consibation: and that declaration shall be a dismissal to the derable curiosity has been excited in the public to see a general assembly for that time; which general assem
Mr. Duponceau commenced the transbly shall be notwithstanding capable of assembling to-translation of it. gether upon the summons of the provincial council
, at lation for his own amusement, and has finished about any time during that year, if the said provincial council
one fourth of it; which brings it down to the death of shall see occasion for their so assembling.
Wm. Penn. The original work is continued to the year XX,
1802; and is not divided into books or chapters: but That all the elections of members or representatives the translator, for greater convenience, has made a diviof the people to serve in provincial council and general sion of it into four books, each book consisting of ten assembly, and all questions to be determined by both or either of them, that relate to passing of bills into laws, chapters; and has furnished us with the first book for to the choice of officers, to impeachments made by the insertion in the Register. With the publication of the general assembly, and judgment of criminals upon such two first chapters, we commence in the present numimpeachments by the provincial council, and to all other cases by them respectively judged of importance, shall ber; and the remaining chapters will follow in course. be resolved and determined by the ballot; and unless It is a singular fact that a foreigner, at so great a distance on sudden and indispensable occasions, no business in from the source of information, should have been able to provincial council, or its respective committees, shall be compile so correct and minute a history of this province finally determined the same day that it is moved.
and state; and when the difficulty of obtaining facts and XXI.
documents upon the spot is considered; his industry and That at all times, when, and so often as it shall happen perseverance may be in some measure estimated. He that the governor shall or may be an infant under the age of one and twenty years, and no guardians or com- has also written and published histories of several of missioners are appointed in writing by the father of the the other states; some of which have never found a nasaid infant, or that such guardians or commissioners shall tive historian. be deceased; that during such minority, the provincial
The notes included between brackets are those of the llacy shall coo moot,
translator. constitute and appoint guardians or commissioners, not exceeding three, one of which three shall preside as de
CHAPTER I. putý and chief guardian, during such minority, and shall have, and execute, with the consent of the other two, Pennsylvania before William Penn. Sketch of his Life all the power of a governor, in all the public affairs and
and Character. concerns of the said province.
Of all the colonies that ever existed, none was estaXXII.
blished on so philanthropic a plan; none was more deepThat as often as any day of the month mentioned in ly impressed with the character of its founder; none disany article of this charter, shall fall upon the First day of played more as it grew up, his principles of toleration, the week, commonly called the Lord's Day, the business liberty and peace, and none rose and Aourished more appointed for that day shall be deferred till the next rapidly than Pennsylvania. She was the last of the day, unless in case of emergency.
British colonies which was settled before the eighteenth XXIII.
century; but she soon exceeded most of her elder sisters That no act, law, or ordinance whatsoever, shall at This was the work of William Penn, a great and in many
in population, improvement and general prosperity. any time hereafter be made or done by the governor of this province, his heirs or assigns, or by the freemen in principally, his name has been handed down with honor
respects an extraordinary man; on account of which, the provincial council
, or the general assembly, to alter, to posterity. He founded this colony in the year 1682, change, or diminish the form or effect of this charter, or having previously obtained from Charles II. a charter any part or clause thereof, or contrary to the true intent which put him in possession of the soil and the govern and meaning thereof, without the consent of the go-ment of the country. vernor, his heirs or assigns, and six parts of seven of the said freemen in provincial council and general assem- European settlements, which had already submitted to
The ceded territory was not, however, without some bly.
the dominion of the British crown. Those of the Swedes XXIV.
in the southeastern parts of the province, along the banks And lastly, That I the said William Penn, for myself, of the Delaware, as well as their surrounding possessions, my heirs and assigns, have solemnly declared, granted, were subject to the claims of the Dutch, who asserted a and confirmed, and do hereby solemnly declare, grant, prior right to this tract of land, and to whose power the and confirm, that neither I, my heirs nor assigns, shall colonists were obliged to yield in 1651. From this subprocure or do any thing or things, whereby the liber-jection they were liberated in 1654, and brought under ties in this charter contained and expressed shall be in the dominion of the English government. It is not fringed or broken; and if any thing be procured by any precisely ascertained at what time the Swedes began person or persons contrary to these premises, it shall be their settlements, or what were the extent and boundaheld of no force or effect. In witness whereof, 1, the rics of their possessions. We know, indeed, that they said William Penn, have unto this present charter of purchased a piece of land from the Indians so early as liberties set my hand and broad seal, this five and twen- the year 1638, which extended as far as Santhican about tieth day of the Second month, vulgarly lled April, in the falls at Trenton. Whether they immediately afterthe year of our Lord one thousand sic hundred and cigh- wards began to settle upon this land is quite uncertain; it ty-two.
appears, however, that three years after this purchase WILLIAM PENN. was made, a fort was erected on tlie island of Tinicum,
called New Gothenburg, to which the Swedish GovernEBELING'S HISTORY OF PENNSYLVANIA. or transferred his residence.* There were also about
It has long been known that Peter S. Duponceau, the middle of this century, two Swedish and Finnish Esq. has been some time engaged in making a translation, from the German, of the History of Pennsylvania, by | Campanius p. 73.
* A Church was consecrated at this place in 1646.
settlements, called Upland and Finland; the former of the Quakers. The punishments which he received which afterwards received the name of Chester. (1) from his Superiors, made him still more determined to Some maps made at that period, designate two other avow in public his new opinions, and he was in conseSwedish settlements with fortifications, under the names quence expelled from the University. He found no asylum of Gripsholm and New Wasa, which were probably in his father's house, who having for some time employsituated on the river Schuylkill
, not far from the place ed admonitions, threats and even corporal punishment now called Kingsessing. (2)
without success to make him abandon his religious A few English families from Maryland settled upon convictions, at last dismissed him from the paternal roof. this river so early as 1642. They were, however, soon His mother, however, by gentle persuasions, succeeded after driven off by the Hollanders. (3) From that nation in reconciling him to his father, who sent him to France, which claimed the whole of this tract of country, and in company with some persons of rank. The object of which first raised it to the rank of a colony, no settlers this journey seemed to have been attained; after two appear to have been here at this early period, except, years Penn returned to London, a fine, accomplished perhaps, a few planters on the left bank of the Dela- young man, with courtly manners, to the great delight ware. (4) At Wicacoa, where Southwark now stands, of his father. Here he studied Law, until the great there was a small Swedish village, where a Church was plague compelled him to go to his father in the country. built, about the year 1669. The soil upon which Phila- Every thing now seemed to conspire to draw him into delphia stands belonged to three Swedes of the name of the vortex of the gay and busy world, and the finest Swenson, who relinquished it in favour of Wm. Penn.(5) prospects were opened to a young man of his rank, conNone of these settlements however, was of much impor-nexion and mental acquirements, but all these attractance; not even excepting Upland, which was made the tions could not conquer the deeply rooted inclinations of chief place of a judicial district by the Dutch in 1673. his mind.
The remaining portion of land embraced in the grant, About that time he was sent to Ireland to take upon was in the possession of the Aborigines of the country, himself the management of an estate near Cork, which and principally of the Lenni Lenape, who were called his father had received as a present from the king. Here Delawares by the English. This once widely spread Penn found again his old teacher Thomas Loe, and that people was subjugated by the Iroquois, as early as the was sufficient to bring him back to those religious prinyear 1608. (6) The Mohawk Indians, who on the first ciples, which the persecutions to which those who mainarrival of the Swedes lived in their neighbourhood, musttained them were then subiected, appear to home stamphave relinquished those parts sixty years later, and aban- od in his eyes with great value. He now adhered to doned the country to the Delawarcs. (7) This tribe, them for conscience sake. It was not long before he by a formal contract, ceded the land to William Penn, was arrested, together with other persons, for holding who wished to make his settlement on a soil rightfully secret meetings; an eloquent letter, which he addressed acquired, and on a principle that had never been before to the President of the Council of Munster, in which he recognized in the establishment of any European colony. asserted his right to liberty of conscience, denying at Who does not wish to become more intimately acquaint- the same time his having been guilty of any riotous or ed with this man, whose noble spirit raised him so far tumultuous conduct, procured his discharge. His faabove the age he lived in; who, though already familiar ther having been informed of this circumstance, recalled with his history, does not wish to recall to his mind, the him; he obeyed the paternal commands, but without principal traits at least of his life and character, and abandoning his religion. Persuasions and threats, even inark the influence which they had upon the origin and that of disinheriting him, were employed in vain. He progress of his colony?
was now decidedly a Quaker, and could not be prevailed William Penn was the eldest son of the celebrated upon to uncover his head, even before the King and Admiral Sir William Penn, who acquired so much glory Royal family, which drew upon him the anger of his faunder Oliver Cromwell, and Charles II , and to whom ther and caused him to be again expelled from his house. England is indebted for the possession of the Island of He bore this severe trial with resignation, for conJamaica. He was born in the year 1644. IIis father science sake, and began, as a travelling preacher, to bestowed so much care upon his education, and his make many proselytes; not without frequent persecumental powers so early displayed themselves, that he tion, by which he was more than once thrown into was found qualified in his fifteenth year to enter the prison. University of Oxford. Here he showed as much genius, In the year 1668, Penn appeared for the first time as a as persevering diligence, love of study and steadiness of writer in defence of his religious opinions, and published disposition; as, however, he united to these qualities a a book entitled “The Sandy Foundation Shaken," in lively imagination and a warm heart, the first circum- which he impugned some doctrines of the established stances which drew his attention to religious subjects, church. The Bishops became higbly incensed, and he produced in him a more than youthful enthusiasm. On was condemned to a severe imprisonment in the Tower, hearing a sermon preached at Oxford by Thomas Loe, All this could not shake his resolution. “My prison an itinerant Quaker, he was so struck with the principles shall be my grave," was the answer which he returned of this new Sect, that he immediately withdrew himself to the Bishop of London, who gave him the choice with a few friends from the established worship, and either to recant or to remain a prisoner in the Tower for held religious meetings in private after the manner of life. During his confinement he composed several
works, particularly “No Cross, No Crown,” which is 1 Acrelius, p. 39.
written with much strength and elevation of mind; he 2 See Nicholas Visscher's map and those in Vander- wrote also a defence of his first work, which together denk & Campanius. See also the work of the latter with the intercession of his father, after seven months Author, p. 71.
close imprisonment, at last procured his liberation. The 3 Smith's History of New York, p. 5. Chalmer's, p. magnanimity and constancy which he displayed under 412.
these persecutions, and the evident purity of his mo4 This would appear from an anecdote related by tives, joined to the mild influence of his mother, who Campanius, p. 17. See also Ebeling's History of Dela- had always remained his friend, induced his father to ware, in his Geographical History of America, vol. v. relent and even to interfere in his behalf; so that after
his liberation, he was permitted to return to his family. 5 Acrelius, p. 232.
Shortly afterwards, he went again to Ireland, where he 6 (This is denied by the Lenni Lenape. See Hecke- put his father's affairs in order, and was an active memwelder's Hist. chap. 1.]
ber of the Society of Friends. But a severe law was 7 Campanius, p. 180. Wm. Penn in Caspipina's Let- soon enacted against the religious meetings of the Disters, vol. I. p. 171. Pastorius.
senters, and he returned to London under new embar.