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SMALL POX.

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power of certain causes to modify, and that permanently, or that it produces, without pain or hazard, an equal, if the physical constitution of man.

not superior, protective modification of the physical The proposition to be solved in the premises is not, constitution. They leave this question to be again dewhether any cause can so change the structure, irritabi- cided on a review of our correspondence, as it has allity and sensibility of the living tissues as to incapacitate ready been for the millionth tine in various parts of them from suffering a second impression from a similar the globe. cause; for there is no physiologist who will deny the Much of the hesitation and error at present prevailing affirmative to be true. Mankind wish to know whether among us has arisen from the circumstance, that the vaccina can so change the structure or properties of the early friends of vaccination, like those of inoculation, tissues, as to render them unsusceptible of the impres- believed and boasted too much: they boldly asserted sions of variola. This is the question which agitates the that vaccination was a perfect safeguard in all cases; public mind:

Shall we be safe from small pox if we are and that, too, in the face of numerous facts, demonstravaccinated? The committee, willing to leave out of the bly proving that the most violent course of small pox question all the testimony of Europe, Asia, Africa, and could not always withdraw the sufferer from the power the by-gone experience of the whole United States, are of a second infection. It is not surprising that the eneprepared to answer, from the documents now on the mies of vaccination should have seized upon the exceptable, yes:--these documents prove it incontestibly. tions, to show that, as a part of the doctrine was untrue, The Society will hear them in a subsequent part of this the whole might or must be so. Such is actually the report.

state of things in this city; and it seems to us that if the Who doubts that measles, once suffered, incapacitates public could be once completely enlightened as to the that individual, in all future time, from undergoing the real degree of efficacy, these exceptions would weigh same pathological state! And yet what practitioner, of not a feather against the general tenor and amount of a few years' standing, has not witnessed a second attack our success, absolute and perfect. Mr. James Moore, of rubeola? Is not the same thing true as regards paro- author of the histories of vaccination and small pox, titis, varicella, scarlatina, pertussis, &c.? Confessedly, admits that he had been one of these assertors of indisthese diseases have been known to attack a second, and criminate success, and notices the ill effect of such miseven third time, in numerous instances, ever since they takes, but he reformed, and corrected his error, as most first became the subjects of medical history, and this enlightened persons have done beyond the Atlantic. too, without invalidating the truth of, or preventing the The miserably lean and meagre state of the medical public reliance on, the general rule, that an attack is press in this country, which has given us no copy of only sustained once by each individual.

those works and many others on the same subject, must if this point be conceded, it may be used as an unan- be charged with the perpetuation of the error on this swerable argument against those who have so causelessly side of the ocean; else it would be incredible that so abandoned their faith in the guardian power of vaccina. many years of experience and such reiterated announcetion; for it shows that exceptions to the modifying power ments should have left any part of the profession in ig. occur in all diseases.

norance of their mistake. If the public had been told The constitutions of men being not all alike, one in. how far they could rely, they would never have been dividual may suffer severely with an undoubted rubeola disappointed. or variola, without undergoing that perfect and exempt The varioloid epidemics have produced, it is said, a ing modification which, in another, is effected by a much larger amount of exceptions than had been noticed preslighter attack, -hence, we not very unfrequently find viously to their occurrence in Scotland and England, that individuals, (as in the patients noticed by Dr. Otto where they appeared first about the year 1813, and and Dr. Condie) who are deeply pitted from the pustu- where they excited the wonder and astonishment of lar suppurations of the small pos, are attacked a second the people, who had so long rested in a confident and time, while those, on whom the arrows of pestilence undisturbed security under the guardianship of the vacleft not a single trace, escape a second assauli entirely, cine. though frequently and openly exposed to the contagion. Your committee are not disposed to deny, that since In this place, we may take occasion to say, that it is the year 1813 a far greater number of vaccinated per probable that greater malignity of the virus or miasma sons have been attacked by a mild and modified sinall will be found to occasion a renewed attack in those par- pox, than had antecedently to that year been effected tially protected constitutions which, under its ordinary by it; but this circumstance, which has occasioned such ratio of intensity, would have remained wholly undis- great consternation and fear, will, on a candid inquiry, turbed. And such an hypothesis may be reasonably be seen to redound greatly to the credit and promotion, adduced in explanation of the more frequent occurrence instead of to the defeat and overthrow, of the Jennerian of varioloid disease since the epidemic constitution first doctrine and practice. manifested itself in Scotland. Not only has it been pro This is undeniably true, as to the popular confidence ved that the human constitution is susceptible of such in Europe; for it may be safely averred, that the variomodification of textural or vital properties by the con- loid epidemics, especially those of Norwich and Edintagious diseases, it has been clearly shown in Germany, burgh, have confirmed and established its credit with that even medicinal plants are capable of withdrawing the inhabitants, who, while they have beheld the unusual us from the influence of these contagions: thus, bella- spectacle of a vaccinated individual affected with a mild donna, which in certain doses produces a scarlet efflor- and modified variola, frequently met with a severer escence or inflammation of the skin, is habitually re- form of the disease in those who had previously under sorted to by many practitioners in that country, to anti- gone the natural or inoculated small pox. Finding an cipate, as by a substituent and safe inoculation, the more invariable security neither from inoculation nor vaccina. dangerous or mortal assault of scarlatina; 'a practice by tion, they have learned to prefer the latter, as the most means of which many lives have already been rescued invariable and complete protection. The documents from a premature termination. This homeopathic prac- on the table teach us that the same results are to be ertice is but a result of the original proposition of Dr. pected from the exactly similar occurrences of the preJenner.

vailing epidemic of this city. Jenner's immortality is due to this, that he first invent While on this topic of exceptions, it may not be amiss ed and successfully practised the

art of substituting a to observe that there are many circumstances to be mild and safe animal poison, to effect that modification offered in explanation and excuse of this greatly aug of the constitution which previously had only been pro- mented occurrence of modified small pox. The history duced by a harsh and often mortal one.

of the genuine disease is full of examples, showing its Your committee will not here use arguments to prove greater

violence, prevalence and mortality at one time, that vaccina is a substitute in this operation for small pox; lor during one epidemic constitution, than an other.

1828.)

SMALL POS.

323

Small pox,

Small pos,

In some seasons it was a mild and safe disease, if com Our present population amounts to about 140,000 pared with its deadly ravages and infectiousness in souls; and we infer, from the most careful inquiry we others. Possibly, the rare appearance of varioloid erup- have been able to make, that 80,000 of these depend tions, previously to the outbreaking of the Scottish epi- solely on vaccina for their protection against small pox. demic, may have depended on the mildness of the an. One hundred persons died here with variola in the year tecedent constitution; and it is conceived that this sup- 1827; and although the mortality bills contain no reports position derives support from the exceeding great mor- under the head of varioloid or modified small pox; our tality of small pox occurring in the unprotected since documents show that ten persons are said to have that period, and from the fact that secondary small pox, died with variolous disease subsequent to vaccination, or that taking place in persons who had previously been and that nine persons perished in the same way after yariolated, is infinitely more common and obvious, with previous small pox. We will examine the pretensions in the last fifteen years, than it had been in any equal of these cases in another place. previous duration; so common has this occurrence be. Drs. Mitchell and Bell, in their valuable communicacome, that some have imagined a 'new and undescribed tion on the epidemic of 1823-4, state that of 248 cases disease, or have regarded it as an epidemic varicella: of the disease natural and modified, that came under but without seeking in these phenomena the evidences their notice, 92 proved fatal; to wit, unprotected 85– of a new and unheard of epidemic, we may more ration- previous small pox 6-vaccinated i. This table alone ally refer them to an augmented intensity and malignan-contains convincing proof of the efficacy of vaccinacy of the variolous miasma. Moreover, has not the pre

tion. cious boon of Jenner lost, by our familiarity with it, C. Comegys, Esq. President of the Board of Health, some degree of that almost sacred respect with which obligingly transmitted to us a table (furnished by Mr. its inestimable worth ought to inspire the minds of phy- Jos. Pryor, clerk to the Board) of the cases of disease sicians, who are its sole depositories? Did not a long reported to the Board since their proclamation in April impunity and uninterrupted enjoyment render us forget- last. ful of the precepts of this momentous subject? Hun. From the 1st of April to 31st December, 1897, dreds of persons have been vaccinated by those who

181 were totally unqualified to judge of the genuine or faulty

4 character of vaccina. Is there not a common disregard

Modified small pox,
Variola,

6 to the state of the skin and the other requisite provisions From 1st January 1828 to 19th February, for its successful application? Do not three or four

48 careless inspections of the vesicle commonly suffice for all attention and cautiousness; and as to the records of

239 cases, what are they more than a loose charge in the day book, or a treacherous reminiscence of a long for. gotten and common event?

From 1st April to 31st December, 1827,
Varioloid,

124 In addition to the above, we may cite the present con- From 1st January tn 19th February, 1828, dition of the vaccine virus in this country, every speci. Do.

49 men of which is probably derived in a line direct from original samples sent from Europe a quarter of a century

173 ago. It is a very common and loud complaint that we do not communicate vaccine so readily and certainly as The respective numbers are 177 and 235. - we could some years since; and one of our respected correspondents, Richard Harlan, M. D. suggests that

From the clerk's letter it will be seen, as above, that this may be owing to a deterioration of the lymph. He in obedience to the requisitions of the proclamation, recommends that it should be regenerated by resorting there have been reported, from the 1st of April 1827 to again to its original source.

the 19th of February 1828, 412 cases of disease, under Having already hinted at the sentiment which has the several denominations of small pox, modified small

variola and varioloid: but, inasmuch as many prac found some degree of currency, viz. that the existing titioners have not reported their modified cases at all, epidemic owes its rise to a poison different from genu- and many persons have had it so lightly as to require no ine variola, we will, without entering into

a discussion medical prescription, we are led to believe that about of the subject, remark that, from the documents before 1000 cases of the disease have occurred both under its us, we remain convinced,

genuine, and mitigated aspect. Supposing then that 1. That the disease, when affecting persons not pre- 235 cases of genuine variola had occurred up to the 19th viously variolated or vaccinated, is the genuine small pos of last month, we have a balance of 765 cases, to place of authors:

under the heads of small pox subsequent to variola, and 2. That in those who have previously had variola or small pox subsequent to vaccina, The committee will vaccina, it is small pox modified more or less, by the not attempt an estimate of the numbers appropriate to state of the constitution:

the two last divisions. They only suggest that at least 3. That modified small pox, or varioloid, as it is com- 80,000 vaccinated persons inhabit this city. The ratio monly termed, may, as to symptoms, approximate inde of the unprotected and variolated is not to be found, finitely near to the clearly defined characters of genuine variola.

(Then follows an abstract of the replies to the circu. With regard to the average number of absolute ex- lar letter which we omit; as it would occupy too much emptions from variolous influence obtained by the ordinary practice of vaccination, your committee cannot offer space..We may insert it next week.] any positive information, for want of official documents.

From the condensed view of the testimony furnished In France, more than two and a half millions of persons to us by a very great number of highly respectable pracremained completely exempt during a lapse of thirteen titioners, the committee were tempted to trespass no years. And in this city, small pox found not a single further on your time by presenting additional observavictim in the years 1812, 13, 14, 15, 20, 21 and 22.* tions, being persuaded that no candid mind could remain

in doubt, either as to the value of vaccination as a proDr. Luder of Altona states that of 234,959 persons phylactic in the case under consideration, or as to the subjected to vaccination in Holstein, from the years sentiments of the medical profession in this city towards 1801 to 1822, only two individuals had been affected with small pos, so late as the year 1824; while in the by modified small pox, out of 447,605 who were vaccisame period of time, only one person had been attacked l ated in the kingdom of Denmark.

(Mar 324

WM. DENN AND PURCHASERS. it; but, although not one dissentient voice has been ing the year 1827, among eighty thousand vaccinated raised, it is deemed proper to make a few further re- persons and during the prevalence of a most malignant marks. And

and mortal small pox, while several individuals have lost 1. These documents show that varioloid disease has their lives from small por after they had already gone attacked bath variolated and vaccinated persons. once through the disease. It appears then clearly that

2. Of the whole number of variolated cases, say seven vaccination ought to lose nothing of the public confihundred and sixty-five, far the largest proportion occur. dence; and, as a protection from the fatal effects of ge red in vaccinated persons, a circumstance which, as a nuine small pox, it may safely be asserted, that it is in naked proposition, might tend to exalt the public con- every sense to be preferred to inoculation. fidence in inoculation at the expense of vaccination. - Let the public be well informed with regard to the Now, although we are unable to ascertain with any pre- real degree of efficacy of the vaccine virus-let them be tensions to preciseness the just allotment of the two or no longer told, it will positively shield them from the asders of cases, enough has been said, to indicate that the sault of small pox any shape and every instance.susceptibility to varioloid is not very greatly different They will confide in it if we point them to the physiunder both sorts of protection. It is highly probable cians who rely on it for the safety of their wives and that at least eighty thousand vaccinated persons reside children, and defended by “the egis of Jenner," walk in this city; while there are not more than twenty thou- unharmed themselves amidst thie arrows of pestilence sand, and probably even a smaller number of variolated and death. persons; hence, on the supposition of an exactly equal

EDWARD JENNER COXE, susceptibility, we ought to find four cases of varioloid

D. FRANCIS CONDIE, after vaccine, to one case of the the same affection sub

CH. D. MEIGS. sequent to variola.

The committee have received several communicain the documents, ten deaths are reported as having tions, in reply to their queries, since the above report occurred from sinall pox subsequent to vaccination,

was finished; and they regret that the lateness of the while nine are cited as proofs of the failure of variola to period at which they arrived prevented their incorporaprotect the constitution. Let us examine a little the tion into the body of the report. The writers are Dr. circumstances of the ten fatal cases, and we shall see if w. Carill Brewster; Dr. J. Green; Dr. Joseph Hartsthey can be fairly cited. For example out of the four horne; Dr. B. S. Janney; Dr. Joseph G,

Nancrede, vacreported from the personal observation of Dr. Brinckle, cine physician for the city: Dr. O. H. Taylor; Dr. H. one, Catherine Brown, was doing well until an abortion Walton; and Dr. J. Uhler; jr. with uterine hemorrhage took place, after which she changed for the worse and finally lost her life.

We can only briefly state that they support by their The cases of Epply and Morris, which were under above. Their experience (in some very considerable)

communications the whole mass of the evidence given treatment four and five days respectively, are liable to has not, in the least degree, tended to destroy their conbe questioned. No positive record is given of their fidence in vaccination; whose preservative efficacy has having been vaccinated: the only assurance is derived been found sufficient, by a part of these gentlemen, to from their own assertions. Even the case of Spencer defend them from the contagion of small pos, though Jackson, who died in the hospital seventeen days after repeatedly exposed to it in their professional intercourse his admission, is obnoxious to the same doubts, in con- with the sick. Their letters are submitted, with the sequence of its protracted duration, And it is easier to rest of the documents, to the disposal of the Society. believe that all these individuals had undergone a spurious form of vaccine than that vaccine should have failed to protect them.

Certain CONDITIONS and CONCESSIONS agreed Dr. Bond's case is considered by him as extremely upon by William Penn, Proprietary and Governor of questionable. Dr. Fox's case may be admitted as an the Province of Pensilvania, and those who are the adexample of death from small pox, subsequent to vaccina venturers and purchasers in the said province; the 11th tion. The known character of the eminent and consci of July, One Thousand Six Hundred and Eighty-one. entiously cautious individual who had vaccinated the un

I. fortunate gentleman forbids us to doubt that he consider That so soon as it pleaseth God that the above persons ed his vaccination perfectly satisfactory, or that he could arrive there, a certain quantity of land or ground plat be mistaken in its character,

shall be laid out for a large town or city, in the most Dr. Klapp's case is stated by him to be doubtful. Of convenient place upon the river for health and navigaDr. Moore's fatal cases only two occurred in 1827, 8.- tion; and every purchaser and adventurer, shall, by lot, The woman when taken sick was suffering under a cold, have so much land therein as will answer to the propor. and was labouring under an attack of pneumonia ty- tion which he hath bought or taken up upon rent. But phodes when the Dr. saw her on the third day of the it is to be noted, that the Surveyors shall consider what eruption: she died on the fifth day. The second wo- roads or highways will be necessary to the cities, towns, man died, on the sixteenth day, of a secondary fever or through the lands. Great roads from city to city not which came on after the pock turned.

to contain less than forty feet in breadth, shall be first There will be no reason to charge the committee with laid out and declared to be for highways, before the di want of candour if they reject both these examples of vidend of acres be laid out for the purchaser, and the death from small pox after reputed vaccination. The like observation to be had for the streets in the towns pneumonia typhodes has no necessary connexion with and cities, that there may be convenient roads and variola, and the woman's death ought rather to be streets preserved, not to be encroached upon by any charged on that terrific complication than on an implied planter or builder, that none may build irregularly to impotency of the vaccine. The second case from its the damage of another. In this, custom governs. long duration and other phenomena seems to have been

II. an unmodified small pox. No fatal case of modified That the land in the town be laid out together after small pox has been adduced. In neither case is there the

proportion of ten thousand acres of the whole country; furnished an authentic record of the vaccination,-which that is two hundred acres, if the place will bear it: Howought therefore to be deemed hypothetical

. Lastly, ever, that the proportion be by lot, and entire, so 25 Dr. Wiltbank's case, occurring before the constitution those that desire to be together, especially those that had been modified by the maturity of the vaccine vesi- are by the catalogue laid together, may be so laid to cle, proves nothing against its value and efficacy. Thus we may, without the least want of candour,

gether both in the town and country.

UI. come to the conclusion that only one death from small pox after vaccination has occurred in Philadelphia dur.! chaser from one thousand to ten thousand acres, or more,

That when the country-lots are laid out, every pur

1828.)

WM. PENN AND PURCHASERS.

325

1

not to have above one thousand acres together, unless

XII. in three years they plant a family upon every thousand And forasmuch as it is not usual with the planters, to acres; but that all such as purchase together, lie togeth-over-reach the poor natives of the country in trade, by er; and if as many as comply with this condition, that the goods not being good of the kind, or debased with mix whole be laid out together.

tures, with which they are sensibly aggrieved, it is IV.

agreed, whatever is sold to the Indians, in consideration That where any number of purchasers, more or less, of their furs shall be sold in the market place, and there whose number of acres amounts to five or ten thousand suffer the test, whether good or bad; if good, to pass; acres, desire to sit together in a lot or township, they if not good, not to be sold for good, that the natives shall have their lot or township cast together, in such may not be abused nor provoked. places as have convenient harbours, or navigable rivers

XII. attending it, if such can be found; and in case any one That no man shall, by any ways or means, in word or or more purchasers plant not according to agreement in deed, affront or wrong any Indian, but he shall incur this concession, to the prejudice of others of the same the same penalty of the law as if he had committed it township, upon complaint thereof made to the Governor against his fellow planter; and if any Indian shall abuse, or his deputy, with assistance, they may award (if they in word or deed, any planter of this province, that he see cause) that the complaining purchaser may, paying shall not be his own judge upon the Indian, but he shall the survey-money, and purchase-money, and interest make his complaint to the governor of the province, or thereof, be entitled, enrolled and lawfully invested in his lieutenant or deputy, or some inferior magistrate the lands so not seated.

near him, who shall to the utmost of his power, take V.

care with the king of the said Indian, that all reasonable That the proportion of lands that shall be laid out in satisfaction be made to the said injured planter. the first great town or city, for every purchaser, shall

XIV. be after the proportion of ten acres for every five hun

That all differences between the planters and the dred acres purchased, if the place will allow it.

natives, shall also be ended by twelve men, that is by VI.

six planters and six natives, that so we may live friendly That notwithstanding there be no mention made in together as much as in us lieth, preventing all occathe several deeds made to the purchaser, yet the said sions of heart-burnings and mischief. William Penn does accord and declare, that all rivers,

XV. rivulets, woods and under-woods, waters, water-courses, That the Indians shall have liberty to do all things quarries, mines and minerals (except mines royal) shall relating to improvement of their ground, and providing be freely and fully enjoyed, and wholly, by the purcha- sustenance for their families, that any of the planters sers into whose lot they fall.

shall enjoy. VU.

XVI. That for every fifty acres that shall be allotted to a That the laws as to slanders, drunkenness, swearing, Servant at the end of his service, his quit rent shall be cursing, pride in apparel, trespasses, distresses, repletwo shillings per annum, and the Master or owner of the vins, weights and measures, shall be the same as in Enservant, when he shall take up the other fifty acres, his gland, till altered by law in this province. quit rent shall be four shillings by the year, or if the

XVII. Master of the Servant (by reason in the indentures he is That all shall mark their hogs, sheep, and other catso obliged to do) allot out to the servant fifty acres in tle, and what are not marked within three months after his own division, the said master shall have on demand it is in their possession, be it young or old, it shall be allotted him from the Governor, the one hundred acres forfeited to the governor, that so people may be comat the chief rent of six shillings per annum.

pelled to avoid the occasion of much strife between VIII.

planters. And for the encouragement of such as are ingenious

XVIII. and willing to search out gold and silver mines in this That in clearing the ground, care be taken to leave province, it is hereby agreed that they shall have liberty one acre of trees for every five acres cleared, especially to bore and dig in any man's property, fully paying the to preserve oak and mulberries, for silk and shipping. damage done; and in case a discovery should be made,

XIX. that the discoverer have one fifth, the owner of the soil

That all ship-masters shall give an account of their (if not the discoverer) a tenth part, the governor two countries, names, ships, owners, freights and passenfifths, and the rest to the public treasury, saving to the gers, to an officer to be appointed for that purpose, king the share reserved by patent.

which shall be registered within two days after their IX.

arrival; and if they shall refuse so to do, that then none In every hundred thousand acres, the governor and presume to trade with them, upon forfeiture thereof; proprietary, by lot, reserveth ten to himself, which shall and that such masters be looked upon as having an evil lie but in one place.

intention to the province.

XX. That every man shall be bound to plant or man so That no person leave the province, without publica. much of his share of land as shall be set out and survey. tion being made thereof, in the market place, three ed, within three years after it is so set out and surveyed, weeks before, and a certificate from some justice of the or else it shall be lawful for new comers to be settled peace, of his clearness with his neighbours, and those thereupon, paying to them their survey-money, and he has dealt withal, so far as such an assurance can be they go up higher for their shares.

attained and given: and if any master of a ship shall, XI.

contrary hereunto, receive and carry away any person There shall be no buying and selling, be it with an In- that hath not given that public notice, the said master dian, or among one another, of any goods to be export- shall be liable to all debts owing by the said person so ed, but what shall be performed in public market, when secretly transported from the province. Lastly, That such places shall be set apart or erected, where they these are to be added to, or corrected, by and with the shall pass the public stamp or mark. If bad ware, and consent of the parties hereunto subscribed. prized as good, or deceitful in proportion or weight, to

WILLIAM PENN, forfeit the value as if good and full weight and propor: Sealed and delivered in the presence of tion, to the public treasury of the province, whether it WILLIAM BOELHAM be the merchandize of the Indian, or that of the plan. HARBERT SPRINGET ters,

THOMAS PRUDYARD,

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326

POOR LAW.

MAT

Sealed and delivered in the presence of all the Proprie- city shall be divided into three classes; two of whom

tors who have hereunto subscribed, except Thomas shall serve for one year, two for two years, and two for Farrinborrough and John Goodson, in the presence three years; and the select and common councils shall of

annually thereafter on the third Monday of May, in man

ner aforesaid, elect guardians to supply the place of Hugh Chamberlen William Powel

those who shall go out of office. The guardians from R. Murray

Richard Davie Harbert Springet Griffith Jones

the district of the Northern Liberties and the district of

Southwark shall respectively divide themselves into two Humphrey South

Hugh Lambe
Thomas Barker
Thomas Farrinborrough

classes; two of whom, that is, one from each district, Samuel Jobson

shall serve for two years, and the other two for three John Goodson.

years; and it shall be the duty of the said districts reJohn Joseph Moore

spectively, on the third Monday of May in any year,

when a vacancy may occur, to meet and elect as afore. POOR LAW.

said guardians to supply the place of those who shall go

out of office. The guardians from Penn township and The entire and important change which is about to the district of Kensington shall respectively serve three take place in the management of the poor is an inter- years; and it shall be the duty of the said commissioners esting event in the history of this tate. The act on

of Spring Garden and Kensington district respectively,

on the third Monday of May, in manner aforesaid, to which this change is founded was passed at the last ses. elect guardians to supply the place of those whose term sion of the legislature, and goes into immediate opera. of office shall expire. All guardians appointed after the tion; and as it will frequently be referred to, and is in third Monday in May next shall be elected for three possession of few persons, we publish it entire.

years. Provided always, That whenever a vacancy shall occur in the said board of guardians by death, re

signation, removal from office, or otherwise, it shall be AN ACT

the duty of the electing body in whose district the racanFor the relief and employment of the poor of the city of of guardians, to proceed to fill such vacancy in manner

cy may occur, within ten days after notice from said board Philadelphia, the district of Southwark, and the town: aforesaid, and in case such electing body shall neglect or ships of the Northern Liberties and Penn. Passed 6th refuse to fill such vacancy within ten days after due noMarch, 1828.

tice given to them in writing, then it shall and may be

lawful for the said board of guardians to appoint a suita7 welve Guardians to be elected by city and districts; time ble person to fill the same. And provided, The said of seroice, &c.

guardians during their continuance in office, shall be ex

empted from the duties of jurors and from military serSectrox 1. Be enacted by the Senate and House of vices, and all guardians may be re-elected as often as Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in they are willing to serve. General Assembly met, and it is hereby enacted by the authority of the same, That the select and common coun

Title and privileges. cils of the city of Philadelphia, the commissioners of the incorporated district of the Northern Liberties, the com

Section 2. And be it further enacted by the authority missioners of the district of Southwark, the commission aforesaid, That the said guardians of the poor for the ers of Spring Garden choosing for the township of Penn, time being shall be a body politic and corporate in law an1 the commissioners of the Kensington distriet choos. by the name of “The guardians for the relief and eming for said district and the unincorporated part of the ployment of the poor of the city of Philadelphia, the Northern Liberties, shall meet on the third Monday of district of Southwark, and the townships of the Northern May next, each body in its usual place of meeting, at Liberties and Penn," with all the privileges, powers, and three o'clock in the afternoon, or as soon thereafter as faculties of a body politic and corporate; and by that may be, and shall elect and choose as follows, that is to tion of the board on the fourth Monday of May, as afore.

name may take, bold, and immediately on the organizasay: the said select and common councils, by joint vote, shall elect six respectable citizens inhabitants of the said, shall be vested with all the estate, real, personal, city, the commissioners of the incorporated district of and mixed, whatsoever; now vested in or held by “The the Northern Liberties shall elect two respectable citi: guardians of the poor of the city of Philadelphia, the zens inhabitants of said district, the commissioners of the district of Southwark, and the township of the Northern district of Southwark shall elect two respectable citi- Liberties," in trust or otherwise, and may also hold to zens inhabitants of said district, the commissioners of them and their successors any other real or personal Spring Garden shall elect one respectable citizen an in estate conveyed to them by grant, bargain, or sale, or habitant of Penn township, and the commissioners of the by gift, bequest, or other alienation whatsoever, and Kensington district shall elect one respectable citizen may sue and be sued, plead and be impleaded in any residing in said district or in the unincorporated part of court of record or in any other place whaterer, and may the Northern Liberties, to be guardians of the poor of have a common seal, and make such laws, rules, and or. the said city, districts and township. And the said elect: ders as shall appear to them, or a majority of them, useing bodies shall, by their respective clerks, give no

ful and necessary for the government of said corporatice in writing to each of the persons so chosen within tion, its officers, estates, property, and the business and two days thereafter: and it shall be the duty of the said laws, rules, and orders

be not inconsistent with the con

affairs in general of the same. Provided, That such guardians of the poor on the fourth Monday of May next, to meet at the Alms house in the city of Philadel. stitution and laws of this state or of the United States.phia, at three o'clock in the afternoon; and each of And provided also, That the said board of guardians shall them shall take an oath or afirmation, to be administer- have a stated meeting at least once in every two weeks, ed by any alderman of the city or justice of the peace of at such time and place as they may deem proper. the county of Philadelphia, that he will discharge the Twewe Directors of the Poor Taz; how and when elected; office of guardian of the poor truly and impartially to the best of his knowledge and ability. The said guardians

duties, &c. assess. poor tax. shall then form themselves into a board and shall appoint Section 3. And be it further enucted by the authority one of their own body as president, who shall preside aforesaid, That on the second Tuesday of December an. over their deliberations: the said guardians shall then nually, the select and common councils of the city of divide themselves by lot as follows: The six from the Philadelphia, by joint vote shall select six members of

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