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The Lehigh from Mauch Chunk to the water gap, 11 two furnaces, a grist mill, and several saw mills: about miles, winds between rocky mountains, with a brisk 800 men are employed by the company. Stricter moral current, but presents no falls. The road usually runs obligations are here subscribed to and observed, than near the stream, and sometimes at a considerable eleva- could be enforced by a state, or the general govern: tion above, on the steep mountain's side. In its passage ment, as the penalty of violation is chismissal, without rethrough the Kittetany; or Blue Ridge, the river has a prieve, from a very desirable service and the ejectmetit pretty tranquil and but slightly inclined course. On of tenants at will from their dwellings. the adjacent elevation, yellow pine, hemlock and spruce, Tippling houses, and the retail of ardent spirits, are are interspersed with trees of annual verdure. From not tolerated. There is but one tavern and store in the the water gap to the Delaware, the river pursues its village, and they are owned by, and under the control course in a deep ravine, with rarely alluvial borders of of, the company. Drunkards are not suffered to remain. ihuch extent, and seldom seen from the road. The soil Abuse or neglect of their families, and cruelty to cattle; in this district of country, generally rests on limestone are grounds of dismissal. There is no regular place of sinks, indicating caves, and fissures in the rocks are of worship, but clergymen of every denomination are inten observed, and will render canalling in places diffi- vited to preach, and dissipation is prohibited on the cult. From the confluence of the Lehigh with the Del. Sabbath. By a small annual contribution from each kware to tide water, the descent is 150 feet. The ra- workman, and heads of families in the village, art able pids of the Delaware in dry seasons, present great im- physician is procured, who attends the sick without fur pediments to forwarding coal. A canal will probably ther compensation. be found indispensable to secure a permanent ascending Labourers, in the employment of the company, are and descending navigation of this stream. Boats are furnished with daily rations of whiskey-a practice to rarely lost in the descent.
be deprecated as inducing habits of intemperance.Coal is conveyed to market from Mauch Chunk land. Beer should be substituted, as was once contemplated. ing in flat bottomed shallow boats, 12 feet wide by 16 More than an equivalent iii money is now offered to in length, connected by hinges, and denominated boats those who abstain from ardent spirits, so unnecessary for in sections. Six or seven of these boats, each laden the performance of labour, which considerably enhances with ten tons, are usually united, and are navigated to the receipts of those who accept of the terms. the Delaware by four hands; from thence to Trenton, The company have a small furnace in operation, five are required. Six days are commonly occupied in which produces daily about 3500 pounds of castings. the descent to tide water and in the return. The boats The ore uscd is of a good quality, procured twenty miles are disposed of for lumber. The construction of the below, near the Lehigh. A ton of coal is exchanged boats independent of materials, costs 60 cents each. If at the furnace for the same weight of ore. Limestone, formed of pine plank they are probably disposed of necessary for a-flux, is furnished at the same rate. A without loss, when the navigation is completed. The third part of bog ore, found near the village, is mixed boats can be conducted by small steam vessels, and re- with the purchased oré: The head workman informed turned, producing an important saving. At present, me that by blending a tenth part of pounded anthracite the expense of raising and transmitting coal from the with charcoal, in smelting, a third more work is done in Lehigh beds to market, is less than from any part of the a given time, than would be produced by charcoal alone. coal regions. It does not exceed two dollars the ton, of 28 Pigs are melted for castings entirely by pounded anthrabushels
, and will be materially lessened by the construc- cite, producing better castings and great diminution of tion of canals and rail-ways. if, as is probable, the price labor. A stronger blast, however, is necessary for anin Philadelphia should under competition be reduced to thracite, than is required for charcoal. Sledge hamfour or five dollars, this coal trade would still afford a mers, cast from meltings by anthracite have been found large profit on the capital employed. When the nu. sufficiently strong to be useful. The 'coal is pounded merous canals connecting the extensive coal region of in a water mill. A large furnace has recently been erecPennsylvania, with the navigable waters of the sea-board ted by the company, whose casting for the rail-way will shall be accomplished, coal will be far the most econo- shortly be produced. mical fuel for our commercial towns, and parts accessi Several bodies of anthracite occur north-west from the ble by water: In large cities, it will be peculiarly valua- coal beds of the Lehigh company, and about eleren ble from its safety, and may save considerable expense miles from Mauch Chunk. The most extensive is locain the construction of dwellings. By adopting stove fur. ted in the beaver meadow, south of the Berwick turnnaces and pipes, they can dispense with chimnies and pike. It has been assertained to be more than fifty feet fire places, and the removal of soot, and obstructions by in thickness, and of a quality equal, if not superior, to sweeping will not be required.
the best procured by the Lehigh company. A considIn the valley of the Delaware, which in the latitude erable quantity has been raised this season, and convey. of Faston has a width of 30 miles; presenting a rich soil, ed to the Lehigh for shipment. By a rail road, this coal with a calcareous basis, anthracite will be of great utili- may be brought at a moderate expense to navigable waty from the low rate at which it can be afforded, super- ters, and be productive. seding the necessity of retaining groves for fuel, now In travelling north from the Berwick turnpike, I asfrequent on superior arable land, and will enable the certained, that veins of coal range in a northern direcmanufacturer of lime to furnish thát valuable manure at a tion from the Beaver meadow for many miles. One very low rate. It is now calcined in kilns, which may was mentioned as existing three miles from Lowry be continued in blast without intermission, at the cost town. of two cents the bushel, by the aid of anthracite. From Coal has not yet been discovered in Pennsylvania to 20 to 30 bushels of lime can, in ordinary kinds, be sub- the north-west of the Lehigh, but as it is an unexplored tracted from below.
region of the saine geological character, rocks, &c. with The village of Mauch Chunk is situated on the west- the anthracite district, it is not improbable that it may ern bank of the Lehigh, in a deep romantic ravine, be- be discovered in that direction, and it is rendered more tween rocky mountains, that rise in some parts precipi- probable by the existence of narrow veins of anthracite tously to 800 or 1000 feet above the stream. Space was in the gray wacke eminences of Sullivan and Ulster in procured for dwellings, by breaking down the adjacent the state of New York, connecting the Catskill mounrocks, and by filling a part of the ravine of the Mauch tains with the anthracite ranges of Pennsylvania; with Chunk creek. Aportion of this stream has been transferred the exception of a vein of anthracite, said to bave been to an elevated rail-way, and is used to propel a grist mill. recently discovered in the Delaware water-gap, that Within six years the Lehigh company have erected, and mineral does not occur within ten miles of the Blue or are the proprietors of, about 120 dwellings and build Kittetany mountains, or of the Shawangunk, a part of ings of every description, including a large hotel, a store, I the same chain, which presents similar rocks.
From the principal coal bed of the Lehigh company, cheaper rate, the canal company will find it for their into a considerable branch of the Schuylkill, the distance terest to lower the rate of toll, and would be compensais but three miles. The navigation of this stream is sus- ted by an increased quantity shipped. ceptible of improvement, and may, at a future period, be From Pottsville to Philadelphia, a distance of 132 the medium of conveyance for coal found on its bor- miles the descent is 588 feet. The navigation of the ders.
Schuylkill is improved by alternate dams and canals. Between Mauch Chunk coal bed and Mount Carbon, a Between the coal mountains and the Blue Ridge, the distance of eighteen niles, veins of coal running in a canal passes through a wide, extensive, elevated, and south-west direction occur. It is mountainous, unset- very broken valley; of a generally poor soil, partially tled, and little known.
cultivated, and thinly occupied by inhabitants of German Next to Mauch Chunk, Mount Carbon, or Pottsville, descent, who speak the language of their ancestors. It as it is now called, situated at the head of the Schuylkill was represented that not one in ten could converse in canal, has been the principal source of the supply of an English. There is a narrow range of limestonie in parts thracite. Many- large veins are worked within three of this valley adjacent to the Blue Ridge. miles of the landing; and some have been opened seve. The passage of the Schuylkill canal through the Blue ral miles to the north-east, in the direction of the Lehigh Ridge is interesting. The mountains bordering the rain beds. The chief veins wrought, are, one situated on an vine are lofty and precipitous, presenting ledges of old eminence adjacent to the village; Bailey's mine, about red sand stone, with coarse and fine silicious gray wacke. two miles froin Pottsville, and near the turnpike to Sun- The turnpike winds on the mountain's side at a consibury, and on the territory of the New York Schuylkill derable elevation above the stream. The navigation coal company, about three miles from the village. On through the pass is effected by stone dams of magnitude, almost every eminence adjacent to Pottsville, indications and permanent construction; one of them is of 30 feet of coal are disclosed. The veins generally run in a altitude. Groups of locks, water falls, and broad sheets north east direction, with an inclination of about 45 de- of water, were frequent. The expense of lockage grees, and are from three to nine feet in thickness. would here have been considerably lessened by adopte Commencing at or near the surface, they penetrate to ing the inclined plane. From the Blue Ridge the an unknown depth, and can often be traced on hills for Schuylkill, for forty or fifty miles, winds through a vala considerable distance, by sounding in a north east or ley in which there is considerable limestone, the fissures south west direction. Some veins have been wrought and cavities of which in some places rendered the forma. to the depth of two hundred feet without a necessity of|tion of a retentive canal difficult. I noticed, four miles draining; the inclined slate roof shielding them from wa- from Reading, and not far from the river, extensive beds ter. Where the ground admits, it is considered the of rock, closely resembling in composition and colours, best mode of working veins to commence at the back of the calcareous breccia of which the columns in the capia coal eminence, or as low as possible, and work up, fil- tol at Washington are formed. ling the excavation with slate and fine coal, leaving a The navigation of tlie Schuylkill has been much interhorizontal passage for the coal barrows. A section of a rupted by droughts the past season, and frequent repairs wide vein near Pottsville has been wrought by this mode required. Boats have often grounded in the shallow several hundred feet into the hill. The same vein is ex- water of dams. It will probably be found advisable to plored from parts of the summit by vertical and inclined concentrate the water in a canal for most of the distance. shafts. The coal and slate handled, are raised by horse Fevers, so generally prevalent within a few years in the power, in wagons, by a rail-way that has the inclination valley of the Schuylkill
, have been attributed by some of the vein. Veins of coal alternate with gray wacke to water stagnating in the dams. siate in the hill. Vegetable impressions sometimes oc The village of Poitsville, of recent origin, contains cur in the argillaceous schist that forms the roof of the several good stone dwellings and stores, A weekly Pottsville coal veins.
journal, edited with ability, is here published. A read. On the extensive tract occupied by the New York ing room, containing many books and periodical public company, coal is reported as inexhaustible. I was in- cations, docs much credit to the village. formed by the company's superintendent at Pottsville, Beds and veins of coal occur in numerous places be. (Mr. Baker) that coal beds, from forty to one hundred tween Pottsville and the Susquehanna, and are found on and fifty yards in width, are indicated by coal slate; good the side of Broad mountain, a central elevation. Mines coal is found in sounding between the layers of slate; are opened and worked at the head waters of the Swabut they have not been much explored; in one or two tara and Stony creek, at Peters' mountain, and a few places veins in vertical and horizontal positions occur; miles east of Danviile. but they have generally, on the lands of the company, South-west of Pottsville the coal becomes more easily the usual inclination and direction. About three hun ignited, and that at Peters' mountain is reported to condred men are employed by this company.
tain bitumen. It is probable that the coal of that vicis It is contemplated to render a western branch of the nity embraces, like the Wilkesbarre, much more infam. Schuylkill navigable, which will give easy access to a mable gas than the Lehigh, which may have led to the large body of coal, the property of the New York com- supposition that it was bituminous. pany, situated five miles from Pottsville.
The coal from this part of the State can be forwarded Coal at the head of the canal is sold for ten cents the to Philadelphia by the aid of rail ways, and lateral ca. bushel. The raising costs about three, and cartage anals communicating with the Union Canal, which runs cent a mile; the canal tolls amount to about 5 cents, and through a fertile limestone valley, in a parallel course, freight near four, making the whole expense from the and at no great distance from the coal hills. mine to Philadelphia from $4 to 4 50 the ton, according Anthracite is found on several of the streams that dis. to the location of the coal bed, or economy used. A charge into the Susquehanna, on its eastern side. A considerable saving in the item of cartage would be ef- large bed, not yet opened, exists a few miles eastwardly fected by the formation of rail-ways to the principal from Berwick, and numerous veins occur from an elea mines. They are generally situated considerably above vated part of the Wilkesbarre mountain, to the Kingston the landing, and present a descent most of the way to and Shawnese mountains, that form the western border the coal yards. It is probable that there will be a fur- of the basin of Wyoming. No anthracite has been disa ther extension of the canal into the coal region, which, covered to the west of these mountains, or north of the with the formation of rail-ways, will give access to coal Lackawanna range, with which they are connected. beds otherwise too remote for profitable working:
Veins of coal in the vale of Wyoming, are not only Should it be found necessary, to enable the proprie- very numerous, occurring on almost every farın, but tors of coal beds at Pottsville to come in competition in many are of uncommon thickness, in some instances the market with coal from other localities delivered at a from 18 to 35 fce!; and the vegetable impressions are far
more abundant and diversified than were elsewhere ob- the south bank of the river, a wide vein of coal, which served. At Bowman's one of the most considerable rises above the stream with sufficient inclination to run mines now worked, they are particularly numerous, per- galleries clear of the water. A large tract on the side vading the superincumbent strata. The vein is about of the mountain that ascends gradually to the east from eighteen feet thick, and wrought in galleries. The coal, the coal bed, has been cleared at the expense of the which is very compact, is detached by blasts. The in- company, and a village will shortly arise. Coal beds clination of the vein is about one foot in four.
extend several miles higher up the stream.-In value, There is less uniformity in the angle of inclination and and good quality, the Lackawanna anthracite compares direction of the coal strata in this neighbourhood, than advantageously with that of the Lehigh. The coal of was observed near the Schuylkill. They approach this region will be conveyed to New York, a distance of nearer to the horizontal.
217 miles, through the medium of a canal now construct. From the abundance of sulphuret of iron in the slate ing under the able superintendence of Judge Wright, contiguous to, and dividing coal veins, the springs pro- by the proprietors of the coal bed. This canal comceeding from the coal beds and the Susquehanna are mences at the Hudson near Kingston, and passes to the strongly impregnated with salts. These mineral waters Delaware, 67 miles, through a valley located between often
occur, in both mountain and valley, and indicate the Shawangunk mountain, and the gray wacke ranges, beds of coal.
spurs from the Catskill. Except near the Delaware, A canal route has recently been surveyed by State and on approaching the Hudson, where considerable commissioners, and located through the valley of Wyo- excavation in linestone and other rocks became neces ming, on rising ground west of the Susquehanna. When sary, there was little difficulty in constructing the work; the work is accomplished it will lessen the charge of as for much of the distance it passes through sandy, and forwarding coal to market from this vicinity, and the gravelly loam. For twenty miles it runs on the side of valley of the Lackawanna. From Wilkesbarre to the a mountain north of the valley, and at a considerable Chesapeake, the descent is about 500 feet. By the elevation. At the summit level the canal extends eighhazardous and precarious medium of the Susquehanna, teen miles without a lock. It will probably be comcoal cannot now be conveyed in arks for less than $3 50 pleted from the Hudson to the Delaware the present the ton, which, with other charges, makes the expense season. to the mouth of the river, five dollars the ton. The Beds of dark argillaceous schist, of small extent, are Philadelphia market may be resorted to through the in a few places cut through. Limestone, of a good medium of the Union Canal.
A canal to connect the quality for calcining, occurs at the base and in places on Susquehanna with the Lehigh is practicable. The dis- the side of the Shawangunk ridge, adjacent to the canal tance to Philadelphia, by this route from Wilkesbarre, in approaching the Hudson and Delaware, and will be is 162 miles; and the lockage required, 1279 feet. useful to the part of Pennsylvania situated between the
The coal of the Susquehanna is readily kindled in Delaware and Susquehanna, in which there is no limegrates of ordinary construction; and by the experiments stone. The construction of the canal up the Delaware, · recorded in No. 2, Vol. X. of the Journal of Science, it on its eastern bank, to the Lackawaxen, a distance of has been ascertained, by the editor, to contain double twenty miles, will be arduous and expensive. . For sethe quantity of hydrogen gas embraced in the anthracites veral miles it is located on the steep rocky side of a of the Lehigh and Schuylkill, and in bituminous coal, mountain. The passage up the valley of the Lackaan important characteristic not before suspected. The waxen will be comparatively easy: Parts of this valley valley of Wyoming, and its valuable beds and veins of are settled, and contain considerable alluvial land. About coal, have been correctly described in No. 1, Vol. IV. of one thousand feet of lockage are required from the Hud. the Journal of Science, by Mr. Z. Cist, an able naturalist, son to the western termination of the canal. The coal whose recent death is lamented by all acquainted with bed is to be connected with the canal by a rail-way of a his merit.
few miles, passing over a considerable eminence. LumI visited several large coal beds and veins in the valley ber and coal will for many years be the principal articles of the Lackawanna; they run in a north-east course; transported down the canal. An extension of canal nasome were wide, and the coal is of good quality. Coal vigation up the Delaware into the state of New York, veins are of frequent occurrence from the confluence of which is practicable, would enhance the value of the the Lackawanna with the Susquehanna to near the head stock. The rates of toll demanded for coal, will, if waters of the former river; they are variously inclined, maintained, exclude individuals from participating in from nearly horizontal to an angle of forty-five degrees the coal trade through the medium of this canal. The Vegetable impressions are rarely, if ever, contained in canal will communicate with a large tract of good graz: the coal slate of these beds and veins.
ing land in Wayne county, a part of the district called The most considerable body of coal in this region is the beech woods, that extends in Pennsylvania and New situated between twenty and thirty miles from the Sus. York about one hundred miles from north to south, and quehanna, at the ragged islands, in a narrow valley, ad- from 10 to 50 miles in breadth. It is heavily timbered, jacent to the Lackawanna, and in the bed of that stream, principally with beech, maple, hemlock, and birch, with which washes the southern base of the Lackawanna occasional groves of good pine. The soil
, often based mountain, a lofty, rocky chain, that bounds the partially on hard pan, is tenacious of manure and moisture, and cleared valley of the Lackawanna to the north-west. good for grazing and tillage. Its surface is undulating, This mountain is well clothed with trees of diversified but rarely mountainous; and a considerable proportion is verdure. Considerable good pine, and much heavy sufficiently free from stone for the purposes of agricul, timber, principally hemlock, maple, beech and birch, is ture. Viewed from the eastern brow of an elevated found near its base, and adjacent to the upper part of range, situated between the Lackawaxen and Lackathe river.
wanna, this tract of country had the aspect of an imThis coal bed, supposed to be very extensive, is the mense plain; its dense forest was dressed in the gay property of the Hudson and Delaware Canal and Coal hues of autumn, blended with the perennial verdure of Company, and has been penetrated thirty feet without pine and hemlock. The blue peaks of the Catskill finding the termination of the coal. From this bed, mountains to the northeast, towering far above the gewhich rests in nearly a horizontal position, a considera- neral elevation, presented an irregular profile on the ble quantity of excellent coal has been raised, but from verge of the horizon. To the cast, beyond the fireits low situation the excavation was soon filled with seared, barren, rocky ranges of Pike county, the Shawater. It has been occasionally cleared by pumps pro-wangunk and Highland "ranges were distinguished. . pelled by water. It is supposed there is sufficient de- Emigrants from New England are busily occupied in scent of ground to free it by draining. The quarrying cutting out farms in the beech woods. The first clearmay perhaps be interrupted by freshets. I observed on ing is a work of toil; but as there are no sprouts from
roots, less labour is eventually required than to subdue aggregate, principally quartz. Its thin laminæ are gene. some descriptions of oak land. From the little durabi- rally in a horizontal position. The lower strata, often in lity of hemlock, beech and maple, in fencing, it may a decomposing state, contain vegetable impressions.in time be necessary to substitute the loose gray wacke This rock usually rests on dark and very fissile argillaslate of the surface. Old red sand stone occurs in the ceous schist, that contains much sulphuret of iron, and gray wacke region, and often supports a good soil. forms the roof and floor of numerous beds of bituminous Flocks of sheep may here be advantageously introduced. coal, adjacent to these streams. These beds are from a Through the medium of the canal the farmers of Wayne few inches to five feet in thickness, and occur at various and other counties can be amply furnished with lime altitudes, from 200 feet above the river to a great depth and gypsum, so useful in agriculture.
below. The salt works on the Conemaugh and KiskeThe western part of Pennsylvania is abundantly sup- minitas, situated 4 miles apart, are supplied with water plied with bituminous coal, as the eastern is with anthra. by boring. The richest water is procured by penetratcite. It is found on the rivers Conemaugh, Alleghany, ing from 4 to 500 feet. Copper tubes, 14 inches in di. and Monongahela, and in numerous places to the west ameter, are inserted in the perforation, in which the salt of the Alleghany ridge, which is in general its eastern water rises to a level with the river, accompanied by boundary. It occurs on this mountain at a considerable sulphuretted hydrogen gas, often in considerable quanelevation, and elsewhere in nearly a horizontal position, tity. This gas diminished after many outlets had been alternating with gray sand-stone, that is often micaceous made, and the water did not rise so high. In boring, and bordered by argillaceous schist. The veins are ge. fresh water is seldom found one hundred feet from the nerally narrow, rarely over six feet in width. This mi- surface. Veins of coal and slate were penetrated at vaneral is abundant, and of very good quality near Pitts- rious depths, and narrow beds of limestone, lying deep, burg, where it is valuable for their extensive manufac. were passed through. Some of the lower strata were tures. Beds of bituminous coal are reported as occur. represented as very hard, and others soft; this last is ring in Bedford county, in the north-west part of Lu- supposed to be gypsum. Salt springs are generally zerne, and in Bradford county. In this last county, struck by boring, in the ravine at Kiskeminitas; but in nine miles from the Susquehanna, there is an extensive two instances the ground was penetrated 450 and 650 bed of coal, regarded as bituminous. It has been pene. feet, without meeting salt water. trated thirty feet without fathoming the depth of the In the process of manufacturing, salt water is pumpstrata.
ed, by horse power, into large troughs, where the earthy Bituminous coal is abundant in Tioga county, state of particles, not held in solution, mostly subside. It is soon New York, adjacent to the route of a feeder required for passed into the boiling pan, which is of cast iron, and a canal contemplated, to connect the Susquehanna with shallow. After boiling a considerable time, it is drawn the Seneca lake. The summit level is forty-four feet off into vats, where the oxide of iron, which is abundant, above the river, and upwards of 400 above the lake.- and carthy salts, subside, together with a portion of mus It occurs on the Tioga, and on the Chemung, a branch riate of soda. The clear brine is passed off to a boiler, of that river. When the canal communication is effect. in which the salt, in fine crystals, is precipitated, and ed, the interchange of anthracite and bituminous coal then removed to drain. No use is made of the sulphate for salt and gypsum, will he highly valuable for Penn- of soda, of which there is considerable in the water. It sylvania and New York.
would, perhaps, be an improvement of the process, if Bituminous coal exists on the Loyal Sock and other the precipitation of the iron and earthy salts was effected streams that descend the western side of the extensive with less boiling, and the salt crystallized in shallow peninsula, situated between the north and west branches pans, by a heat short of ebullition; the crystals would be of the Susquehanna.
larger, and the salt better and less of it lost. Fine salt, The centre and northern part of this section of the made here, does not answer for the packing of prović State, is elevated, and mostly in a state of nature. It is sions for exportation. crossed by barren ranges, interspersed with valleys and The salt" manufactured at Kiskeminitas and Cone. well timbered table land, which will in time be occupi- maugh, has some years amounted to 300,000 bushels; it ed for grazing and tillage. The rocks of the eastern is sold from 20 to 25 cents at the works. The expense part that fell under my observation, are transition, most of manufacturing does not exceed ten cents the bushel, ly gray wacke slate. In the western part, adjacent to A large portion of the numerous salt works are establish the west branch of the Susquehanna, limestone is the ed near the river, in the ravines of the Kiskeminitas, and predominant rock.
coal for fuel is procured from veins situated above the This stream, for ncar fifty miles, winds with a mode- works, in the side of the hill, and costs but a cent & rate current through a rich valley, with wide alluvial bushel. borders often occurring. The valley is bounded to the Less salt is now made on the Conemaugh than in south by the Bald Eagle Mountain, an extensive elevat- former years, as the springs are weak and the price of ed rocky range:
the article too low to render it profitable. Seven years Springs, holding in solution muriate of soda, are com- since, there was not a building in the ravine of the Kis. mon in various parts of the bituminous coal regions they keminitas: it now contains a considerable population, are generally weak near the surface, but deep springs and presents, at the base of a precipitous eminence, disclosed by boring, are often strong. One, containing many dwellings and salt works, from which black bitu. as much salt as the ordinary waters of Salina, has recent. minous smoke rises in clouds over the hills, or draws ly been discovered, by boring, about twenty miles from through the dusky valley. A clear strcam, of consi. Montrose, bordering on the State of New York. They derable breadth, is seen rapidly winding among the occur in some of the southern counties of that State, ad mountains. jacent to Pennsylvania, and on the Loyal Sock and The western canal of Pennsylvania is located in the other streams, auxiliary to the west branch of the Sus- valley of the Conemaugh, and will add much to the proquehanna.
ductiveness of these works, and afford great facilities for But the most productive saline springs of Pennsylva- the conveyance of salt to the Atlantic and Western mar. nia, are situated on the banks of the river Conemaugh ket. At present, it is transported on wagons to the and Kiskeminitas, about thirty miles east of Pittsburg. east, and in boats, by a precarious navigation, down the These rivers for many miles wind rapidly through rocky Conemaugh and Alleghany river, to Pittsburg. romantic ravines, bordered by hills of from three to four Considerable salt is made near Pittsburg, from a foun. hundred feet elevation, that rise with steep acclivities, tain procured by boring 270 feet. The water is strong, presenting mural and projecting precipices of gray sand- and is raised by a small steam engine. There is little stone, in places jutting over the road and torrent. The sulphate or carbonate of lime in the water. The
salt is sand stone is ordinarily fine, but is sometimes a coarse white, and of a good quality. This fountain is sufficient
for the annual manufacture of 25,000 bushels of salt. In Huntington county, a quarter of the surface is first Salt is manufactured in Pennsylvania at weaker saline rate land, and more than two thirds is under partial imwaters in the vicinity of the Ohio.
provement. In Centre county there is a large body of There are salt springs on the Chenango, in Mercer table land called the barrens, from which the timber has county. Near the Mahony, in Beaver county, a foun. I been cut for the use of furnaces. It is uncultivated, and tain of salt water was procured by boring to the depth held in little estimation from its total destitution of springs of 200 feet. It is probable that strong saline water, in and the impossibility of procuring water by sinking wells. much of the western secondary country, may be obtain – The soil is of an excellent texture for wheat or grazed by boring, as it often occurs contiguous tu bitumi- ing, and stone rarely occurs on the surface; but the nous coal, and is indicated by salt licks, and by slate con- earth rests on calcareous rocks replete with fissures, intaining sulphur.
to which the rain water sinks to a great depth. This unA canal route has been surveyed through the most inhabited tract has in some places a width of five miles fertile part of the counties of Pennsylvania bordering on and extends thirty; it would afford good ranges for Ohio, to connect the waters of the river Ohio with Lake sheep, if cleared of underwood. Erie, which will give additional value to the products of Springs are numerous and large in these calcareous agriculture, and of the salt springs, of that part of the valleys. A clear, cold, and never-failing mill-stream isstate. In the summer of 1825, the price of wheat at sues from limestone caves, near Bellefonte, from which Pittsburg was but 25 cents the bushel; at the same time, the name of the village is derived. adjacent to Lake Erie, from whence there was an uninterrupted navigation to the Atlantic market, it com
MOB OF '79. manded 75 cents the bushel.
The soil, in a considerable proportion of the counties From the Biography of Judge Wilson, in the sixth voof Pennsylvania, bordering on the state of Ohio, is fer
lume of the Biography of the Signers to the Declaratile. The northern division of the counties contiguous
tion of Independence. to Lake Eric and the state of New York, has a good soil In the year 1779, the lives of Mr. Wilson and many for grazing, and in general heavily timbered with beech, of his friends, were put in extreme hazard by a band of hard maple, and birch. But adjacent to, and between heated partizans, under the pretext of his holding sentithe head waters of the rivers Alleghany and Susquehan- ments inimical to popular institutions. By that time, na, embracing a portion of eight counties, there is an ele- party spirit in Pennsylvania had taken a consistency, and vated, mountainous, rocky and extensive district of the politicians were divided into constitutionalists and country, clothed mostly with hemlock, pitch-pine and republicans. The first rallied round the constitution almaple with frequent entangled thickets of laurel, almost ready formed, which was reprobated by the others, for exclusively tenanted by numerous panthers, wolves and its total deficiency in checks, and counterbalancing pow. other wild animals found in the unsettled parts of the ers, thence tending, as it was alleged, to rash, precipiState, with the addition of elk and beaver.
tate, and oppressive proceedings: the term republicans The soil and aspect of this region is so forbidding, that was embraced, as recognising the principles of the revoit will long remain unoccupied, and much of it be ever lution, and as indicative, perhaps, of tenets, which aduseless for agriculture. Its mineral resources are little mitted the utility of modifications and restraints, in a known, but it is reported to contain much coal, bog, and system resting upon the broad basis of general suffrage other ores of iron. In the county of Clearfield, a consi- and popular sovereignty. Mr, Wilson was one of the derable part of which is in this mountain district, a large leading men of the republican party, who agreed that amount of iron is manufactured by the aid of bituminous they would not accept of any office or appointment uncoal and charcoal. Iron ore occurs in various parts of der the constitution, which, in that case, they would be Pennsylvania, but is most abundant, and of the best qua- bound by an oath, to support
. This circumstance of lity, in the extensive calcareous valleys, situated between fended and inflamed the constitutional party, and with ridges of the Apalachian mountains, particularly in the other exciting causes, however unjust, led to the ontrage counties of Centre and Huntington. It is mostly raised which we are about to record. The consequences of a from beds of argillaceous earth, resting on limestone.— rapidly depreciating cu rency, were distressing to many The best ores of iron in this country exist in or adjacent who were incapable of tracing them to their cause: for to calcareous districts. The iron manufactured in Cen- example, every tradesman who had engaged in a piece tre and Huntington is called the Juniata, and is distin- of work, felt, when paid for it, that he did not receive, guished for tenacity, malleability, and other valuable except in name, what he had contracted for. Artful and qualities. The furnaces and forges, situated on never designing incendiaries had the address to persuade many failing strcams, are numerous. Bituminous coal, from of the sufferers, that the evil was owing to the mer. the Alleghany mountain, is often used for making pig chants, who monopolized the goods, and to certain lawiron, &c. for which anthracite will probably be substi-yers who rescued the tories from punishment, by pleadtuted, when the canal through the valley of Juniata is ing for them in court: Mr. Wilson had become particucompleted. About 50 per cent. of iron in pigs is ex- larly obnoxious. He was charged, in his professional tracted from the Juniata ore, and it loses one-third in character, with defending and patronizing tories, and be. passing from the bloom to the bar iron.
friending the foes to the principles on which the oppoAt Bellefonte, a pleasant village in Centre county, in sition to the arbitrary claims of the British administration the process of making bar iron, powerful rollers are sub- was founded. Yet he was, in fact, a most decided friend stituted for the trip hammer. The half bloom, heated of a popular government, and mainly assisted in every by bituminous coal, is quickly passed between succes. measure calculated for its establishment. The affair of sive rollers, until highly compressed. A smooth bar, of "Fort Wilson," as his house was thereafter denominated, the usual weight and shape, is thus produced in a mi- flowed from this mistaken opinion, of which those who nute's time. I was informed by an experienced and concocted that disgraceful transaction, took advantage disinterested manufacturer, that bar iron, formed by this for party purposes. process, is softer than the produce of the trip-hammer, About the middle of September 1779, a committee and not as desirable for plough-shares, and work subject appointed at a town meeting, regulated the prices of to much friction, but for all other purposes equally good. rum, salt, sugar, coffee, four, &c. a measure which was Soft bar iron cannot be made fion ores located west of strongly opposed by the importers. Robert Morris, the Alleghany mountain.
Blair M'Clenachan, John Willcocks, and a number of There is more land capable of cultivation in Center other staunch whigs, had a quantity of these articles in and Huntington counties than is common in the moun their stores which they refused to dispose of at the retain districts of Pennsylvania. The calcareous valleys gulated prices. About the last of the month, a great are wide and extensive, the ranges narrow, and of little l number of the lower class from the city and liberties, elevation.