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5thly. The decay of some country-manufactures as I am informed, to the extent of the patent. The (where no provision is made to supply the people with other convenience is through Chesapeak-bay. a new way of living) causes the more industrious to go For timber and other wood there is variety for the use abroad to seek their bread in other countries, and gives of man. the lazy an occasion to loiter and beg or do worse, by For fowl, fish, and wild-deer, they are reported to be which means the land swarms with beggars: formerly plentiful in those parts. Our English provision is like'twas rare to find any asking alms but the maimed, or wise now to be had there at reasonable rates. The blind, or very aged; now thousands of both sexes run commodities that the country is thought to be capable up and down, both city and country, that are sound and of, are silk, flax, hemp, wine, sider, woad, madder, liyouthful, and able to work, with false pretences and cer- quorish, tobacco, pot-ashes, and iron, and it does actutificates; nor is there any care taken to imploy or deter ally produce bides, tallow, pipe-staves, beef, pork, such vagrants, which weakens the country, as to people sheep, wool, corn, as wheat, barly, ry, and also furs, as and labour.
your peltree, mincks, racoons, martins, and such like; To which let me add, that the great debauchery in this store of fars which is to be found among the Indians, kingdom has not only rendered many unfruitful when that are profitable commodities in Europe. married, but they live not out half their time, through The way of trading in those countries is thus: they excess, which might be prevented by a vigorous execu- send to the southern plantations corn, beef, pork, fish tion of our good laws against corruption of manners. and pipe-staves, and take their growth and bring for These and the like eyils are the true grounds of the de. England, and return with English goods to their own cay of our people in the country, to say nothing of country. Their furs they bring for England, and either plague and wars; towns and cities cannot complain of sell them here, or carry them out again to other parts the decay of people, being more replenish'd than ever, of Europe, where they will yield a better price: and for especially London, which with reason helps the country- those that will follow merchandise and navigation there man to this objection. And though some do go to the is conveniency, and timber sufficient for shipping. plantations, yet numbering the parishes in Englund, and computing how many live more than die, and are born
II. The Constitutions. than buried, there goes not over to all the plantations For the constitutions of the country, the patent shows, a fourth part of the yearly increase of the people: and first, that the people and governour have a legislative when they are there, they are not (as I said before) lost power, so that no law can be made, nor money raised to England, since they furnish them with much cloaths, but by the peoples consent. houshold-stuff, tools, and the like necessaries, and that 2dly. That the rights and freedoms of England (the in greater quantities than here their condition could have best and largest in Europe) shall be in force there. needed, or they could have bought, being there well to 3dly. That making no law against allegiance (which pass, that were but low here, if not poor; and now mas-should we, 'twere by the law of England void of it self ters of families too, when here they had none, and could that moment) we may enact what laws we please for hardly keep themselves; and very often it happens that the good prosperity and security of the the said prosome of them, after their industry and succes there have vince. made them wealthy, they return and empty their riches 4thly. That so soon as any are ingaged with me, we into England; one in this capacity being able to buy shall begin a scheam or draught together, such as shall out twenty of what he was when he went over. give ample testimony of my sincere inclinations to en.
Thus much to justifie the credit and benefit of planta- courage planters, and settle a free, just and industrious tions; wherein I have not sought to speak my interest, colony there. but my judgment; and I dare venture the success of it with all sober and considering men.
III. The Conditions.
I shall now proceed to give some account of my own concern.
My conditions will relate to three sorts of people: Ist.
Those that will buy: 2dly. Those that take up land 1st. I shall say what may be necessary of the place or upon rent: 3dly. Servants. To the first, the shares ! province.
sell shall be certain as to number of acres; that is to say, 2dly. Touch upon the constitutions.
every one shall contain five thousand acres, free from 3dly. Lay down the conditions.
any Indian incumbrance, the price a hundred pounds, 4thly. Give my sense what persons will be fit to go. and for the quit-rent but one English shilling or the va5thly. What utensils, furniture and commodities are lue of it yearly for a hundred acres; and the said quit. fit to carry with them, with the charge of the voyage, rent not to begin to be paid till 1684. To the second and what is first to be done and expected there for some sort, that take up land upon rent, they shall have liber. time. And lastly, I shall give an abstract of the grant by let. Id to do paying yearly one penny per acre, not ex
To the third sort, to wit, ters patents under the great seal of England, that an ac- servants that are carried over, fifty acres shall be allowed count may be given of the estate and power granted to to the master for every head, and fifty acres to every me thereby.
servant when their time is expired. And because some 1. Something of the place.
engage with me that may not be disposed to go, it were
very advisable for every three adventurers to send an The place lies 600 milęs nearer the Sun than Eng- overseer with their servants, which would well pay the land; for Englund begins at the 50th. degree and ten cost. minutes of North latitude, and this place begins at four The dividend may be thus; if the persons concern'd ty, which is about the latitude of Naples in Italy, or please, a tract of land shall be surveyd; say fifty thou. Mompellier in France. I shall say little in its praise, to sand acres to a hundred adventurers; in which some of excite desires in any, whatever I could truly write as to the best shall be set out for towns or cities; and there the soil
, air and water: this shall satisfy me, that by the shall be so much ground allotted to each in those towns blessing of God, and the honesty and industry of man, as may maintain some cattel and produce some corn; may be a good and fruitful land.
then the remainder of the fifty thousand acres shall be For navigation it is said to have two conveniences; the shar'd among the said adventurers (casting up the bar. one by lying ninescore miles upon Delaware river; that ren for commons, and allowing for the same) whereby is to say, about three-score and ten miles, before we every adventurer will have a considerable quantity of come to the falls, where a vessel of two hundred tons land together; likewise every one a proportion by a may sail, (and some creeks and small harbours in that navigable river, and then backward into the country.distance, where ships may come nearer than the river in the manner of dividend I shall not be strict in; we can to the country) and above the falls, for sloops and boats, but speak roughly of the matter here; but let men
ful in plantations be consulted, and I shall leave it to the is better accommodation, and English provisions are to majority of votes among the adventurers wben it shall be had at easier rates: however, I am inclin'd to set please God we come there, how to fix it to their own down particulars, as near as those inform me; that know content.
the place, and have been planters both in that and in the IV. Those persons that providence seems to have most filted
neighbouring colonys. for Plantations, are,
1st. The passage will come for masters and mistresses
at most to 6 pounds a head, for servants five pounds a 1st. Industrious husbandmen and day-labourers, that head, and for children under seven years of age fifty are hardly able (with extreme labour, to maintain their shillings, except they suck, then nothing: families and portion their children.
Next being by the mercy of God, safely arrived in 2dly. Laborious handicrafts, especially carpenters, September or October, two men may clear as much ground masons, smiths, weavers, taylors, tanners, shoemakers, by spring (when they set the corn of that country) as shipwrights, &c. where they may be spared or low in will bring in that time twelve month forty barrels, which the world: and as they shall want no encouragement, amounts to two hundred bushels, which makes twenty so their labour is worth more there than here, and there five quarters of corn. So that the first year they must provision cheaper.
buy corn, which is usually very plentiful. They may 3dly.. A plantation seems a fit place for those ingeni- so soon as they come, buy cows, more or less, as they ous spirits that being low in the world, are much clogg'd want, or are able, which are to be had at easy rates.and oppress'd about a livelyhood, for the means of sub- For swine, they are plentiful and cheap; these will sisting being easie there, they may have time and oppor. quickly increase to a stock. So that after the first year, tunity to gratify their inclinations, and thereby improve what with the poorer sort, sometimes labouring to science and lielp nurseries of people.
others, and the more able fishing, fowling, and some4thly: A fourth sort of men to whom a plantation time buying; they may do very well, till their own would be proper, takes in those that are younger bro-stocks are sufficient to supply them, and their families, thers of small inheritances; yet because they would live which will quickly be and to spare, if they follow the in sight of their kindred in some proportion to their English husbandry, as they do in New-England, and quality, and can't do it without a labour that looks like New-York; and get winter fodder for their stock. farming, their condition is too strait for them; and if married, their children are often too numerous for the
[Then follows an abstract of the patent granted by the estate, and are frequently bred up to no trades, but are king—see charter published in our last.] a kind of hangers on or retainers to the eider brothers table and charity: which is a mischief, as in it self to be la To conclude, I desire all my dear country-folks, who mented, so here to be remedied; for land they have for may be inclin’d to go into those parts, to consider serinext to nothing, which with moderate labour produces ously the premises, as well as the present inconveniences, plenty of all things necessary for life, and such an in as future ease and plenty, that so none may move rashly crease as by traffique may supply them with all conve
or from a fikle but solid mind, having above all things, an niences.
eye to the providence of God, in the disposal of themselves. Lastly, there are another sort of persons, not only fit. And I would further advise all such at least, to bave the for, but necessary in plantations, and that is, men of uni- permission, if not the good liking of their near relations, versal spirits, that have an eye to the good of posterity, for that is both natural
, and a duty incumbent upon all; and that both understand and delight to promote good and by this means will natural affection be preserved, discipline and just government ainong a plain and well and a friendly and profitable correspondence be mainintending people; such persons may find room in colo- tained between them. In all which I beseech Almighty nies for their good counsel and contrivance, who are shut God to direct us, that his blessing may attend our honest out from being of much use or service to great nations endeavour, and then the consequence of all guş, undertaking under settl’d customs: these men deserve much esteem, will turn to the glory of his great name, and the true hapa and would be hearken'd to. Doubtless 'twas this (as i piress of us and our posterity: Amen. observ'd before) that put some of the famous Greeks and
WILLIAM PENN. Romans upon transplanting and regulating colonies of people in divers parts of the world; whose names, for giving so great proof of their wisdom, virtue, labour and
POSTSCRIPT. constancy, are with justice honourably delivered down by story to the praise of our own times; though the
Whoever are desirous to be concern'd with me in this world, after all its higher pretences of religion, barba- province, they may be treated with and further satisfied, rously errs from their excellent example.
at Philip Fords in Bow-lane in Cheapside, and at Tho
mas Rudyards or Benjamin Clarks in George Yard in V. The Journey and it's appurtenances, and what is to be Lumbard-street.
done there at first coming. Next let us see, what is fit for the journey and place, when there, and also what may be the charge of the
ANNALS OF PHILADELPHIA. voyage, and what is to be expected and done there at From the recovered minutes of the Common Council. first. That such as incline to go, may not be to seek from 1704 to 1776; extracted for the Pennsylvania Gahere, or brought under any disappointments there. zette. The goods fit to take with them for use, or sell for pro
(Continued.) fit, are all sorts of apparel and utensils for husbandry and building and houshold stuff. And because I know how 21 Feby, 1748.-W. Atwood, Mayor. much people are apt to fancy things beyond what they The parties appointed by former council to consider are, and that immaginations are great flatterers of the and advise upon the best method of removing the swamp minds of men; to tħe end that none may delude them- between Budd's Buildings & Society Hill: do report as selves, with an expectation of an immediate amendment follows. That a convenient Dock of sixty feet wide as of their conditions, so soon as it shall please God they far as the said Swamp extends westward, a branch of Arriye there; I would have them understand, that they thirty feet wide on the south west, & forty feet wide on must look for a Winter before a Summer comes, and they the north west, be left open for the reception of Flats, must be willing to be two or three years without some Boats & other small craft which may be used on the sd. of the conveniences they enjoy at home; and yet I must Dock. That the remainder ought to be filled up abore needs say that America is another thing then it was at the the side & walled in with a good sufficient stone wall, first plantation of Virginia and New-England; for there and made Landing Places for wood or other things which
may hereafter be brought by water for the use of the in- Communication from J. Miller, Esq. in behalf of citizens habitants of this city: That the sd. Dock be dug out and
of Perry county, cleansed so deep that the bottom may be always covered with water. That the channel under the Bridge in Front Street be continued the width of sd. Bridge to To the board of Canal Commissioners of Pennsylvanią. the East side of Water street, there to widen gradually GENTLEMEN! by sloap lines on each side so as to be sixty feet wide, & At the solicitation of many of the people of the counto continue that width to the Riyer channel & to be dug ty of Perry, I am induced, though very reluctantly, again aut & walled as aforesaid, agreeable to a plan now laid to draw your attention to the location of the canal at and before the Board. That the common Sewer on the about Clark's ferry. I do it with reluctance and with South West Branch be continued to the Dock. But as feelings of delicacy, because I know you have been this will be attended with a considerable expense, & the much troubled on this subject heretofore. I however, dangerous nusance complained of not effectually re trust that the great interest the people of Perry haye in moved, unless the whole Dock so far as to the Third this matter, and the vast importance of the subject itself Street be in like manner dug out, cleaned & walled up, will be an apology. I will first beg leave to call your We have (lest it should appear too great a burthen to be attention to the following exhibition of the estimates of borne by the city) applied to several of the Inhabitants, the engineers: owners of ground adjoining the sd. Dock, who, taking the Premises into serious consideration, have, for Re- Expense of uniting the canals on the
N. E, side of the Juniata and crossmoval of so publick & dangerous a nusance as far as in them lies, & also for procuring a sufficient quantity of
ing at Clark's ferry by aqueduct Water in case of ffire in that part of the city, agreed (estimate of engineer,)
$295,088 each for Himself, his Heirs, Exi's. & admrs. to dig out, Expense of uniting them on Duncan's cleanse & wall their several & respective shares of the
Island and crossing from the point sd. Dock, which are appointed to their respective Lots,
of that Island by aqueduct, 240,887 & to keep them for ever clean & in good Repair, On
$54,201 condition that the Profit arising from Landing of Wood In the estimate of crossing at Clark's & other Things on the Banks of the said Docks oppo ferry, the Rock or Onion bottom site to their lots may belong to them, their Heirs & As hill section, is estimated,
$57,092 signs respectively, And that the city shall make the Messrs. Hopkins and Patterson, stiflood gates, at the several Bridges & do all their part in pulate to make it and give security the premises. The Board having considered the sd. Re. for their performance, for
40,000 port, & that the Methods proposed therein, would if
$17,092 pursued, be attended with a considerable expense, were in the estimates, the breadth of the of opinion it would be better, before any resolution be
river at Clark's ferry is taken at 260 taken by this Board, that the Magistrates confer with feet more than its real breadth, the city Assessors, in relation to the raising Money for
which at $50 per foot, the esti. that purpose, & that in the mean time matter remain in mate cost of the aqueduct would consideration.
$13,000 23 May 1748.-W. Attwood, Mayor.
The cost of completing that part of The Recorder exhibited an account of the expense of the canal from the Onion bottom soliciting a petition presented some time since from this
hill to Clark's ferry, is estimated Board to his majesty for putting the country in a posture
$6,144 of defence, which amounted to £53. 18 4. sterling, re. At the rate for which similar conquesting the board would be pleased to order that he tracts have been made, it would be reimbursed that sum, the same having been paid by
3,320 the agent in London. The Board accordingly do order
$2,824 the said sum of £53. 18. 4. sterling, to be paid the Re
$32,916 corder by the Treasurer of this Corporation. Some members representing to the Board that it might
$21,285 be proper that an entertainment be given to captain Ballet, commander of His Majesty's sloop Otter, now in this Mr. Clarke alledges he will sustain port, at the expense of this corporation, the same was
damages by the destruction of his unanimously agreed to, and the care of the same refer
if the canal passes on the property,
N. E. side of the river at Clark's red to the Mayor and Recorder.
ferry, to amount of 20,000 dollars, 14 July, 1748.
but say that will be excessive, I set The Mayor acquainted the Board, that in lieu of the
them down at entertainment agreed to be given to captain Ballet, com- In case the canal should pass down
$10,000 mander of His Majesty's sloop, the Otter, at the expense
the S. W. side of the river and of this corporation; the magistrates, upon further consideration thereof, had thought a bandsome present to
cross at Clark's ferry, and I am au
thorised to offer, on the part of wards his sea stores would be more agreeable to him, and that they had accordingly presented him with one
Mr. Clarke, a bonus of 6,000 dolls. pipe of wine, eight loaves sugar, and twenty gallons of
to be paid either in money, or prorum, towards his stores as aforesaid, which was unani
perty, to be chosen by the commis.
sioners at a fair valuation, (except. mously approved of by the Board. 4 Oct 1743.—The Mayor, W. Attwood, Esq. having
ing only his improvements and that proposed to the Board to consider whether it would be
the taking of which would interferc most agreeable to them to accept the sum of sixty Balance against crossing at Clark's
$16,000 pounds, to be added to their stock in the Treasurer's
$5,285 hands, or an entertainment at his expense. The Board were unanimously of opinion to accept the sd. sum of
Estimates of low levels. sixty pounds, rather than an Entertainment. 3 Oct. 1749. –The same proposal was made by C. At Clark's ferry,
$161,967 Willing, Mayor, of the sum of one hundred pounds, or Duncan's Island,
139,307 an Entertainment, and the said sum of one hundred pounds accepted.
Balance in favour of the Island, $22,660
Deduct as follows-Differencetween
be more extensively cleared and cultivated, and wherer. the estimate for the Onion bottom
er our numerous calcareous valleys are intersected by hill, and Messrs. Hopkins and Pat
canals or navigable streams, lime, so valuable as a manure terson's stipulation,
and in the arts, can be calcined at a low rate, by the aid Clark's damages if the canal goes on
of anthracite. Experience has demonstrated that for the N. E. side,
the manufacture of iron this fuel is peculiarly advantageThe bonus if it comes on the S. W.
ous, as its embraces little sulphur, or other injurious inșide to Clarks ferry,
gredients; produces an intense, steady heat; and, for $33,092 most operations, it is equal, if not superior, to coke,
Bar iron, anchors, chains, steam-boat machinery, and Balance in favour of coming to Clark's
wrought iron of every description, has more tenacity ferry,
10,432 and malleability, with less waste of metal, when fabricat. Thus if the above calculations are founded on correct charcoal, with the important additional advantage of a
ed by anthracite, than by the aid of bituminous coal, or şlata, as I believe they are, by the low levels, the ba- diminution of expense, at least fifty per cent. in labour lance is decidedly in fayour of Clark's
ferry, and upon and fuel; and iron castings are stronger when the meltthe aqueduct level the balance is but $5,285 aganst it. ing has been effected by the
aid of anthracite. Possibly, A sum which will bear no comparison to the advantages in the quick process of heating and fusing, it communiwhich will result, not only to the people of Perry, but cates less carbon and oxygen. For breweries, distille to the state generally by crossing at Clark's ferry.
ries, and the raising of steam, anthracite coal is decided. But gentlemen, there is a difference of opinion be- ly preferable to bituminous coal, or other fuel, the heat tween the engineers, both as to the place of crossing being more steady and manageable, and the boilers less and in their estimates. It would therefore be highly gra- corroded by sulphurous acid, while no bad effects are tifying to those who are interested, if a competent um- produced by smoke and bitumen. pire could be called in to give an opinion.
The anthracite of Pennsylvania is located between the I will now take the liberty to suggest (that in case Blue Ridge and the Susquehanna, and has not hitherto you do not cross the river by an aqueduct) the idea of been found in other parts of the State, except in the erecting the dam in the Susquehanna as originally loca- valley of Wyoming, ted, so as to siąck the water up to the Island, and also to
The anthracite district is principally occupied by put'a dam in the mouth of the Juniata and slack the mountains running parallel to the Blue Ridge, often water to the heads of the Onion bottom hill or rocks. If broad with table land summits, and rising generally this plan should be found practicable without prejudice about 1500 feet above the ocean. With the exception to the navigation, it will certainly be
much cheaper than of a few narrow valleys, this region has little surface ineither of the others.' It will also afford an outlet from viting cultivation. The summits, by repeated fires, Clark's ferry into the canal, and it will prevent the ne: have been divested of much timber, leaving, thinly scatcessity of building an expensive and insurmountable wall tered, pitch and yellow pine and white oak, and are arqund the end of Peter's mountain. In case the canal generally too stony for tillage, but they may, at some should be brought down on either of the levels to Clark's future period, afford good ranges for cattle and sheep. ferry, I am authorised by Mr. Clark to release all da- In an extensive elevated valley, bordering upon the head mages and to offer the bonus of 6,000 dollars, in either waters of the Lehigh, there is considerable land clothed way mentioned.
with a dense forest of beech, hemlock, maple, birch, &c. The foregoing remarks are submitted for your candid with a good soil for grazing. The anthracite mountains, consideration. It is the anxious desire of at least 5-6 of the whole nature, and afford retreats for panthers, wolves, bears
and ranges connected with them, are mostly in a state of population of the county, that the canal should cross at deer, and other animals resident in the unsettled parts Clark's ferry, or at all events that they should not be of our country. In passing from the Berwick turnpike barred from any communication with it at that point.
to Wilkesbarre, in a distance of thirty-five miles, i no I am gentlemen, very respectfully, yours,
ticed but three dwellings, and two of these were log J. MU.LER.
taverns lately erected. Between twenty and thirty panPhiladelphia, Sept. 10, 1827.
thers have been killed, within three years, by the hunters of Lowrytown, a settlement recently formed on the
Lсhigh. ANTHRACITE, REGION OF PENNSYLVANIA. The rocks of the above described region are of the Observations relative to some of the Mountain Districts transition class, and present little diversity, being prinof Pennsylvania, and the Mineral resources of that cipally gray wacke slate, which occurs in abundance, state, in its Anthracite, Bituminous Coal, Salt and loose on the surface and in ledges. It is sometimes based
on old red sand stone, and surmounted by an unstratified Iron, with miscellaneous remarks; by James Pierce.
rock, an aggregate of quartz pebbles of various dimenA considerable proportion of the state of Pennsylva- sions, with a cement principally silicious. In the Blue nia is occupied by mountains, generally uninviting to Ridge, in addition to the above described rock, a silithe settler, and mostly remains in a state of nature. It cious gray wacke, resembling fine grained granular is crossed by the Blue Ridge, Alleghany, numerous mi- quartz, is common. It appears in some places massive, nor ridges, and extensive tracts of elevated table land, but is often slaty. Its cement is mostly silicious; some that spread over an average width of 150 miles. Though | alumine, however, is indicated in its composition. undesirable for agriculture, much of this mountain re. The beds and veins of anthracite range from northgion contains, in its anthracite, bituminous coal, salt and east to south-west, and may often be traced for a consiiron, mineral treasures that will be a source of inexhausti- derable distance by the compass. The veins have the ble wealth to the State.
inclination of the adjacent strata of gray wacke, with In no part of the world is anthracite, so valuable in which they often alternate, usually between 20 and 45 the arts and for economical purposes, found as abundant. degrees. In a few places they are horizontal and vertily as in Pennsylvania. Its cheap diffusion will be of in- cal. The beds and veins of anthracite bave narrow strata calculable advantage to the Atlantic States, where the of dark coloured; fine grained, argillaceous schist, for increased expense of fuel begins to be felt; and its fur- the roof and the floor. This slate generally contains sul. ther enhancement would limit the population, and ma- phuret of iron and disintegrates on exposure to the air. terially interfere with the progress of manufactures. To The sulphates of iron and alumine are often observed in agriculture it will be a material auxiliary: fuel being the schist, and it frequently, presents impressions of supplied from the interior of the earth, the surface can plants, and sometimes of marine shells. Impure pul
verulent coal is usually connected with this slate, and is wheels, and working in a horizontal cylinder with vases said to be a good material for printer's ink.
and stop cocks. The resistance of air or water in the Anthracite has been found in greatest quantity, in cylinder, will be sufficient to retard or arrest the wagons sections of the coal region most accessible by water. in their course. Extensive veins and beds range from the Lehigh to the It is calculated that the expense of transportation 'on Susquehanna, crossing the head waters of the Schuylkill the rail-way will not exceed 25 cents the ton. and Swatara about ten miles north-west of the Blue The Lehigh Company are endeavouring to procure Ridge, and it abounds contiguous to the Susquehanna coal 24 miles from Mauch Chunk, by tunneling two and Lackawanna. But in no part of the district does hundred feet below the precipitous ridge, that occuanthracite occur in such apparently inexhaustible beds, pies the eastern brow of the coal mountain. The exc** or is so abundantly raised, as in the vicinity of Mauch vation of a sufficient magnitude for the passage of teams, Chunk, a village situated on the Lehigh, thirty-five has been extended more than 600 feet in a hard rock of miles from Easton, and one hundred and eight by water, quartz pebbles; without finding coal. Twelve workfrom Philadelphia.
men are constantly employed; and have advanced about The coal is there excavated on the flat sumimit of a a foot each day. Shafts have been sunk sixty feet in the mountain that rises near 1500 feet above the ocean. It table land, at the base of the narrow rocky ridge: good is of good quality, and presents beds of unparalleled ex. coal was found after penetrating seven feet of earth and tent; is disclosed for several miles on the summit, where slate. The bottom of the shaft is supposed to be about ever excavations have been made, arid is indicated in eighty feet above the tunnel. If no coal is struck in promany places by coal slate, in a pulverulent state, on the ceeding horizontally, the tunnel will still be serviceable surface. The mountain rises with steep acclivity parti- for discharging water from the great coal bed above, and cularly on the north-west side, and when penetrated at to receive coal from that bed which may extend to various altitudes, discloses coal at about the same dis within a short distance of the excavation, and can be distance from the surface. Strata of gray wacke slate; worked in horizontal galleries. The sides of the ridge, containing mica, sometimes rest on the coal, parallel | above the tunnel, are too precipitous for the passage of with the mountain side. In the deep excavations made wagons. The elevated summit of the ridge commands on the summit, no termination of the coal bed has been a view of many wild, rocky, wood clad ranges, and deep found, and it is not improbable that anthracite forms the ravines. nucleus of the mountain for a considerable distance. The improvement of the navigation of the Lehigh, is
The coal is rendered accessible by removing from one of the conditions afinexed to the charter of the the flat summit, gravelly loam, which is from a few company: this has already been effected in respect to inches to four feet in depth, and disintegrated slate with a descending navigation, from Mauch Chunk to the De. impure coal, from two to four feet. The coal rests in a laware, and further improvements for an ascending navi. horizontal position, narrow parallel seams of argillaceous gation, and to extend the water communication up the schist intervening. This schist exhibits saline efflores- river to Stoddartsville, are in progress. The Lehigh is cences. Strong chalybeate springs, holding in solution a copious rapid stream, that has its origin among wood sulphate of iron, issue from the mountain's side. The clad rocky mountains, forty mites north west of Mauch coal excavation on the surface is extensive, and from Chunk. Its waters are pure, and well stored with trout, thirty to forty feet in depth, forming a hollow square, pike, sunfish, catfish, eels, perch and other fish. There bounded by lofty mural precipices of coal. Wagons are is considerable good pine and other timber, adjacent to admitted by avenues that serve to discharge water from the Lehigh, 18 miles above Mauch Chunk, much of the mine. The coal is easily detached by picks and which is the property of the company, who have thus bars. From this bed, in 1825, about 750,000 bushels of formed a settlement for cutting and rafting timber, at coal were sent to Philadelphia, and it is expected that a which they employ 150 men. The descent from Stock million of bushels will be forwarded the current year. dartsville to Mauch Chunk is 925 feet, and for the effect The expense of raising coal is 40 cents the ton. tual improvement of the navigation, 38 large dams will
This coal mountain range is reported as extending in be required. They will afford valuable sites for mills: a south west direction to the Susquehanna. To the and manufactures. When the contemplated improvenorth-east, beyond the Lehigh, it is connected with ments are effected, the Lehigh will be navigable within Broad Mountain, the first considerable elevation west of 12 miles of the rich valley of Wyoming, and much of the Blue Ridge, or Kittetany Mountain, as it is sometimes the wheat of that section of country, which is now transcalled.
ported 60 miles to Easton, may find a readier market at Rocks in place rarely occur on the table land summit, Merchant Mills on the Lehigh. The descent from adjacent to the coal bed. Old red sand stone exists in Mauch Chunk to Easton is 364 feet, to overcome which, places near the mountain's base, with superincumbent it is calculated that 21 dams and 52 locks wil be necesstrata of gray wacke slate, and silicious aggregate of sary. Many dams have already been constructed of quartz pebbles, resembling the mill stone quarries of pine lugs, at an expense of about three thousand dollars the Shawangunk mountain, which probably may be put each. They are located at the head of rapids, enabling to the same use.
the navigator to command an artificiaffreshet, when the About ten miles of the coal mountain, the village of stream from its dispersion, would not otherwise admit of Mauch Chunk, and an extensive tract adjacent to the the passage of boats. Water from the dam is copiously Lehigh, are the property of a company having a capital admitted into a rail-way that extenils to the foot of the of a million of dollars, incorporated by the Legislature rapid. The gates, in the lock at the head of the railof Pennsylvania. They have constructed a good turn- way, of peculiar construction, were invented by one of pike, that rises gradually 936 feet in nine miles, the dis- the managers, Mr. White, to whom the company are intance between Mauch Chunk and the coal bed. The debted for many ingenious improvements. The gates cost of transportation by this road is 60 cents the ton; are attached by hinges to the bottom of the lock, and about seven tons are conveyed with ease on two wagons rise by the force of water admitted from a foom, condrawn by four horses.
structed parallel with the lock, and suspended, forming A rail-way has beer surveyed on the mountain's side a section of the dam. If the gate of the foom is closed, to the coal bed. It will be single, with places for turn the water between the gates passes off, and they fall by ing out, and terminates near the Lehigh, at an elevation their own weight and the pressure of the water from the of about 200 feet above its level. The coal, in its descent diam. To facilitate an ascending navigation, short ca from thence to the yard, or boats, can be riddled of nals to the termination of the rapids will be required. A earth and fine particles. Iron wagons, carrying three canal of a mile and a quarter, commencing at Mauch tons of coal, will descend' on the rail-way, by their own Chunk, has recently been excavated: the locks are of gravity, regulated by a piston, connected with the the new construction above mentioned.