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Canal on Duncan's Island

7,393 of our people, and to prevent any trouble we come to Turnpike and tow path bridge across the

renew our former bond of friendship. When William Susquehanna

73,043 Penn first came, he made a clear, and open road, all the Canal from the bridge to eastern division of

way to the Indians; we desire the same may be kept canal

15,595 open, that all obstructions may be removed, of which, Dam of stone across the Susquehanna

9,157 on our side, we will take care. Let the peace be so Five locks of wood and rougli stone

9,000 firm, that you and us, joined hand in hand, even if the

greatest tree falls, it shall not divide us. As our fathers $ 139,307 have been in peace, so let us, and our cbildren as they

come into the world hereafter, be in peace, that it may RECAPITULATION.

be continued from generation to generation, forever." Cost of uniting the canals on the north side of the Juni Such were the noble sentiments, the grateful recol

ata, and crossing the Susquehanna by an aqueduct lections, and the honourable desires, of that high-minded at Clark's upper ferry

$ 240,887 race; and the promulgation of them is the more remarkCost of uniting on the south side of Juniata,

able, because, before the council terminated, the same and crossing at Clark's lower ferry

295,088 chief uttered the complaint of his nation, in this fearless

and sarcastic strain: “I will now speak of the trade beDifference in favour of upper ferry

$ 54,201 tween you and us. It has been like a house with two

doors, one for us, and one for the English, but the goods Cost of uniting the canals at the above places on a high were placed in the dark, so that we did not know how level with tow path bridges.

we were dealt with. We want the terms of trade set. At upper ferry

152,496 tled, so that we may no longer be in danger of being Lower ferry

225,666 cheated. We are often imposed upon by the lightness

of your money. You certainly know the value of ours. Difference in favour of upper ferry

$ 73,170 I wish this evil put out of the way."-Vaux's Anniver.

sury Discourse. The cost of canals on the low level for the purpose of

crossing the Susquehanna with a tow path bridge. CHESTER COUNTY CABINET OF NATURAL At Clark's lower ferry

$ 161,967

SCIENCE. do. upper ferry


We have been favoured with the Report of a CommitDifference in favour of upper ferry

$ 22,660 tee of the “Chester County Cabinet of Natural Sci.

ence,” from which we make some interesting extracts, REMARKS.

not having space for the whole report. Such instituIf the canal should cross the Susquehanna river at

any point below Clark's lower ferry, it will increase the tions, as the Atheneum (noticed in our last) and the length of an aqueduct or bridge, more than eight hun. Cabinet are highly creditable to Chester County, whose dred feet. Should they cross at Cove mountain, aque- natural resources, if investigated with the zeal at present ducts will be necessary over the Little Juniata and Sher- manifested, must soon become well ascertained—were man's creek.

In estimating the expense of constructing the aque. every county in the state to imitate the laudable examducts and bridges, calculations have been made for ple of Chester County, what an interesting amount of stone abutments and piers, with superstructures of wood. information, would in a few years be collected; and

The piers of the aqueduct across the Susquehanna to be what a salutary tendency would such institutions have one hundred feet span, and the bottom of the superstructures twenty feet above the river, at low water. The to enlighten and enlarge the minds of the citizens! piers of the bridges are calculated to be two hundred It does not appear that any thing had been done in feet span, and the aqueduct across the Juniata 50 feet the Science of Zoology, in Chester County; but the span; the width of the aqueduct eighteen feet in the study of Minerals received considerable attention, and clear.

Botany was cultivated with much interest, at an early In estimating the expense of uniting the Juniata and period. In the year 1774, the late Humphrey Marshall Susquehanna canals on a low level, with the eastern di- established his Botanic Garden, at Marslıullton: he applivision of the Pennsylvania canal, on a level three feet ed himself very diligently to the improvement of the higher than the canal is located at present, nothing has place, and to the collection of plants, especially such as been added for the cost of a lock three feet, which were indigenous to the United States. The Garden would be necessary.

As the expense of the lock, if lo- soon obtained a reputation; and for many years before cated about a mile and a half below the falls, would be the death of Mr. Marshall, it had become an object of less than the expense of rock excavation which would curiosity to men of science: Mr. Frederick Pursh inbe saved by such location, without increasing the wall forms us, that it was the first place of a Botanical chaing and embankment, or any part of the line.

racter visited by him, after his arrival in America. Af Respectfully submitted,

ter the decease of Mr. Humphrey Marshall, in the year Signed DE WITT CLINTON, JR. 1801, we believe that no improvements were made in SIMEON GUILFORD,

the garden, and since the death of Doctor Moses Mar

Engineers. shall, in 1813, the Botany of the place seems to have Harrisburg, August 2, 1827.

been entirely neglected. But it still exhibits many in (To be continued.)

teresting relics, as pine and fir trees—the willow leaved

and English oaks, the Kentucky nickar tree, the buck. INDIAN SPEECH.

eye, and several species of magnolia. The trees we A conference was held at Philadelphia in 1715, and have mentioned, with various interesting shrubs and attended by a large number of Delawares; on that occa- herbaceous plants, which survive the general ruin, are sion, Sassoonan, one of their chiefs, said,

memorials of the interest which was formerly taken in “The calumet, which we carried to all the nations, the garden by its venerable founder. we have now brought here;—it is a sure bond of peace Humphrey Marshall was born 10th October, 1722, amongst them, and between us and you;-we desire, by 0. S. in West-Bradford township, near the West Branch holding up our hands, that the God of heaven may wit of the Brandywine, and died 5th Nov. 1801. His father, ness, that there may be a firm peace between you and Abraham Marshall, emigrated from Derbyshire, En. us forever. We heard of some murmurs among some gland, at the age of sixteen, having, about that time, be




come a member of the society of Friends. He first set. educated, and bad entered upon the study of botany as tled near Darby, where he married, and shortly after- a science.- From the many notes and remarks left wards removed to the forks of the Brandywine, and pur- among his papers, since destroyed, relative to plants, chased large tracts of land among the Indians. For their classification, &c. it may be presumed that he inmany years he was a preacher among the Friends. He tended, at some period, to publish a work upon that died at the advanced age of one hundred and three years, subject. He was also versed in mineralogy; but the very highly respected.

specimens which he left were not accompanied with any Humphrey received an ordinary English education, memoranda, to distinguish their character or location. and went very little to school; what Latin he knew, he He was an eminent surgeon and physician, and during acquired by occasional lessons from a schoolmaster who the revolutionary war, he was engaged with Honour in was engaged in the neighbourhood. He was almost the continental service. He dece:sed May 11, 1813. wholly self-taught, and as his father, by continued in. Doctor William Baldwin, a very tealous botanist, was dustry, had obtained a large property, our Botanist was born in Newlin township, on the 29th of March, 1779. permitted to gratify his propensity for reading. In bo- His father, Thomas Baldwin, was a preacher among the tanical excursions, he was remarkable for the rapidity society of Friends. William received the degree of with which he detected plants; but towards the close of Doctor of Medicine in the University of Pennsylvania, his life, he was afflicted with blindness. His disposition on the 10th of April, 1807, and in the autumn of 1811 was benevolent, his judgment vigorous, his memory re- he removed to the Southern States. Mr. Elliott's sketchu tentive. The science of plants was his favourite study, bears ample testimony to the ability and extent of his and before he established his botanic garden, at Marshall. researches, not to mention other publications. During ton, he had cultivated one on a smaller scale, on the his residence in the South, he traversed the greater part plantation now occupied by Joshua Marshall. In 1785, of East-Florida, and much of Georgia, on foot, in quest he published the Arbustum Americanum, or catalogue of plants. Many of the specimens collected by bin, in of American Forest Trees and Shrubs, in which he was that region, are contained in the Herbarium of our Caassisted by his nephew, the late Doctor Moses Marshall, binet. In 1812 he was appointed a Surgeon in the Navy who was a botanist of considerable merit, and, at the of the U. S. and in 1817 he made a voyage to Buenosrequest of his uncle, had travelled through many of the Ayres, in a national vessel-during which xoyage he States, in search of American plants.

made large additions to his botanical collections. By The next garden in botanical importance is that the appointment of government, he attended Major founded by the late John Jackson, in the township of Long in his expedition to the Yellow Stone river, upor London-Grove. Mr. Jackson was a member of the So- which occasion he fell a victim to the pulmonary conciety of Friends: he was an excellent gardener, and sumption, which was hereditary in the family. He died a highly respectable botanist. He was born in London on the Missouri, on the 1st Sept. 1819, universally reGrove, the 9th of November, 1748, and died in the gretted. A more amiable and genuine philanthropist same township, the 20th of December, 1821. The gar- has seldom lived: he was as free from guile, as the simden was commenced in the year 1776 or 1777: it con- ple Nature in which he so much delighted. At his death, tains about an acre and a half of ground, and is located his Herbarium, which was very large and valuable, passin a lime-stone valley of extraordinary beauty and fertili- ed into the hands of Zaccheus Collins, Esq. of Philadelty. A small green-house is attached to the place: a phia, who purchased it, as was understood, for the Acaspring yielding an abundant supply of water, takes its demy of Natural Sciences. rise near the centre of the garden, and affords an oppor Our situation forbids us to enlarge upon the charactunity for the growth of aquatic plants, and some others, ter and botanical acquirements of Doctor William Darwhich delight in a humid soil. The place presents a lington, but his merit is so well known to us that it is numerous collection of foreign and indigenous plants of unnecessary to bestow any eulogy upon him. By bomuch interest to the student of botany. Mr. Jackson tanical exploration, in the vicinity of West-Chester, acwas a plain, unostentatious man, of mild and amiable companied with a familiar and easy mode of imparting manners, and sincere hospitality. He also paid atten- instruction, he infused a love of Natural Science into tion to mineralogy. His son, William Jackson, the pre- many persons who are now engaged in the study of Nasent proprietor of the garden, inherits his father's love ture. His persevering exertions contributed, in a great for natural science, and employs himself in making gra- measure, to the formation of our cabinet, and much of dual improvements in the establishment.

the success which has attended our operations, is to be Two brothers, Joshua and Samuel Pierce, about the ascribed to his ardour in the cause. He deposited his year 1800, commenced the cultivation of rare and inter- extensive and valuable Herbarium in the cabinet, at the esting trees, on their farm, in the township of East-Marl- organization of the society; he assisted us also with doborough. The collection is particularly rich in hardy nations of minerals; and, in the botanical department, evergreens from the northern regions of this continent: almost every thing has been supplied by his skill and the long and shaded avenues, in the summer time, exhi- labour. bit a beautiful scenery. Several springs exist at the Many other persons in Chester county, before the caeastern termination of the walks, the waters of which, binet was instituted, had turned their attention both to being collected into a basin, have been partially applied Botany and Mineralogy; but we do not know that any to plants of the aquatic kind. The taste and industry of them had collected Herbaria, though several had of these gentlemen, have rendered their seat one of the made collections of minerals. The cabinets of Doctors most delightful spots in Chester County. Such indica- Alison and Michener are represented as being very retions of attachment to the amiable pursuits of Natural spectable. Mr. William Jackson, son of the late John Science, as are displayed in the establishments of Mr. Jackson, and the present owner of the Botanic Garden Jackson and the Pierces, are highly creditable to the in London-Grove, we have already noticed as a Botanist proprietors, and operate beneficially upon the commu- and Mineralogist of considerable merit. Mr. Joel Bainity in which they are located.

ley, of East Marlborough, has devoted himself with much These it is believed, are all the establishments of a industry and success to the Science of Minerals, and his botanical character, heretofore made in Chester County; cabinet is represented as being the most extensive and but, in addition to the gentlemen we have mentioned, scientific in the country. We must not omit the names we can name other native botanists of reputation. of Lewis W. Williams, Abraham Marshall, Esq. and

Doctor Francis Alison was born March 28, 1751, at John W. Townsend, who are among the original memNew-London cross-roads, in this county. His father, bers of the cabinet. These gentlemen generously preshortly afterwards, removed with his family to Philadel. sented the society with the minerals they had collected, phia, and became well known as a celebrated teacher in and by this seasonable supply, encouraged us in the lathe University of Pennsylvania. Francis was liberally I bours which attended the commencement of our under


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From the above review, it appears that at an early pe cabinet, from Doctor John T. Sharpless, of Philadel riod, considerable knowledge was diffused over Chester phia. county, in relation to Natural Science, and that many Mr. William Nelson, of Downingtown, and Dr. M. persons had been actively engaged in the study. But Comegys, of Philadelphia, some time since, presented no connexion existed to concentrate the efforts, and us with a variety of scarce and antique coins, which are stimulate the exertions of individuals. In the year 1825, the more valuable, in our estimation, as they form a reseveral gentlemen were accustomed to assemble weekly, spectable beginning for a collection of curiosities of this in the vicinity of West Chester, to accompany Doctor kind. Darlington in his Botanical explorations. The associa The preceding sketches exhibit, in a general vies, tion gradually formed by this means, presented a favour- the progress made by the cabinet, in completing the able opportunity for instituting a permanent Society, for purposes for which the society was formed. As the the cultivation of Natural Science. In this manner the hidden resources of the county are explored, there is Chester county cabinet was produced, having for its ob- very little doubt that many valuable articles will be ject the study of Nature, and more especially a collec- brought to light. Only a few of the townships have, as țion of the materials necessary for a complete natural his- yet, been investigated with much accuracy, and ever tory of the county. The Society held its first stated these; it is believed, will, on more minute inspection, be meeting the 18th March, 1826. The number of the found to contain minerals that have not as yet been dis members is at present twenty-five, and of the corres- covered within their limits. The South West section pondents eleven: as the constitution requires that mem- of the county has been almost totally neglected. As it bers and correspondents shall be admitted unanimously, is located in the direction of the ranges of lime-stone, it by ballot, the number will probably be restricted, but is not improbable that it will be found to contain a por the harmony of the Society will be less liable to inter- tion of that valuable mineral of the other parts of ruption.

Chester county, the townships which contain the ridges Called into existence under such favourable circum- of Serpentine promise to be the most interesting to the stances, located in a county distinguished for the variety Naturalist ; for the Serpentine frequently contains a and abundance of its mineral and botanical productions, great variety of minerals, and, sometimes, valuable encouraged and patronized by an intelligent and liberal veins of Chromate of Iron. community, the Chester county cabinet, from the time

DIVIDENDS. of its formation, has progressed rapidly in accomplishing Philadelphia Bank for the last 6 months 24 per cent. the purposes for which it was instituted.

Commercial Bank


3 do The cabinet has provided two cases for minerals and Southwark Bank


do two herbaria, with the view of keeping the productions Mechanics' Bank

do 45 do of our own region distinct from all others; by this plan Kensington Bank

do 41

do we are able to ascertain immediately the natural re. Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank do 3 do sources of Chester county. Our general cabinet con- Bank of Northern Liberties do


do tains three hundred and eighty-two specimens, and Schuylkill Bank

3 ninety-three distinct species, with numerous interesting Bank of Germantown do

do varieties. The case for the minerals of Chester county Frankford and Bristol Turnpike Company $2 per share: contains two hundred and sixty-six specimens, and about forty-seven distinct species; also a variety of Indian re-. Southwark.–The following is the result of the elec: lịcs and antiquities, which, at a future period wil), no tion for commissioners of the dsitrict of Southwark, held doubt, be regarded with strong curiosity.

on Monday last. The five first named gentlemen are The Florula Cestrica, published by Doctor Darling- elected. ton, in the spring of 1826, may be referred to, as con- Lemuel Paynter 892 Charles Finney 496 taining the names of nearly all the plants deposited in John R. M.Mullin 823 Samuel Traner

384 the Herbarium for the productions of Chester county.

William Nesbitt 686 Daniel Green

295 It enumerates seven hundred and thirty-five phænoga- John Keefe

670|George M'Leod

75 mous plants, which are either indigenous or naturalized Dennis Sweeney 543\John Diamond

74 in Chester county; beside one hundred and eighteen Penn Township. The following is the result of the which are cultivated for useful purposes. The general election in Penn Township, on Monday. Herbarium belonging to the cabinet, contains upwards 1st Tickets.

20 Tickets. of one thousand four hundred species, from places be. Benj. Davis

590|Benj. Davis

590 yond Chester county; of which number six hundred and Dani. Hotz

501 - Walton

171 seventy-three are from Europe.

Philip Lowry 468\J. Spackman Of late a few of the members of the cabinet have turn- Joseph Taylor 490 Lewis Lowry

199 ed their attention to Zoology: Mr. David Townsend D. D. Erdman 465 Charles Souder

178 prepared and presented a variety of insects, and from

Mr. Davis was on both Tickets. his known zeal and perseverance, we have reason to be

Bank of Penn Township: lieve that he will continue his useful labours in this de. At an election for thirteen Directors for that Instit partment of science. Doctor Isaac Thomas is entitled tion, held at the Commissioners' Hall on the 6th instant; to particular credit for his unwearied industry, and great the vote resulted as follows, viz. taste and skill in collecting and preparing specimens in Daniel H. Miller 1415|Lawrence Shuster 206 Ornithology: he has constantly proved himself to be a Joseph Taylor 1425 David Woelper

203 very zealous and useful member of the cabinet. We Dr. G. W. Riter 1269 James S. Spencer are indebted to him and to Doctor Wilmer Worthington Nath. Davidson 2208 Elijah Dallet

275 and Mr. John Marshall, for several species of the Falco Lewis Lowry 1340 James J. Rush

126 and the Stry:—for a preparation of the Larus canus- John M. Ogden 1316 Miles N. Carpenter

S9 the Loxia cardinalis--and two specimens of the Canis W. S. Frederick 1167|Charles King

100 Vulpes. The Stryxy nyctea was presented by General Gideon Scull

1416 Robert A. Parish 87 Cuningham, and the Colymbus glacialis by Samson Babb, An'y M'Connell 1377 R. V. Massey

51 Esq. The above notices embrace nearly all that has James S. Huber 1244 H. Frederickson

9 been done by the cabinet, in this department of Natural Isaac Koons

1351 Robert Parish

14 History; but we have no doubt that, as the society be- Ran. Hutchinson

1341 comes better established, individuals belonging to it Jacob Alter

13741 will apply themselves, with success, to the various Society for the Relief of Poor and Distressed Shipmas. branches of Zoology.

ters, &c. -Receipts during the year $2,067 74-Expend. A large donation of Shells has been received by the led in charities $1,876 19.


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NO. 20. Eored de reclo ti THE KING'S DECLARATION.

Pensilvania, formerly under the protection and goThe King's Declaration to the Inhabitants and Planters of

vernment to his Royal Highness, as the same is bounded Inspectie Pennsylvania.

on the east by Delaware river, from twelve miles dis.

tance northwards of New Castle town, unto the three CRARLES R.

and fortieth degree of northern latitude if the said river glected

Whereas his majesty, in consideration of the great doth extend fo far torthward, then by the said river so merit and faithful services of Sir William Penn, deceas far as it doth extend, and from the head of the said river ed, and for divers other. good causes, him thereunto the eastern bounds to be determined by a meridian lyne moving, hath been graciously pleased, by letters-patent, to be drawn from the head of the said river unto the bearing date the fourth day of March, last past, to give said three and fortieth degree, ye same to extend westand grant unto Willam Penn, Esq. son and heir of the ward five degrees in longitude to be computed from the said Sir William Penn, all that tract of land in America, sd. eastern bounds, and to be bounded on the north by called by the name of Pennsylvania, as the same is the sd. three and fortieth degree of northerne latitude, bounded, on the east, by Delaware river, from twelve and on the south by a circle drawn at twelve miles dismiles distance northward of New-Castle town, unto the tance from New Castle northwards and westwards unto three and fortieth degree of northern latitude, if the the beginning of the three and fortieth degree of northsaid river doth extend so far northward; and, if the said ern latitude, and then by a strait lyne westwards to the river shall not extend so far northward, then, by the limit of longitude aforementioned, with all powers presaid river so far as it doth extend, and from the head of heminences and jurisdictions necessary for the governthe said river, the eastern bounds to be determined by a ment of a province, as by letters patents doth at large meridian line, to be drawn from the head of the said appear which with his Majesty's Gracious Letter directriver, unto the said three and fortieth degree; and the ed to the Inhabitants and Planters within the said limitsy said province to extend westward five degrees in longi- and a Commission from the said William Pem to tude, to be computed from the said eastern bounds; and the bearer hereof William Marckham, Esquire; to to be bounded on the north by the beginning of the be his Deputy Governor of the sd. Province have been three and fortieth degree of northern latitụde, and on produced and shewn to us, and are entered upon Record the south, by a circle drawn at twelve milės distance, in the office of Records for this Province; and by, us from New-Castle, north ward and westward unto the be- highly approved of as his Majesty's royal will' and pleaginning of the fortieth degree of north latitude, and sure, therefore thought fit to intimate the same to you then bị a straight line westward to the limit of longitude, to prevent any doubt

or trouble that might arize, and to above mentioned; together with all powers, prehemi- give you our thanks for your good seryices donc in your nences and jurisdictions,' necessary for the govern- several offices and stations during the time you remainment of the said province, as by the said letters patent, ed under his Royal Highnesse government: expecting reference being thereunto had, doth more at large ap- noe further account than that you readdily submit and pear.

yield all due obedience to the sd. letters pattents, ac"His majesty doth, therefore, hereby publish and cording to the true intent and meaning thereof, in the declare his royal will and pleasure, that all persons set- performance and enjoyments of which we weish you tled, or inhabiting within the limits of the said province, all happinesse. do yield all due obedience to the said William Penn, (Signed) ANTHONY BROCKHOLLS, his heirs and assigns, as absolute proprietaries and go

New York 21st June, 1681.
vernors thereof, as also to the deputies, agents or licu-
tenants, lawfully commissioned by him, or them, ac- To the several Justices of the Peace, Magistraets and
cording to the powers and authorities, granted by the other officers within the bounds and limits above men.
said letters patent, wherewith his Majesty expects tioned, now called Pensilvania.
and requires a ready compliance from all persong

By order in Councill, &c.
whom it may concern, as they tender his Majesty's dis-

(Signed) JOHN WEST, Clr. Counc. “Given at the court, at White-hall, the second day

of April, 1681, in the three and thirtieth year
our rieigra."

AND PROPOSALS, &c. 1631.
By his Majesty's special command,

CONWAY." Soon after the grant of the province was confirined

to William Penn, he published an account of it from Order of Anthony Brockholls, Lieutenant Governor of the best information he then had. It is printed in a fa

New York, who was appointed to that office by Sir lio pamphlet of ten pages, and is entitled
Edmund Andross, previous to his departure for En-

Some Account of the Province of Pennsilvania in AmBy the Commander and Council.

ericni; lately Granted under the Great Seal of England

to William Penn, &c. Together with Priviledges and Whereas his Majesty hath been graciously pleased by Powers necessary to the well-governing thereof. Made his letters patent, bearing date the 4th day of March publick for the Information of such as are or may be dislast, to give and grant to William Penn, Esq. all the posed to Transport themselves or Serrants into those tract of land in America, now called by the name of Parts."

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LONDON: Printed, and Sold by Benjamin Clark Book and bestow thrice more in all necessaries and conveniseller in George-Yard Lombard-street, 1681. ences (and not a little in ornamental things too) for

themselves, their wives and children, both as to appaWe have been favoured with the use of it for our pre-rel and houshold-stuff; which coming out of England, I

say 'tis impossible that England should not be a considerasent purpose, by J. P. Norris, Esq.

ble gainer.

4thly. But let it be consider'd, that the plantations SOME ACCOUNT, &c.

imploy many hundreds of shipping, and many thousands

of seamen; which must be in divers respects an advanSince (by the good providence of God) a country in tage to Englund, being an island, and by nature fitted America is fallen to my lot, I thought it not less my duty for navigation above any country in Europe. This is than my honest interest to give some publick notice of followed by other depending tradés, as shipwrights, carit to the world, that those of our own, or other nations; penters, sawyers, hewers, trunnel-makers, joyners, slopthat are inclin'd to transport themselves or families be sellers, dry-salters, iron-workers, the Eastland-mer yond the seas, may find another country added to their chants, timber-sellers, and victuallers, with many more choice, that if they shall happen to like the places, con- trades which hang upon navigation: so that we may ca: ditions, and coristitutions, (so far as the present infancy sily see the objection (that colonies or plantations hurt of things will allow us any prospect) they may, if they England) is at least of no strength, especially if we tonplease, fix with me in the province hereafter describ’d. sider how many thousand blacks and Indians are also acBut before I come to treat of my particular concern- commodated with cloaths and many sorts of tools and ment, I shall take leave to say something of the bene- utensils from England, and that their labour is mostly fit of plantations or colonies in general, to obviate a com- brought hither, which adds wealth and people to the mon objection.

English dominions. But 'tis further said, they injure Colonies then are the seeds of nations begun and nou- England, in that they draw away too many of the people; rished by the care of wise and populous countries; as for we are not so populous in the countries as formerly: I conceiving them best for the increase of humane stock, say there are other reasons for that. and beneficial for commerce.

1st. Country-people are so extremely addicted to put Some of the wisest men in history, have justly taken their children into gentlemens service, or send them to their farne from this design and service: we read of the towns to learn trades, that husbandry is neglected; and reputation given on this account to Moses, Joshua and after a soft and delicate usage there, they are for ever Caleb in Scripture-records; and what renown the Greek. unfitted

for the labour of a farming life. story yields to Lycurgus, Theseus, and those Greeks that planted many parts of Asia: nor is the Roman account

2dly. The pride of the age in its attendance and retinud wanting of instances to the credit of that people; they is so gross and universal, that where a man of 10001 had a Romulus, a Numa Pompilius; and not only re-year formerly kept but four or five servants, he now ducd, but moraliz'd the manners of the nations they keeps more than twice the number; he must have a subjected; so that they may have been rather said to gentleman to wait upon him in his chambers, a coachconquer their barbarity than them.

man, a groom or two, a butler, a man-cook, a gardner,

two or three lacques, it may be an huntsman, and a Nor did any of these ever dream it was the way of faulkner, the wife a gentlewoman, and maids accordingdecreasing their people or wealth: for the cause of the ly: this was not known by our ancestors of like quality: decay of any of those states or empires was not their This hinders the plough and the dairy, from whence they plantations, but their luxury and corruption of manners: are taken, and instead of keeping people to manly-lafor when they grew to neglect their ancient discipline, bour, they are efieminated by a lazy and luxwious liv: that maintained and rewarded virtue and industry, and ing; but which is worse; these people rarely marry; tho' addicted themselves to pleasure and effeminacy, they de many of them do worse; but if they do, 'tis when they bas’d their spirits and debauch'd their morals, from are in age; and the reason is clear, because their usual whence ruine did never fail to follow to any people: keeping at their masters is too great and costly for them with justice therefore I deny the vulgar opinion against with a family at their own charge, and they searcely plantations, that they weaken England; they have mani- know how to live lower; so that too many of them chuse festly inrich'd, and so strengthened her; which I briefly rather to vend their lusts at an evil ordinary than honest. evidence thus.

ly marry and work: the excess and sloth of the age not al1st. Those that go into a foreign plantation, their in- lowing of marriage and the charge that follows; all which dustry there is worth more than if they stay'd at home, hinders the increase of our people. If men, they often the product of their labour being in commodities of atún either soldiers, or gamesters, or highway-men. If superior nature to those of their country, For instance: women, they too frequently dress themselves for a bad what is an improvedl acre in Jamaica or Barbadoes worth market, rather than know the dairy again, or honestly to an improved acre in England? We know 'tis three return to labour, whereby it happens that both the stock times the value, and the product of it comes for Eng of the nation decays and the issue is corrupted. land, and is usually paid for in English growth and manufarture. Nay, Virginia shows that an ordinary industry

3dly. Of old time the nobility and gentry spent their in one man produces three thousand pound weight of estates in the country, and that kept the people in it; tobacco and twenty barrels of corn yearly: he feeds him their masters favour, which peopled the place: now the

and their servants married and sate at easie rents under self, and brings as much of commodity into England besides as being return'd in the growth and workmanship great men (too much loving

the town and resorting to of this country, is much more than he could bave spent either don't marry; or if they do, they pine away their

London) draw many people thither to attend them, who here: let it also be remembered, that the three thou- small gains in some petty shop; for there are so many, sand weight of tobacco brings in three thousand two

they prey upon one another. pences by way of custom to the king, which makes twenty-five pounds; an extraordinary profit.

4thly. The country being thus neglected, and no due

ballance kept between trade and husbandry, city and coun. 2dly. More being produc'd and imported than we can try, the poor country-man takes double toil, and cannot spend here, we export it to other countries in Europe, (for want of hands) dress and manure his land to the adwhich brings in money, or the growth of those countries, vantage it formerly yielded him, yet must he pay the old which is the same thing; and this is the advantage of the rents, which occasions servants, and such children as go English-merchants and seamen.

not to trades, to continue single, at least all their youth3dly. Such as could not only not marry here, but ful time; which also obstructs the increase of our peohardly live and allow themselves cloaths, do marry there, ple.

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