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ANNALS OF PHILADELPHIA.
Nothing has been said respecting the price of provi- every buckett to the number of one hundred, provided sions either in Hudson or Manchester; but we believe they are equally good with the sample he now offers, & we are perfectly safe in setting that, at tliis place, down well painted with oil colours. at one-half. However, as we have no certain data by Edward Nicholls now applying to the board for leave which to make the comparison, we will quote a part of to make a vault before his house at a corner of Chesnut the Pittsburg prices, which are very near the same as street, the board upon the sd application do allow the those of Kittanning:
sd Edward Nicholls to make a vault paying twelve Butter 6 a 7 cts.; cheese 54 a 6; candles 9 a 10; coffee pounds p ann. as a rent or acknowledgment to the cor8. in bags 16 a 18; cotton 84 a 9.
poration. Copperas 31 a 33; four $3 p. bbl.; wheat 45; barley Isaac Norris & Daniel Radley are desired to get the 40; rye 31; corn 31-plenty.
common shore near the bridge in second st: immedi. Onions, bush. 50 a 75; pork 24 a 3; potatoes 40; sugar diately repaired. N. 0. lb. 73 a 8; country do. 6; lump 16 a 17; loaf 17 a 4 July, 1730.-T. Griffiths, Mayor. 19; tallow, (ren,) 8.
The Mayor acquainted the board that the two ffire Beeswax 23; whiskey, old, gal. 28, new 19,
engines, and two hundred and fifty of the fire buckets, As to facilities of transportation, no section of the which were sent for to England, are lately brought over, Union is superior to this. Situated at the head of steam and desired the board would consider of proper places
, boat navigation, and also near the great Pennsylvania ca- not only to keep them from the weather, but also for nal, and the almost certain prospect of the Allegheny the conveniency of speedily carrying them upon any acbecoming the channel by which the Canal and the Ohio cident of ffire.' The board having taken the same into river will be united with Lake Erie, it will at once com consideration, are of opinion, That one corner of the mand the trade of the cast, the west, and the north; cot- great meeting house yard will be a proper place to lodge ton can be brought from New Orleans, Alabama, or one of the new Engines, the other new engine, at the Tennessee, at from * to 1 cent per lb. and delivered at corner of ffrancis Jones's lott, which ffronts the ffront the factory. When manufactured, it can either be put st. & Walnutt street, and the old Engine in a corner of into the steam boats and sent westward or northward, the Baptist meeting house yard (if leave can be obtainor upon the canal and be sent eastward, or thrown into ed,) and that the bucketts be hung up in the court the Pittsburg market. Drugs can be procured here as house. cheap as in the eastern states; and certainly wages are as 17 April, 1732_C. Hasell, Mayor.
The board taking under consideration the frequent & It is one of the simplest positions in the world, that if tumultous meetings of the negroe slaves, especially on a man can erect the buildings, procure the raw material, Sunday, Gaming, Cursing, Swearing & committing fuel, provisions, &c. at 40, 50, or 60 per cent. less price many other disorders, to the great terrour and disquiet than his neighbour, his profits will be proportionably of the inhabitants of this city. In order not only to pregreater, or otherwise he can dispose of the manufactured vent such mecting & disorders for the ffuture, but also article proportionably lower. This, we believe, we have to prevent children & white servants meeting in such satisfactorily shown, would be the case in the coal dis- great numbers on the sd day to play games & make district of the Allegheny river.
turbances & noise in the city, It is by this board, thought Almost any species of the manufacture could be pro- necessary that an ordinance be forthwith drawn & pre: secuted here to the greatest advantage, but especially pared to prevent the same. such as require much power or fuel. No place could be 18 Aug. 1732. better adapted to the manufacture of glass than this, on The Mayor acquainted the board that the Hon. Thos, account of the cheapness of fuel, and the abundance of Penn, Esq. one of our proprietors, being lately arived in the best sand. (see Geddes's Report.) Our hills are filled this city, He thought it the duty of this board to give with iron ore, and thickly covered with timber; conse- him a handsome welcome by providing a decent collaquently this is a profitable business, especially as there tion to entertain him at the expense of the corporation, is very little expense attending its transportation to mar- to which the board unanimously agreed, & the time ap. ket.
pointed is on Monday next at the Court-house, & the The climate is delightful and remårkably healthy; Mayor & Recordr. are desired to give the invitation to here are no burning fevers or chilling agues to under the Proprietor, Govr. & such gentlemen as they shall mine the constitution, and check the ardour of enter think proper to invite, & the Mayor & Aldn. Griffiths prise and industry. All the necessaries of life are cheap are appointed to make proper provision for the said En. and plenty; the country is rapidly populating and improv- tertainment.* ing.' Here the great artificial channels of navigation 29 Octr. 1733.- A Memorial from the Monthly Meetmeet the waters of the Mississippi, whose immense val. ing of ffriends being read, It is ordered that a former 01 iey will soon be filled with inhabitants; and through der for preparing an Ordinance for the regulating of ne these channels will those inhabitants seek a market
. groes & white servants within this city be further putt in Here three of the most valuable minerals are found in execution, & that the person appointed for drawing it, exhaustless quantities: iron, coal and salt. Here may produce the same at the next Council, that the same man enjoy all the blessings of life, and all the comforts of may be settled and passed. civilization; and here, eventually, will be the key-stone i7 Octr. 1734. T. Lawrence, Mayor. between the east and the west. View this country in 25 Nov 1734–The Mayor exhibited to the board an what light you may, you will see the foundation of great- acct. amounting to £9. 18. 6. he had paid to John New. ness and wealth. It is impossible that it can long escape burry for the Entertaining of Coll. Montgomery late the attention of capitalists and men of business: the Gov. of New York.—The board having taken sd. acct. canal passing through it will bring it into notice, and into consideration do order that the Treasurer of ye Corthis is all that is recessary.
poration do pay the Mayor the sd. sum.
28 July 1735–Edward Woulley exhibited an acct. ANNALS OF PHILADELPHIA.
amt. to ten shillings & six pence for work done to the
tables & benches in the court house at the time of the From the recovered minutes of the Common Council, entertainment of the proprietor. It is ordered that the
treasurer pay the same. from 1704 to 1776; extracted for the Pennsylvania
8 May, 1736-W. Allen, Mayor. Gazette.
20 Sepr. 1737.--The Clerk of the Market now ExThomas Oldman now producing to this board a leather ffire buckett for a sample, the same is approved of and The same proceedings as above took place at the the board now agree with him to pay nine shillings for arrival of the Hon. John Penn, Esq.
hibiting to this Board a Complaint of several Nusances clamation for that purpose was ordered to be drawn, & that are at present in the Market by persons blowing of that the same should be published in the City by the Meat, selling Goods, bringing Empty Carts & lying of Beadle. horses in the Market place, The Board refer the said Complaint to the said Committee to Consult of proper
ATHENEUM. measures to be taken for preventing the like Nusances for the future.
Extracts from thé Report of the Directors, read February. 8 Aug. 1737-C. Plumsted, Mayor.
4, 1828. Alderman Roberts, Israel Pemberton & Joseph Paschal are appointed to get the part of High Street over Without attempting any comparison between this and the Swamp called Centre Swamp repaired, & an Arch other institutions, we may claim for the Athenæum that made about two feet wide to carry off the Water & a it unites great attractions of amusement and information, Causeway of Seventy feet wide with good ditches of which are dispensed in a manner that studies to consult each side & have the same completed with all expedi- every interest and dispositions during fifteen hours of tion.
every day except Sunday. The ample, airy, well light29 Augt. 1737.-Alderman Morris & Israel Pember- ed, and well warmed apartments of the Athenæum, situton, two of the Persons appointed at the last Council to ated as they are in the centre of business, and on one of get the Arch made over High Street at ffourth Street our most beautiful public squares, are sufficiently well have prepared now to continue the said Arch along ye known to our citizens. But it may not be unprofitable sd ffourth Street until the Water ffalls into the Lotts of information for our members and the public, to state Anthony Morris, & to pave the same, it being about two that in the northern room there are regularly received hundred feet, if they can have the Liberty of getting Vo- and filed 81 American newspapers, of which 22 are publuntary subscriptions & twenty-five pounds paid, the lished daily, 12 twice a week, and 47 once a week; bemost of the Money which may hereafter be raised by a sides two daily and two weekly British, and three daily Tax, which proposal being Considered was agreed by French newspapers, and one weekly paper published the Board.
in German in this city. In the same room are many vo5 June 1738—T. Griffiths, Mayor.
lumes of newspapers in regular series, some of them The Mayor and Comonalty met in Council this day commencing with and illustrating the earliest periods of in order to wait on the Hon. Coll. George Thomas, our our history. In the southern room are regularly receivGov. who arrived in this Government on Thursday last, ed 41 literary and scientific journals, of which 18 are to congratulate him on his safe arrival.
published in the United States, 20 in Great Britain, and 3d July 1738- The Mayor acquainted the Board that 3 in France. On the shelves may be found, and may several of the Barbers of this city had applied to him to be consulted at any moment, a library of current literatake proper measures to prevent persons Exercising ture, exceeding in number 4000 volumes. that trade on the first day of the week called Sunday, There are also in the rooms, more than sixty maps, and the Mayor desired the opinion of the Board what some of them very rare, and the best Encyclopædias, measures would be proper to take for preventing that Gazetteers, and other works of reference and authority. practice for the future. The Board having taken the It ought not to be omitted that strangers are admitted to same into consideration do Order that notice sh’d. be the free use of the rooms, on the introduction of a memforth with given to all persons exercising the sd. Trade ber. From a record kept in the room, it appears that within this city to forbear following the Imploy on the more than 1000 strangers were introduced during the sd, day or that the Law of the Province for restraining past year. persons from working on the first day of the week should Thus furnished and conducted, it is believed that tliis be strictly put in Exccution against them.
Institution is entitled to a continuance of the public fa-A Draught of an Ordinance for the better regulation of vour, and we may hope to an enlargement of its list of the more Effectual suppressing Tumultuous meetings & members corresponding to its capacity for increased other disorderly doings of the Negroes, Mullatos, & In
usefulness. dian servts. & slaves within this city and Liberties there. Receipts during the year
$3185 51 of was read and several amendments made and it was or. Expenditures
2743 74 dered to be left to the further Consideration of the Board at their meeting:
Of which were for purchase of books, $695 43;— 13 Oct 1740C. Hassell, Mayor..
newspapers, $335 60; postage $110; rent, 500; oil and The Board now took into Consideration the placing candles, $171 59; wood and coal, 105 13; librarian's of moving Stalls on the East side of the court house as salary, $600; commissions $122 80; incidental $102 22. far as Letitia Court and there being formerly a model
Directors. prepared by a committee, appointed by the Board for Roberts Vaux, Thomas I. Wbarton, George Vaux, Wilthat purpose, and the Winter season of the year being liam Smith, Jacob Gratz, Wm. Lehman, Quintin Campfar'advanced so that the same cannot be paved—It is the bell, Benjamin Tilghman, John Vaughan, Clement č. opinion of this Board that the Middle of the Street from Biddle, Peter S. Duponceau, Edward Ingersoll, John the Pillory to the sd. Letitia Court be forthwith posted M. Scott, James S. Smith, Samuel Norris. and gravelled to the Breadth of Twenty foot. 18 June, 1741-C. Hassell, Mayor.
HISTORICAL ANECDOTE: The Board having taken into consideration the Cur. There stands to this day, near the river Susquehannag rency of the English Halfpence and the Disquiet that is in the borough of Harrisburgh, the trunk of a mulberry among the Inhabitants, occasioned by some persons re- tree, that flourished in full vigour, when William Penn fusing to take them, as was lately agreed at a Meeting first arrived in the Delaware. At the foot of this tree of the Merchants & others, & should the same be Low- there is a grave, surrounded by a board fence. It is the ered as Intended by some at Eighteen to the shilling, it sepulchre of the father of the founder of the present seat would be a means of having them carried out of the Pro- of government of Pennsylvania. He came to America vince, & persons trading would be at a loss to make soon after Penn. He was a Yorkshireman by birth, and small change. The Board thought proper that a De- in humble life; and it is said assisted to clear away the claration should be made publick by the Board, that the wood, grub the stumps, and open the streets of Phila-sd halfpence shd be taken at fifteen to the shilling, which delphia. Being an enterprising man, he soon became is adjudged to be nearest to such value, as might dis- an active pioneer, and with the fruit of his industry comcourage too great a quantity being Imported, & at the mencing a trade with the Indians, penetrated by degrees same time prevent their being carried away, & a Pro- I to the westward, until he reached the Susquehanna, on
the left bank of which river he built himself a cabin, and domestic fidehty, and above all of the watchfulness of sat down permanently at the very spot where the town Him “who alone can inflict or “withhold the stroke of of Harrisburg now stands.
death." Here he deposited his merchandise, and opened a pro. "It may not be irrelevant to mention a few statistica. fitable commerce with his red neighbours, who were nu. facts illustrative of the change that has taken place, since merous about the Paxton creek, and had several villages the date of the foregoing adventure, on the spot to which in its vicinity, along the Susquehanna shore. Mr. Har- the narrative refers. ris acquired the friendship of most of these tribes, re. Mr. John Harris, son of the subject of this communiceiving their peltry and other objects of Indian traffic, cation, founded a town on his patrimonial estate, in 1785, for his ammunition and rum. This led to an active ex. which he called Harrisburg; and built an elegant stone change of commodities, and gradually enabled him to mansion where the hut had stood, and about one hunpurchase the land adjacent to his establishment, and to dred and fifty yards from the celebrated mulberry tree. undertake considerable agricultural improvements.* Harrisburg, now the seat of the State government of
The majestic Susquehanna, nearly a mile broad, flow. Pennsylvania, contains a population of nearly four thoued in front of his hut, while along its high banks nothing sand souls. It communicates with the opposite shore was to be seen but one dark mass of woods, reaching to by a covered bridge nearly a mile long, erected by the the summit of the lofty bills that bounded the view in State and individuals at an expense of 195,000 dollars. every direction. In the bosom of this wilderness Mr. The public buildings for the accommodation of governIlarris's fainily was located, and here was born Mr. Johnment are very splendid, and cost 252,000 dollars, and Harris, who, in the year 1785, laid out Harrisburg, and were paid for out of the State treasury. who was the first white child born to the west of Cone This borough is the county town of Dauplin, and conwago creek.
tains six churches, two of which are handsome, and were In this state of things, it happened one day, that a constructed by Mr. Hills, an architect of taste and scinumber of his Indian customers, who had been drinking ence.* There are four hundred dwelling houses, and a freely, called for an additional supply of rum. On Mr. probability of a great increase, when the Pennsylvania Harris's refusing to gratify them, they dragged him from canal shall be finished, for that useful work will pass his hut, and bound bim to that very mulberry tree, at through the town. The court-bouse is a spacious and the foot of which he now lies buried.
convenient building. A theatre was erected a few Here they declared to burn him alive, and badle him years ago, but rather prematurely. The borough bus prepare for instant death. Dry wood was gathered and considerable trade, and sustains a Bank in good reputafire held in readiness to kindle it; the yells of the exas- tion.
SAMUEL BRECK. perated savages echoed along the shore, while with de
of the County of Philadelphia. moniac gestures they danced around their victim. Death in its most cruel form was before him, and bereft of hope
P. S.—The foregoing narrative was submitted in subhe gave himself for lost. In vain did he supplicate for stance to the inspection of Mr. Robert Harris, and demercy, and offer every thing in exchange for life; deaf clared by him to be correct. to his entreaties, and determined on his destruction, they declared he should die. The fire was brought to the
. Since the date of Mr. Breck's communication, a Ropile, and about being applied, when a band of friendly man Catholic and a Methodist church, both very neat indians, in numbers sufficient to rescue him, burst from buildings, have been added to the number. The formthe woods and set him at liberty.
er is indeed an exceedingly pretty edifice and is erected These Indians were led on by a negro man named on a handsome site about midway between the State Hercules, a slave belonging to Álr. Harris, who at the house and the river. A new front to the Presbyterian first aların ran to a neighbouring tribe to beg for suc
church, which was formerly destitute of architectural cour, and now brought it to his master's relief. The de; churches in Harrisburg are now the following, viz.
beauty, has greatly improved its appearance. The liverance was well timed. A moment's delay would have been fatal. The presence of mind, the decision, Two Methodist, an Episcopalian, a Presbyterian, a Luthe speed of this negro alone saved the respectable Mr. theran, a German Calvinist, a Roman Catholic, and any Harris; and so scnsible was he of the great service ren.
Unitarian. -Mem. Penn. Historical Society. dered to him by this poor slave, that he instantly emanci. pated him, and the descendants of the worthy llercules
Apprentices Library. now reside at Harrisburg, and enjoy their freedom so nobly won, in the bosom of the large community who
The average number of boys using the Library during occupy the ground on which the occurrence took the past year, exceeded 600, being considerably greater place.
than at any former time. The new applicants during Wherever this story is related, let the virtuous Afii. the same period amounted to 612, and those now using can share largely in our praise and admiration.
the Library 778. New members elected since last reAn escape so providential was suited to make a deep port 19: Receipts $550 25, expenditures 561 02. and lasting impression on the mind of Mr. Harris. Pi.
Ileather.-On Monday last it commenced snowing ous and grateful feelings fastened on the heart. It was
early in the morning, and continued to show during the a signal deliverance; it was a manifest evidence of God's day; notwithstanding the ground was unprepared by the merciful interposition. Struck with this conviction, Mr. rains of the previous day, to retain it
, the depth of snow Harris, in order to perpetuate the memory of it among
was several inches. There was also snow at Hartishis own descendants, directed that at his death his body
burgh. should be deposited at the foot of this mulberry tree; blished a new post office at Penn township, Philadel
New Post Ofice. ---The Postmaster General has estaand there it lics, a memento at once of sarage ebricty,
phia county, and Jeremiah Hukill, esq. bas been ap• We learn from some of Mr. Harris's descendants, pointed post master. that he had, previous to his emigration, worked as a brewer in London, and that he brought with him to this Printed every Saturday morning by W:lliam F. GEDcountry sixteen guineas, which was the whole of his pro- nes, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at perty. His first purchase of land on the Susquehanna the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, Subscripwas a tract of five hundred acres from Edward Shippen, tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per for which he paid £190. The deed is dated 19 Dec. annum-payable in six montiis after the commencement 1733. Mr. Harris was the first person who introduced of publication-and annually thereafter, by Subscribers the use of the plough in the neighbourhood of the Sus- resident in or near the city-or where there is an agent. quchanna.
Other subscribers pay in advance.
DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.
EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.
CHANGES IN THE RIVER DELAWARE. between the north end of Tinnicum and the Pennsylva?
nia shore, not exceeding two or three feet deep at low IN 1820 a survey of a section of the river from one water, on which several small vessels grounded while we smile below Chester to Richmond, above Philadelphia, were surveying in that vicinity. A communication of was made by David M'Clure, by order of the city coun
the existence of this shoal was immediately made, and a cils. From the interesting Report which he made to Esq. chairman of the committee appointed to superin.
rough draft of the same forwarded to Joseph S. Lewis, them, and which was published in a pamphlet form, we tend the survey, who reported the same to the proper have made the following extracts, exhibiting the changes authority. The buoys were accordingly directed to be in the river which had occurred in the twelte or fifteen placed in a proper position to designate the shoal, which
has since been done. years preceding the survey.
This channel should be navigated with great caution, Considerable changes have taken place in the river, on account of the irregularity of the ground, and the since the last twelve or fifteen years. The island called rapid cross current which prevails during the flood Gibbet Island, formerly opposite the mouth of Schuyl
tide. kill, is entirely swept away: the fragments thereof seem The pier opposite fort MiMin, formerly called Davis' to be scattered down the river, and to have formed a pier, now known by the name of Gaines' fort, was sunk considerable flat.
in the year 1777, in eighteen feet at low water. To this Bush Island, formerly situated opposite Red Bank, bas pier is attributed the formation of a long bar, which ex: shared the same fate: the ground on which it stood, and tends upwards of a mile down the rivers and has proved for some distance below it, is considerably irregular and very injurious to our navigation. At both ends of Chester Island, the flats seem
The water seems to be undermining this pier very rato be increasing rapidly.
pidly; and, unless something be speedily done, it will It is remarkable, that where a narrow channel is found inevitably be thrown over into the river. In the year existing between an island and the main shore, the pas- 1813, under the direction of the master warden of this sage which opens up the river is shoaling, while the port, ten or twelve shallop loads of stone were thrown depth of water increases down the channel. This is the around this pier, for the purpose of preserving its safc. case in the passage between Shivers’ Island and the Jer ty, for which fears were then entertained. seys, between Monnis Island and the Jerseys, between At one of the corners towards the Jersey shore, there Tinnicum Island and Pennsylvania, between Hog Island are now, at low water, twenty-eight feet; which is ne. and Pennsylvania, between League Island and Pennsyl- cessarily from eight to ten feet below the foundation of vania, between Wind Mill Island and the Jerseys, be the pier. The soundings around the pier are exhibited tween Petty's Island and the Jerseys. This circum- in the map. stance seems universal, and consequently admits of a Between the upper end of League Island and the philosophical investigation: it is deemed improper to Pennsylvania shore, the bed of the channel is entirely enter upon it in this place.
exposed at low water. A caution' naturally presents itself to those who may
A considerable change has also taken place in the attempt passing through an inside channel from below, shoal or bar which exists at the north end of Wind Mill without a knowledge of the same. The depth of water Island. In the year 1777, a map was published by Mr. which first presents itself may seem to intimate a chan. Scull, the then city surveyor, in which this bar is repre. pic of more than sufficient depth; and the unwary may sented to be joined to the Jersey shore, at the point a Be led on to a considerable distance, and almost to the little above Cooper's ferry. upper end of the channel, before they find themselves One proposition it is of importance to notice; and that entrapped by the shoal water.
is, that wherever the water is impeded in its motion, and A considerable change has also taken place between brought into a state of rest, or made to form what is call. Hog Island and the Pennsylvania shore. Formerly, ed an eddy or counter current, there the sediment will there existed a considerable channel in that place; and be deposited, and the place become shoal. This will be it is well known, that during the revolutionary war a the case where the wharves, piers, or wrecks, exist; or large British ship passed up that channel, and attacked where a creek, sending its waters across the channel, the fort in the rear.
At present, it can be forded at low checks the velocity of the ebb tide on the shore below *ater. The soldiers often desert, and ford this channel, it; or where a creek, taking in the water ori a flood, a little below the fort, at low water.
checks the velocity of the flood tide above. Hence it Between Maiden Island, particularly towards the north is, that at the mouth of creeks we generally find flats. end and the Pennsylvania side, a considerable change the fats. This may readily be accounted for, from the
It is remarkable that the Jersej shore has almost all has taken place.
That interesting part of our navigable waters, a little circumstance of the soil being more fragile and sandy, below fort Miffin, and known by the name of the Bar, and less ten.cious, than the Pennsylvania shore. subject to many changes. On taking the survey, it was Any obstruction in the river, has a tendency to change found that the lower buoy was not situated in the most its direction; and it is worthy of notice, that the current eligible place, owing to a change that had occurred dur on the ebb is so directed by the piers below the fort, ing the preceding iwo or three months. The lower known by the name of the Boom piers, that it seems to buoy is now removed considerably further up, so that take an oblique course immediately between the two' the two buoys are very near each other.
buoys designating that part of the bar where the chanIt was also found that a considerable shoal had formed nel exists. It is probable, that if an improvement bo
SOUNDINGS IN THE RIVER DELAWARE.
made on these piers, by presenting an oblique side to especially as it terminates above that part of the city the current, it may have the happy effect of throwing a where the shipping generally lies. larger quantity of water across the river, and thereby Sloops often use this channel to an advantage; and, in deepening the channel on the bar,
contrary winds, and near high water, can tack more than There is no doubt that the ebb tide gives the river its three-fourths of the distance from shore to shore. A particular character and direction, since much more wa- vessel coming up to Philadelphia, with the wind from ter passes down than up the river. It is on this account the west, and the tide ebbing, may pass up this channel, chiefly, that so great an inequality exists between the and arrive at the city, when such arrival could not be ef. times of the ebbing and flowing of the tides; the former fected by the western channel. Similar advantages are being about seven, the latter only five hours.
afforded to a vessel descending the river. Bold banks are most exposed to the fury of a violent this channel as the more direct course; and, should there
Vessels bound above the city from below, may take current; while Aats, especially when covered with be an ebb tide; they will have less current to encounter grass, subdue the rage of a current almost into a calm.
than in the western channel. Vessels descending the The winds have a tendency not only to give the cur- river will have similar advantages. rent velocity, but also direction. Many artificial banks
A strong westerly wind drives the great mass of ica have been prostrated, by a strong wind directing the into this channel, and relieves the western side. A current against them. The banks of Hog island some contrary wind produces a contrary effect. Each chantimes suffer much from the north-east gales.
nel has been used by turns, as they have been thus clearAt the nortíí-east end of this island, we found the pro ed of ice. prietors engaged in making a new bank, in the rear of The water, on the ebb, coming out of Cooper's creek, one which, in consequence of its being a little promi- throws the current over near the flats on the south end nent, had frequently been alınost prostrated before the of Petty's island, and has a direct tendency to check north-east gales; and which was now deemed insuffi. the water from fowing freely down this eastern chancient to stand those gales any longer. The old bank nel. was surveyed, and the new one laid down.
It would be an important improvement to these banks, The bar opposite Philadelphia, and at the north end to build them with a considerable declivity on the river of Windmill island, has undergone one of the greatest side, so that the violence of the waves and current would changes, during the last year, that was ever known. On thereby be much broken.
the 16th of January last, a storm from the east broke up At the upper end of Hog island, in consequence of the icy fetters in the river. On the 17th the wind blew the vast accumulation of ground recently made, the pro- strong from the southward; and the tide rose higher than prietors were erecting banks that will enclose at least it had done for a considerable time previous, inundated fifty acres, and on the same place over which large many of the wharves, and covered them with drifting sloops formerly sailed, at high water. As these new ice.' Shortly after the flood had set in, a large body of banks were nearly completed, they were surveyed, and ice was collected on the bar, nearly opposite Arch-st. to. no attention paid to the old ones, as they will hercafter the height of nearly twenty feet, in the short period of fall entirely within the boundaries of the island, and may about ten or fifteen minutes, and continued there a numperhaps soon be obliterated.
ber of days. There can be no doubt that this bed of ice The small shoal that exists between Tinnicum Island was instrumental, in connexion with the drifting ice, ir and the Jersey shore, nearly opposite to Mr. Lodge's producing the great change that followed. dwelling, was formed from a pilot boat which was sunk The wreck lying on the east side of the island, last a number of years ago.
year, was on a line with the south edge of the wharf The remains of the British frigate Augusta, whose since which, it has been removed in a line with the north history is well known, lie at present in about six feet edge of the wharf. It is highly probable that this change depth, at low water. The sand and mud have accu- of position has promoted the change of the bar in that mulated around her for some distance, and formed a con- vicinity. siderable shoal, in which she is nearly buried. While The bar, a short time since, was surveyed, in order to we were surveying in the vicinity of that place, three or ascertain the precise change that has taken place since four eighteen pounders were grappled up from the last year. Agreeably to the recent survey, taken on the wreck, by men whose subsistence depends on that busi- 20th of July 1820, it appears that the channel of last
The cannons are perfectly free from rust, and year is now converted into a bar; and the bars of last are supposed to be in as good condition as they ever year into channels. were, after having lain in the water upwards of forty On the ebb tide, particularly towards the close, the years.
tide runs with considerable strength across the bar More than ordinary attention was bestowed on that towards the Jersey shore. This was also found to be part of the survey which is immediately within the vi- the case on the bar north of Davis's pier; opposite fort cinity of the contemplated bridge. The direction of Mifflin. the current, its tendency to produce an effect, its velocity in ebbing and Aowing, the depth and nature of the bottom, were taken with scrupulous exactness. The
Soundings of the River Delaware, from the same: ebbing and flowing of the tides make first in this place, The following is a list of the soundings, in feet, at lov as is usually the case in the shoaler channels.
water, at some of the most important parts of the river, The velocity of the current in this channel is much in- taken at right angles across from shore to shore. They ferior to that of the western channel; and, as a vertical are obtained from the map,* at certain equal distances section of the latter, in the narrowest place, is more than apart; so that the relative situation of each depth is three times as great as the former, it must of necessity readily found, by dividing a line into one part more convey the great mass of water in the ebbing and flow- than the number of soundings, and annexing to each ing of the tides.
point of division the depth in the order exhibited in The eastern channel has throughout a depth of twelve each line. feet at low frater, and in the narrowest part has a breadth From Richmond to Petty's island, 10, 15, 10, 9, 18, of four hundred and fifty feet, commanding a depth of 19, 20, 21, 20, 15, 11, 14, 12. ten feet at low water.
In the direction of Richmond, from Petty's island to This channel may be navigated, at high water, by our Jersey, 12, 16, 20, 24, 22, 14, 8. ships drawing fourteen feet. Our pilots are generally ignorant of the nature of this channel; and on extraordinary occasions only would they be induced to prefer it printed.
* Delivered to Councils with the Report, and not