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EARLY SETTLEMENT.

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Dutch Gouernor and the Comissioners the last yeare at MUCH HONERED SIR; Evoyage

Hartford and that aduise giuen by the Delegates of them The Comissioners for the Vnited Colonies of Newcharg to both for the quiet and peacable Improuement of their England being now mett att hartford as theire Course e shouk seuerall Rightes in Delaware tell the aforsaid diference this yeare fales haue been Reminded of the well knowne ald seix shalbee determined in Europe.

Right some of the English of Newhauen Collonie haue nto Home The Comissioners vpon these and seuerall other con to seuerall large Tractes of land on both sides Delaware damar sideracons thought meet to write to the Dutch Gouernor Bay and Riuer; Mr. Eaton one of the present Comissione 3001b. to protest against his iniurius proceedinges to assert the ers haue shewed vs the coppy of the letter hee wrot to

and send English Right and to require satisfaction for the Damag you by order of Newbauen Court dated July the sixt haue de donn to our frinds and confeаderats of Newhauen; and 1654 and youer answare thervnto in latten Dated Au

to declare vnto the petitioners in way of answare to gust the first 1654 the Contents whereof seems strange oy all theire petition that howeuer wee think it not meete to to us all Wee were many yeares sence Informed of their

enter into a present engagement against the dutch Just Title and of the vnjust Desturbance theire Agents e repas

chusing rather to suffer iniuries and affronts (at least for found in theire planting and Trading there Both by Emprisci a time then in any respects to seem to bee to quicke; Monseir Willam Keift the former Duch Gouernor and sue thes yet if they shall see cause againe to endeauore the plant- from Monseire John Prince youer predecessor; And bich z ing of theire formencioned purchased lands in Dela therof Mr. John Winthorpe then Gouernor of the Massa

ware at any time within these twelue months and for chusetts Collony and Presedent of the Comissioners hose to that end shall at theire own charge transport together wrote to them both in Septem: 1643 And thervnto a few

150 or at least an 100 able men armed with a meet ues- Monthes after Receiued theire seuerall Answares but the sell or vessels and ammunition fitt for such an Enterprise without any satisfaction; What you write Concerning a

all to be allowed and approued by the maiestrates of Conference or Treaty before Mr. Endicott wherin New. Newhauen Jurisdiction or the greatest parte of them hauen Right was silenced or suppressed and what you that then in case they meet with any hostile opposition affeirme Concerning the Right the Sweads haue to all

from the Dutch or Sweeds whiles they carry themselues the lands on both sides Delaware Bay and Riuer from especial peacable and innoffensiuely that may call for further aid Capes Etc. is either youer owne Mistake or att least the

and assistance The Comissioners doe agree and conclude Error of them that soe enforme you Wee haue perused ER

that they shalbee supplyed by the seuerall Jurisdictions and Considered the seuerall purchases our Confeаderates with such a number of Souldiers as the afforsaid Comis- of Newhauen haue there made; the Considerations giuen sioners shall judge meet they the said plaintifes bearing Acknowlidged by the Indian propriators vnder theire the charges thereof; for the true payment wherof the hands and Confeirmed by many Christian Witnesses purchased lands and Trade there with the Natiues shal- whereby theire Right appeereth soe Cleare to vs that bee engaged tell it bee satisfyed provided alsoe and it is wee Gannot but Assert theire Just Title to the said lands agreed that such persons as shall transport themselues and desire they may peacably Injoy the same with all to the aforsaid lands in Delaware either out of Newhauen the liberties thervnto belonging; and in theire name Collonies or any of the other three shalbee and remayne and behalfe doe assure you they will by noe means desvnder the Gouerment and Jurisdiction of Newhauen tell turbe you in any of youer Just Rights; Thuse hopeing the Comissioners of the vnited Collonies shall otherwise the peace and good accord In Europe betwixt England order the same.

and Sweden will haue a powerful Influence vpon our To the Dutch Gouerner

Sperits and Carriages in these partes of America and

desiring you will with youer first conveniency Returne Mrca HoxORED SIR,

a full and cleare Answare to Mr. Eaton Gouernor of Before wee parted last yeare at Hartford you gaue vs Newhauen whoe will spedily Impart the Contents to va hopes of a comfortable meeting at Newhauen this yeare with our best Respects wee Rest what derections you had from Europe to maynteine Your Loveing Frinds and Naighbours peace and Naighborly respects with the English in A

JOHN BROWNE
merica you then shewed and best know what other

JOHN MASON
Comissions you haue sence receiued; But all the Collon-

JOHN WEBSTER
ies take notice that now you walke in contrarye pathes

FRANCIS NEWMAN you told ys of a protest you must make against such as

THEOPHILUS EATON should plant or improue (Though but theire just Rightes)

SIMON BRADSTREET on Delaware; Wee saw noe cause for that but know that

DANIEL DENISON
both youer predecessor and youer selfe had without

THOMAS PRENCE.
cause formerly protested against som of the Collonies; Hartford the 23d of September 1654.
But in youers dated Aprеll the 11th 1651 Stil. novo sent
to the Gouerner of Newhauen wee obserue you threaten
force of armed and Martiall opposition euen to bloodshed

Plymouth's refusal to assist New Haven.
against shuch as shall goe about to improue what they

(Plymouth Colony Records.]

June 5th. 1651. haue proued to bee justly theirse in Delaware; and yet

Whereas by a Letter from New Haven aide by them shew noe more of any just title you haue thereunto than you did at Hartford which left all the Delegates both for was requested and required in settleing a plantation at the English and the Dutch therein vnsatisfyed; in the Delaware against such as doe oppose them in that ressaid protest you allsoe afeirme that the planting &c. of pect, the Court having considered thereof think it not Delaware by the English enterest is contrary to the pro- have no hand in any such Contreversy about the same.

meet to answare their desire in that behalfe, and will uisionall agreement made betwixt youerselue and the Comissioners for the English Colonies which wee marvell at; those Recordes clearly expressing the contrary.” Rates at which the Counties in Pennsylvania were as

sessed, in 1694. Extracts from proceedings of the Commissioners of the

[Minutes of Council, May 26, 1694.] United Colonies, at Hartford, Sept. 7, 1654:

“Countie of Philadelphia

£314 11 11 Mr. Eaton as often formerly Soe now againe Acquaint Countie of New Castle

143 15 80 ed the Comissioners with Newhauens Right to seuerall Countie of Sussex

101 1:9 parcells of land on both sides Dellaware Bay and Riuer; Countie of Kent

88 2 10 shewed them the coppy of a letter hee lately wrote to Countie of Chester

65 0 7 the New Swedish Gouernor with his answare therevnto; Countie of Bucks

48 4 ] Vpon Consideration wherof the Commissioners wrote to the Swedish Gouernor as followeth;

£760 16 2

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INTERNAL IMPROVEMENT.

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BELLEFONTE & CENTRE COUNTY. And fourth, when fruit is destroyed by frost in our val.

lies, it is preserved on our mountains. In short, for fer The Harrisburg Intelligencer has given us a view of tility of soil

, mineral resources, manufacturing advanthe bright prospects of Harrisburg in his last paper, and tages, and every thing which can contribute to man's the Lycoming Gazette has followed suit, with an article comfort and happiness, it is not equalled or surpassed' by setting forth the advantages enjoyed and to be enjoyed any county in the state. It is none of your whortle-berry, by Williamsport, in which town that paper is published. cran-berry, or hemlock counties, calculated for the nurThis is done with a view to the increase and prosperity ture of wolves, bears and panthers, and not for the resiof those places, and is highly commendable. Whilst, dence of man, but a county abounding with advantages however, so much is saying about Harrisburg and Wil which have not hitherto been duly estimated, but which liamsport, permit us to say, that although one has the undoubtedly will be when the west branch canal is conadvantage of a river and a canal, and the other is likely structed, and the American protecting system goes into to have this advantage also; yet our little town of Belle- vigorous operation. Then will the hum of busy industry fonte might be made, by enterprise, equal to the former be increased and our citizens of town and county be enand is even now vastly superior to the latter. If our town abled to live “within themselves,” if they should wish had the advantage of a navigable communication during it

, the spring, summer and fall seasons of the year, we will We almost forgot to notice, that several very handventure to say that no town in Pennsylvania, or the Unit- some stone and brick buildings have been erected in ed States, has greater advantages, or holds out greater Bellefonte, during the past season: amongst which is a inducements to the capitalists and manufacturer. First, very neat and elegant Masonic Hall, with castle batit is situated in a valley of limestone land highly suscep- tlements, and is in Gothic style of architecture genetible of cultivation, abounding with excellent timber, rally. and inexhaustible quantities of Iron Ore of the best qua It is also proper to remark, that the Centre Bank has lity, inferior to none to be fouud in our country; easily successfully closed its concerns, by paying off its notes smelted, and yielding 624 per cent. Second, it is situ- in circulation, in specie, and without spreading ruin and ated on Spring creek, which has its source in Pennsval- destruction through our county and the counties adjoinley, and discharges itself into the Bald Eagle about two ing, as was the case with two-thirds of the country banks. and a half miles from Bellefonte. It is a large stream of We are much indebted to the cashier, Mr. Norris, for limestone water, whieh scarcely ever rises, which never this profitable aud honourable result, and we consider it falls, and which never freezes, advantages rarely to be an evidence of what may be expected should it be boasted of indeed. Besides this it is a rapid stream thought desirable any time hereafter to apply for another with heavy banks, and well calculated for propelling charter. The great change at the close of the speculatwater machinery. It has already a great number of ing times, gave many of our citizens a shock, but instead Furnaces, Forges and Rolling Mills

, for the manufactur- of sitting down in listless inactivity, to brood over their ing of bar and sheet iron: Grist mills, Saw mills, Fulling misfortunes, they went industriously to work, like men, mills, Tilt hammers, Oil mills; and affords scites for twice and are now completely recovered from its very worst as many more. From its source to Bellefonte is about 9 effects.-Bel. Pat, miles. Third, although it is situated on hills, and is sur rounded in part by high land, yet there is none of this

We this week present to our readers a considerablo land which is not eapable of raising from 25 to 30 bushels of wheat to the acre. From land adjoining our town portion of the interesting report of the commissioner, which was once denominated barrens, that quantity has relative to the Pennsylvania Canalma work with which þeen frequently produced. Fourth, there is no scarcity the best iuterests of the state are intimately connected. of excellent wood, but there is nevertheless inexhausible As a principal object of the Register is to preserve imquantities of bituminous stone coal within ten miles of Bellefonte: It has been, however, difficult to procure it portant public documents, and as, during the session of from the badness of the roads, but a company has been the legislature, they are numerous and of general inteincorporated for laying out a Turnpike from Milesburg rest, we must occasionally exclude miscellaneous matter to Smethport, and part of it is already constructed; on

to make room for them. the completion of which it can be easily procured, and in vast abundance. It now costs 12 cents delivered,

REPORT but it will then cost but half that sum. Now it is used OF THE CANAL COMMISSIONERS OF by the Messrs. Valentine and Thomas in their rolling mill

PENNSYLVANIA. adjoining Bellefont (whose enterprise deserves great commendations,) and in a few years it will be used gene- The Canal Commissioners of Pennsylvania respectfully rally by our iron masters in both furnaces and forges, as

submit the following report: the process of Coking it is now generally understood. The Board, after preparing their report of the 6th of This coal possesses great advantages in the manufacture February last, and despatching such incidental business of iron over the anthracite coal, as we are told by men of as claimed attention, adjourned to meet again on the first science; and when our road is completed, we anticipate of May, by which time it was believed the legislature a world of wealth for our town and county, for our farm- would have acted definitively upon the system of imers, manufacturers, merchants and mechanics.

provement proposed by the commissioners. In the We might compare these advantages with those of meanwhile, the president was directed to open a cor Harrisburg and Williamsport, but as it might appear in- respondence with engineers of established reputation, vidious we forbear. In truth we rejoice with them in and to make agreements for securing their services in their prospects, but nevertheless may be permitted to case they should be required. This duty was so far exrejoice that we are vastly their superior, We will close ccuted, that at the meeting of the first of May, Judge these remarks with one word for our county in general; Geddes, Major Douglass and Mr. Guilford attended by most emphatically called Centre County; and as it is the invitation, and expressed their readiness to serve upon heart of the State by geographical position, so it is the the terms which had been established by the practice of head by local advantages. We except none, unless it is the preceeding year. These gentlemen, with Messrs. Huntingdon or Mifflin. True we have mountains, but Strickland and Roberts, would have been able to accomwe have plains, and our mountains are as valuable as plish a large portion of the business of the season. vallies: First, they preserve health-we have no fevers But at this stage of their proceedings the Board found and chills, many births and few deaths. Second, our themselves embarrassed by the operation of the second mountains abound with fine timber of every kind and section of the Act of 16th of April, 1827, by which it is quality. And third, they abound with mineral wealth. I declared, that “from and after the term or time for which

1828.)

INTERNAI, IMPROVEMENT.

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any engineer may have herefore been employed, the sa to take charge of its construction after Mr. Roberts' delary of such engineer shall not exceed the sum of two parture. These few arrangements, while they exhaustthousand dollars;” that no allowance shall in any case be ed the power of the Board, left a large amount of the made for personal or other expenses; and by which fur- most important business wholly unattended to. It was ther restrictions are imposed upon the engineers and evident, however, that no remedy could be applied to commissioners. The application of this section to the the evil before the first of June, when

the existing Board cases presented to the Board, involved considerable dif- would be dissolved by law. They found it necessary, ficulty, as will appear from a statement of the special cir- therefore, to adjourn sine die, after instructing the precumstances. Mr. Strickland had been employed in sident to make diligent inquiries for competent engiMarch, and Mr. Roberts in April, 1825, “at the rate of neers, and requesting the governor to convene the new three thousand dollars a year, together with reasonable Board of Commissioners on the 2d of June. expenses, their engagement to continue during the plea It is proper to mention, that before this adjournment, sure of the Board.” It was unanimously agreed that all the presidency of the Board was resigned by Dr. Darallowances to those gentlemen for personal and other lington, and that David Scott, esq. was elected in his expenses, ceased by the terms of the law, at the mo- stead. ment of its passage, and that no pre-existing contract in On the 2d June, the governor of the Commonwealth reference to such expenses, could be considered as pro- having, in conformity with law, re-appointed seven memvided for. A majority of the members present were fur- bers of the former board, and having appointed Jonatharz ther of opinion, that the original engagement was not Roberts and James Clark, esqs. in the place of Dr. Darfor such distinct "term of time” as the Act of Assembly lington and Mr. Dallas, who declined further service, a contemplated, and that after so strong an expression of new Board assembled at Harrisburg, and was organized legislative opinion unfavourable to its provisions, it was by the re-election of David Scott, esq. as president, and the duty of the Board to exercise their power of termi- of Joseph M'Ilvaine, esq. as secretary. At this meeting nating the contract, upon reasonable notice to the other the president made a report of his proceedings under the parties concerned. Upon these principles it was deter- resolution of May, directing him to inquire for suitable mined that the existing arrangements with Mr.Strickland engineers, and it was resolved, that Dewitt Clinton, jr.. and Mr. Roberts should be considered as expiring on the James Ferguson, Henry G. Sargent and Charles T. 1st of June; that the salary of three thousand dollars Whippo, of the state of New York, Major John Wilson without extrą allowance of any kind, should be conti- of South Carolina, and John Randal, jr. of Pennsylvania, nued until then, and that they should be re-appointed should be employed in that capacity. The charge of the engineers from that date, subject to all the provisions of Juniata canal was assigned to Mr. Clinton; that of the the Act of 16th April, 1827. Before the passage of the French creek feeder to Mr. Ferguson; and that of the Act of 16th of April, Messrs. Geddes and Douglass had Delaware line to Mr. Sargent. To Major Wilson were been invited by the secretary, under the directions of entrusted the several surveys between the Susquehanna the president, to enter the service of the Commonwealth and the Delaware; to Mr. Randal the survey along the upon the terms of the preceding year, with an under north branch of the Susquehanna, and to Mr. Whippo standing, however, that the consent of the Board was the Beaver and Shenango survey-with the understandnecessary to complete the arrangement. Upon these ing that further duties should be assigned them, if those facts, the same majority of the Board were now of opi- already specified were finished before the close of the nion, that such provisional engagements could not be season, In addition to this Major Douglass was requestdeemed contracts within the meaning of the law, and ed to employ the period allowed by the recess of the these gentlemen, together with Mr. Guilford), whose in- military academy, in exploring the route proposed for a vitation was of more recent date, were accordingly ap. connexion between the Conneaut summit and the harpointed engineers, under all the restrictions of the ex- bour of Erie. From the great importance and the apisting law, and without regard to any previous arrange prehended difficulty of reaching the Bay of Presqu'Isle ment.

it was peculiarly proper that these examinations should These views' and proceedings were immediately an- be made by an engineer, with whose qualifications the nounced to the engineers concerned, in letters from the Board were personally acquainted, and who possessed secretary. On the same day answers were received from as well their confidence, as that of the people most imMesrrs. Strickland, Roberts, Geddes and Douglass de mediately interested, clining, and from Mr. Guilford accepting the appoint At the same meeting Mr. Lacock was appointed Actment. Copies of this correspondence are annexed, from ing Commissioner for the line extending from Pittsburg which the legislature will perceive the particular motive to Blairsville, and Mr. Mowry for the eastern and Susby which each was governed. It is only necessary here quehanna divisions. Mr. Clark was appointed superinto remark, that Mr. Strickland in his answer, proposed tendant of the Juniata division, and Mr. Philips of the occasionally to visit the eastern division and give his ad- French creck feeder, the two latter having the powers, yice if desired: and that Mr. Roberts offered to remain duties and responsibilities of acting commissioners, on the western division until the middle of July, in order The Board having thus explained their general arto lay oựt the new line towards Blairsville, and give all rangements for the business of the season, will proceed necessary explanations to his successor.

to glance in detail at its several departments and diviThe commissioners thus suddenly deprived of most sions, giving such particulars in relation to each, as may yaluable assistance, could not but entertain a painful be conveniently embodied in a single report. sense of the responsibility of their situation, and of the It was stated in the report of last year, that the westconsequences which might arise from any error on their ern division of the Pennsyvania Canal, from the mouth of part, They determined nevertheless, after making the Kiskiminetas, to within five miles of Pittsburg, had been most efficient disposition of their present force, to spare placed under contract, and was then in a train of rapid no effort to supply the loss, and complete the great ob- execution. The difficulties which had retarded, and jects committed to their care. That the work under which still surrounded the location of the remaining discontract might not be interrupted, the care of the eastern tance, were also detailed, and an opportunity was opendivision was assigned to Mr. Rawle, and that of the ed for the legislature to settle the question, if they western to Mr. Harris, those gentlemen being already thought proper to interfere. At the meeting which took familiar with their respective plans and details

. Mr. place in February last, a committee appointed by the Guilford was directed to commence the location of a Councils of Pittsburg, made a written proposition to the canal from the mouth of Juniata to Northumberland; and Board, which was in substance: That the canal should Mr. Livermore, a gentleman who came respectably re- be carried across the Allgheny river by aqueduct, and commended from the Union canal, was appointed to aid thence through the city, by such route as the commisMr. Roberts in preparing the new line to Blairsville, and sioners might prefer. That to obviate all objections on

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the score of damages, the Board should name the sum Immediately after the adjournment of the board in May, which they were willing to pay for the extinction of pri- Mr. Roberts proceeded to prepare for contract the new vate rights, and that the corporation of Pittsburg should canal from the mouth of Kiskiminetas to Blairsville. assume the payment of all damages assessed above that After locating a line of about 20 miles which was let to sum. The Board having learned that a committee of the contractors on the 20th June, he retired from the service legislature, to whom this subject had been referred,were and was succeeded by Mr. Livermore. The remaining discharged from its further consideration; and under- distance to Blairsville was placed under contract on the standing thereby, that the reponsibility of a decision was 20th of October, making the whole line above the again thrown upon them, invited a conference with the mouth of Kiskiminetas about 51 miles. The whole cost Pittsbargh committee and with those gentlemen who of this division at the prices agreed upon will be $552,789, were interested on the opposite side of the river. After which is less by 90,000 than the estimate of last year. hearing both parties, the proposition of the councils of The whole amount of work already done; is $122,723, Pittsburg were acceded to, and two routes specified, and of actual payments, $113,290. Leaving $439,499 upon one of which, the canal should pass through the yet to be expended. city. The maximum of damages to be paid by the com Great exertions were made by the acting commissioner monwealth upon the first route, was fixed at $10,000, and engineer to complete the fifty miles from the outlet and upon the other at $500. It was determined at the locks opposite Pittsburg, to the salt works on the Kissame time to erect an aqueduct across the Allegheny kiminetas, in time for navigation the ensuing spring: river, as soon as a satisfactory guarantee for the surplus But the quantity of rain, and the constant high state of of damages should be received from the city. That every the waters during the Fall, have frustrated their hopes. facility might be afforded for the execution of this ar- It is believed, however, that this object will be accomrangement, the engineer was instructed to examine at plished early in the Summer, and that the whole distance once, all the contemplated routes through the city, and to Blairsville, may be navigable by the first of Novemall the points proposed for the scite of an aqueduct, and ber. to report their relative practicability and expense at the The preparation of the French creek feeder was comnext meeting. He was also instructed to prepare drafts menced by Mr. Ferguson as soon as practicable, after of the lines through the city, designating the nature and his appointment. The law of last session having res. amount of private property necessarily disturbed, and tricted the commissioners to such parts of that work as to furnish copies to the authorities of Pittsburg: These are common to all the projected routes between the instructions having been executed to the satisfaction of Ohio and Lake Erie, only nine miles, beginning at Beall parties, a report was received at the meeting in May, mis’s mill, on French creek, and passing down that and at the same time, a communication from the councils stream to the Conneaut outlet, could be put under conof Pittsburg, declining the guaranty proposed by them- tract. This was done on the 15th of August, and since selves, upon either of the routes which the Board had then the work has been industriously prosecuted. The specified; but asking that a third route, passing by a whole cost of the portion commenced, at contract prices, tunnel through Grant's Hill to the Monongahela, at the will be $80,758, which exceeds the estimate of Major mouth of Suke's Run, might be adopted. In this case, Douglass, for the same distance, about $1000. The they offered to pledge the faith of the city, “that the money already expended is 11,900 dollars; so that expense to the Commonwealth, of making the canal tun- 68,858 dollars will be required for its completion. nel and bridges, according to the report of the engineer, In the latter end of May, the location of a line from including damages to private property, as well as all the mouth of Juniata to Northumberland, was commencother attendant expenses, should not exceed the sum ed by Mr. Guilford. He was instructed to examine both restimated by the engineer as the cost of the Liberty-str. sides of the Susquehanna with the utmost care, to pre. and Penn-street route, with the addition of the $10,000 sent an estimate of each, and further, to ascertain for damages to private property, allowed by the Board whether the river might be advantageously crossed at in their resolution of February.” To this proposition, a any intermediate point, so as to place the canal partly majority of the members present were prepared to con on one side and on the other. At the meeting of the sent, and a resolution was accordingly passed, by which board on the 2d of July, a report was received from Mr. the location of the western division was continued from Guilford, accompanied by an estimate, from which it Pine creek, down the west side of the Allegheny, to a appeared that a canal on the east side would amount to point opposite Washington-street, thence by aqueduct 1,018,758 dollars, and on the west side to 472,298. across the river, and thence by a tunnel through Grant's Strong representations were at the same time made, Hill to the Monongahcla. It was determined at the same from Dauphin and Northumberland counties, in favour time, to connect the canal with the Allegheny, on the of the east side, to all which the utmost respect was west side by means of locks and other necessary works, paid: But the vast difference of expense was thought so that an outlet might be secured at all times indepen- by the board to leave them no choice, and a location dently of accident to the aqucduct.

was adopted, beginning at Duncan's Island, and extend. The proper authorities of Pittsburgh having executed ing up the west side to a point opposite Northumberthe guaranty required by the Board, this additional line land. was let out to contractors on the 21st of June, on very The expense of this line at rates established by the favourable terms. The canal on the west side from Pine actual contracts will be 441,350 dollars or 30,948 dol. creek to its junction with the Allegheny, is estimated to lars less than the first estimate of Mr. Guilford. In this cost $129,604. The acqueduct has been contracted for aggregate is included about 30,000 dollars for the erec. at $100,000, and the remaining distance to the Monon- tion of a dam at the Shamokin ripples, which will ungahela, including tunnell and locks, at $61,000-making questionably become a source of profit, and which re. in all $290,604. Of this aggregate $67,882, have al- sponsible persons have offered to construct without ready been paid, so that $222,722 will be required to charge, if the water power created can be placed at complete the line. The whole amount of work done their disposal. Deducting a moderate estimate for the is estimated at $77,373, the sum of $9,491 being retain value of this work, the final cost of the canal will not ed as security for the completion of the contracts. exceed 400,000 dollars for 37 miles, or 10,800 per mile.

The construction of an aqueduct across the Allegheny, The amount of work performed 44,384 dollars, of which at the mouth of Kiskiminetas, and of the canal from 36,109 dollars have been actually paid. A further exthence to Pine creek, has been vigorously prosecuted, penditure of 415,240 dollars will accomplish its comple. since the last report of the Commissioners. The amount tion by the first of December next. of work already performed on this portion is $334,795, In the second section of the act of the 9th of April, and of the actual payments $305,447. Its whole cost will 1827, it is declared, “that before the commissioners he $396,220, of which $90,733 remains to be expended. I shall determine on the location of the canal from the

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mouth of the Juniata river to Lewistown, they shall utmost distance they could safely go, while the proper cause further examinations to be made on each side of place of crossing the Susquehanna was not within their the Juniata, by at least two of the most experienced competency to decide. It is understood to have been engineeers in the service of the state, to determine the calculation of the engineers who recommended this which side of the river is most favourable and practica- dam, that four feet in height would ensure a supply of ble.” In compliance with this act, Mr. Guilford was the Eastern Division, and furnish a convenient crossing directed to join Mr. Clinton in the necessary examina- at Clark's Lower Ferry, but that if Duncan's Island tions, and reporting on the subject. At a meeting of should be the place of crossing, an addition of height the board on the 28 of July, these gentlemen agreed in must be given to raise the water sufficiently for the pasrecommending, that from Lewistown to North's Island, sage of boats. Upon the resolution of the board just rethe canal should occupy the North Bank of the river, ferred to, the Acting Commissioner entered into a conthat at the last mentioned point it should cross at a dam, tract for the erection of a dam at Forster's Falls. From and thence continuing on the Southern bank, should this time up to the session of the 2d of August, it was end, for the present, opposite the head of Duncan's wholly uncertain which place of crossing would finally Lower Island. They requested also, that further time be chosen, and how far such decision might affect the might be allowed them, to consider the place and mode location or value of the dam. Nor was it practicable for of uniting the Susquehanna and Juniata Divisions, and the board, under the forms and restrictions provided by the place and mode of crossing the Susquehanna river, law, and with the aid of Engineers, whose attention had in order to join the Eastern Division. This report hav- but recently been directed to the subject, sooner to aring met the approbation of the Board, a partial location rive at a safe conclusion. On the day last mentioned, of the Juniata line was made on the same day, leaving a the engineers of the Juniata and Susquehanna divisions small portion at the lower end for future determination. having satisfied their own minds, and the Board having The line thus fixed, was placed under contract as soon adopted the upper place of crossing, it was perceived as possible, and has since been prosecuted with as much that a dam at Forster's Falls would be attended with vigour as the unfavourable character of the season, and serious disadvantages. The choice of Duncan's Island an unusual degree of sickness, prevailing among the for passing the river, required an extension of the eastworkmen, would permit. The distance from the head ern division to that place, and it appeared satisfactorily of Duncan's Island to Lewistown is 44 miles, embrac- that the sum already expended on the lower dam, would ing an unusual proportion of difficult and unfavourable be more than saved by a corresponding change in its ground. Its whole cost will amount to 597,775 dollars, location. of which 22,262 dollars have been paid, leaving 575,513 A resolution providing for this alteration, having been dollars yet to be expended. The value of work execut- laid before the governor, according to law, he was urged ed by the last return was 26,716 dollars. It is expected by individuals who thought themselves aggrieved, to susthat a canal from the mouth of Juniata to Lewistown. pend his consent until their objections could be heard. will be ready for navigation in the spring of 1829. The governor respecting the source from which the ap

The question as to the place of uniting the two last plication proceeded, and anxious to prevent the consementioned canals, and the place and mode of crossing quences of error, withheld his permission to proceed the Susquehanna river are next to be considered. On with the work, and after hearing the complainants, rethe 2d of August, a joint report was made by Messrs. ferred the whole subject to the Canal Commissioners for Guilford and Clinton, which satisfied the board that the re-consideration. It was not until the 10th of Septempoint of Duncan's Island, would be the most advantage- ber that the Board could be assembled for this purpose; ous and economical place for crossing the river, either when they unanimously adhered to their former resoby aqueduct or dam, and a majority of the whole num- lution. Immediately thereafter the sanction of the gober decided accordingly. At the present session it has vernor was regularly given, and the dam and extended been determined, by a vote of the whole board, to erect line were placed under contract. at that place a towing path and turnpike bridge, by the From the delay this produced, it has not been practihelp of which the trade of the Susquehanna and Juniata cable to complete the two upper sections in time for na. Canals will pass into the Eastern Division, through the vigation the coming spring. The failure of a contractor pool of the dam now forming in the river. The Susque on the arduous section at Kittatinney Mountain, caused . hanna division has been extended accordingly, and it is a cessation of that work for a considerable period. In contemplated that the Juniata Canal shall join it some such circumstances it could by no effort have been com. where on Duncan's Island.

pleted the present season. On other sections the state By the report of last year, it appeared that the Eastern of forwardness would have been greater, but for the Division, from the mouth of Juniata to that of Swatara, certainty that all could not be finished. It is neverthehad been put under contract. Since then the work has less calculated, that from Fishing creek to the mouth of been constantly prosecuted, and a great portion of the Swatara, the water will be admitted, and that a junction sections completed. The amount of work done on this will be formed with the Union Canal, before the adjourndivision, since its commencement, is 335,894 dollars; of ment of the legislature. payments made, 319,412; and the further payments

of a canal line along the Delaware, from necessary for its completion are estimated at 142,844 Easton to Bristol, was commenced by Mr. Sargent about dollars, applicable chiefly to the sections at the upper the 9th of July, and by great exertion on his part a reend. The Board had hoped that this division would be port and estimate were prepared on the 20th of August, prepared for public use by the ensuing spring, but they when a meeting of the commissioners was to take place have met with disappointment, arising from causes be- at Bristol. In consequence, however, of the illness of a yond their control. It will be remembered that the member whose presence was expected, a quorum could original report of Mr. Strickland proposed a dam, for not be formed, and the subject was necessarily postponthe purpose of feeding the line, and of crossing the Sus- ed until the 12th of September. Meanwhile the engiquehanna, to be located at Duncan's Island, and that for neer was directed to continue his survey from Bristol to reasons stated by the board last year, this dam was not Philadelphia. On the 12th of September, the Board adopted, and the head of the canal was fixed at Forster's having assembled at Philadelphia, it appeared by the Falls, considerably below. Upon this altered plan, the report of their engineer, that the cost of a canal from Eastern Division was originally let to contractors. In the Easton to Bristol, with five feet depth of water, and a month of February last, the necessity of a dam having distance of 60 miles, would amount to 686,596 dollars, or become obvious, the Board, upon the recommendation 11,443 dollars per mile. The same report shewed that of all their Engineers, decided to erect one at Forster's a canal might be constructed from Bristol to Philadel. Falls. They fixed upon that spot as the head of the phia, distance 174 miles, for 200,799 dollars, or 11,474 canal they were then authorized to construct, and as the dollars per mile. Upon these estimates it became the

The survey

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