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1828.]

HOUSE OF REFUGE.

189

AN ADDRESS

enclosing the whole premises with a high and strong

wall. From the Managers of the House of Refuge, to their fellow

In the yard are already erected buildings for kitchens, citizens.

dining-rooms, and a place for worship. The work-shops The Managers of the House of Refuge, in making a are not yet built, but will form a range of low buildings further call upon the liberality of their fellow citizens, running parallel with the east and west walls. The simare sensible that it will be expected of them to furnish plicity and appropriate style of the architecture, and tlie such a view of their situation as shall justify the measure. excellence of the workmanship, are remarked by those It will be recollected, that it was resolved, at a large and who have examined them. The managers may add, respectable town meeting, held on the 7th of Feb. 1826, that the conscientious expenditure of the funds, and the to organize a Society for the reformation of juvenile de scrupulous regard to economy which have been manilinquents, The terms of association were agreed upon, fested by the building committee, left them nothing to and committees appointed to solicit contributions in aid desire upon this head; nor do they think that any plan of of the undertaking. The first meeting of the society was a building for such a purpose more truly economical has held on the first of May, in the same year, and officers been devised. The moneys already expended, including and managers were then appointed, who proceeded at 5,500 dollars paid for the lot, amount to $27,979 64, once to take the preliminary steps for procuring a lot which are nearly all the available funds of the managers; and erecting a building. Although the committees in and it is estimated that an additional sum of 15,000 dols. many of the wards perform their duty with too little zeal will be requisite to finish as much of the plan as has been and industry, the sum of $8,104 41 was subscribed, and commenced, even with the most frugal expenditure. It has been paid to the treasurer.

is for this sum that the managers now appeal to the An application was made during the same year, for as- never-failing liberality of the citizens of Philadelphia. sistance to the legislature, which granted with great li Every year—nay every day that passes is adding proof berality the sum of ten thousand dollars from the state upon proof of the necessity of such an institution to a treasury, and ten thousand from that of the county of populous and wealthy city. So long as the House of Philadelphia, towards the erection of buildings, and au- Refuge remains an unfinished structure, the penitentiary thorized the commissioners of the county to pay the fur- system of Pennsylvania, which is so justly her pride, will ther sum of five thousand dollars per annum for 5 years, be incomplete. The managers, therefore, rely with commencing in 1829, to be applied to the support of the confidence upon the favour of their fellow citizens to be Institution.

enabled to complete this important edifice; which could Thus encouraged, the managers felt that it would be not have been built upon a more contracted plan without expected of them not only to expend the public money cramping its future usefulness; if even the present exin the most frugal manner, but to erect a building that pense could thereby have been lessened. would be adequate to the public exigencies. They were Br order of the board of managers. sensible that a true economy was consistent with enlarg

ROBERTS VAUX, Vice Pres't. ed views, and a considerable expenditure of money, Attested, provided nothing was lavished or wasted. They did not James J. Barclay, Sec'y. for a moment doubt, that the same ready benevolence February 7, 1828. which had first furnished them with the means for the un

APPENDIX. undertaking, would approve of and support them in com The following statement of the effect of long periods pleting it upon a liberal scale, if they honestly fulfilled of confinement for the first offence, is one of the most their duties. With these views they adopted a plan of striking evidences we have seen of the advantages of an building, which they knew from the first would cost | institution like the House of Refuge. The keeper of more money than they then had at command; but which the Glasgow Bridewell, which is a Penitentiary Jail on combines in an uncommon degree all the great requisites the plan of strict solitary confinement, states, that “he of economy, safety, convenience, airiness, separate dor- has observed that offenders committed for the first time, mitories for the delinquents, with ample accommodation for only a short period, almost invariably return to Bridefor workshops, and which may be completed on the ori- well for new offences; but if committed for a long period ginal plan, at no great additional expense, so as to ac- they return less frequently: This face is established by commodate several hundred delinquents.

the following table, framed on an average of ten years, The scite of this building, at the corner of the Ridge ending 25th of Dec. 1825. Road and Francis' Lane, must be familiar to the public, Of prisoners sentenced for the first time to and has excited general attention in consequence of the 14 days confinement, there returned for new unusual rapidity with which the buildings were erected.

crimes about

75 per cent. On the 21st day of June 1827, the foundation stone was 30 do

60 laid, and in less than six months from that time, nearly 40 do

50 all the mason's work has been finished, and the house 60 do

40 covered in.

3 months

25 A plot of ground 400 feet in length from east to west,

6 do

10 and 231 feet in breadth from north to south, bounded by

9 do

7? streets on all sides, lias been enclosed with a stone wall 12 do

4 two feet thick and twenty feet in height. The main 18 do

1 building fronts to the north on Howard street, and is 92 24 do

None. feetin length by 30 in depth. This building is intended During the ten years, 93 persons were committed for for the accommodation of the keeper's family, and con- the first time for two years. of whom not one returned.tains rooms for the use of the managers, and for infirmaries for the delinquents. Wings on each side extend the

INDIAN AFFAIRS. whole length of the front, and contain three ranges or stories of cells, four feet by seven feet each, for separate At a Council held at Philadelphia, April 14, 1710.lodging rooms. These cells, of which there are 174, are Present, hon. Charles Gookin, Esq. Lt. Gov'r. well lighted and ventilated. The main building is covered Edward Shippen Isaac Norris, with tin, and the dormitories are slated. It is designed, Griffith Owen

- Samuel Preston in case it should be necessary, to complete the plan by

Thomas Story. extending these dormitories round the wall of the yard, The governor laid before the board a letter he had reso as to form a hollow square; in which case it will be ceived from Col.Ingoldsby, wherein was inclosed a paper readily perceived that a considerable part of the expense in these words: "William Dalbo, one of the Justices of is already incurred, and was unavoidable; namely, that of Peace, in the county of Glouster, saith, that an Indian

190

INDIAN AFFAIRS

(MARUR

of his particular acquaintance, who hath been very inti. At a council held at Philadelphia, 16th June 1710. mate with him the said Dalbo from his childhood, ac

Present, quainted him that there is a belt of wampum come to The hon. Charles Gookin, esq. Lt. Gov'r. Conestoga from Mahquahotensi, that there was a Toma Edward Shippen

Richard Hill hock in red in the belt; that the French with 5 nations

Joseph Growdon Samuel Preston of Indians were resolved for war, and designed to fall

Samuel Carpenter. upon some of these plantations, (colonies."). The go The governor laid before the board the report of Col. vernor also laid before the board, a letter which he had French and Henry Worley, who went on a messsage to received from Mr. Yeates, Caleb Pusey and Thomas Conostogo and follows in these words: Powel, dated this day, purporting that to-morrow there

At Conostogo, June 8th 1710. was to be a great concourse of Indians, those of Cones

Present, togo and those of the Jersey. That they are of opinion John French

Henry Worley. it might be a seasonable opportunity for the governor to Iwaagenst, Terratawanaran and Teonnostein, visit them altogether, the meeting being the greatest

Chiefs of ye Tuscororas. that has been known these twenty years, and is to be two Civility, the Senequas king and four chiefs more of that miles from John Worrall's, at Edgmont,

nation, with Oassessa, the Shawenois king. It is the opinion of the board, that the governor, with The Indians were told that, according to their request some of the council, and as many others as can be got, we were come from the governor and government, to should go to-morrow to meet those Indians, and to in- | hear what proposals they had to make anent peace, quire further of them about the said belt of wampum, according to the purport of their embassy from their own and what else may be thought necessary.

people. At a Council held at Philadelphia, April 29, 1710.

They signified to us by a belt of wampum, which was Present,

sent to us by their old women, who by it implored the Charles Gookin, esq. Lt. Gov'r.

friendship of the christians and Indians of this govern. Edward Shippen, Isaac Norris

ment, that without danger or trouble they might fetch

wood and water,
Joseph Growdon

Caleb Pusey
Samuel Finney
Samuel Preston

The second belt was sent from their children born,
Richard Hill.

and those yet to see the light, requesting that room to The governor acquainted the board, that upon his ar. sport and play without danger of slavery might be al

lowed them. rival at New Castle last week, he was informed that Opessa, one of the Shawannah chiefs, had been there, 4 hunt, that priviledge to leave their towns and seek pro:

The third belt was sent from their young men fitt to days; that he went away in the night, nor could he, (the visions for their aged might be granted to them without gov.) hear what he came about; that he had been with fear of death or slavery. some of the Delaware Indians, who resolved, it is said, not to plant corn this year. That Mr. Garland has lately that the woods by a happy peace, might be as safe for

The fourth was sent from the men of age, requesting sent a belt of wampum, sent by the Five Nations, by

them as their forts. Indian Harry, with this further message, that as soon as the bark ran, they would be with them with sixty men,

The fifth was sent from the whole nation, requesting and make them a speech. That he was informed at peace, that thereby they might have liberty to visit their Brandiwine, that an old Indian woman said (as it was in.

neighbours. terpreted) that their great men had ugly talk among

The sixth was sent from their kings and chiefs desir. them, and that they bad left none but her and her hus ing a lasting peace with the Christians and Indians of band to plant corn. The board taking the premises into this government, that thereby they might be secured consideration, are of opinion (be the report true or false) against those fearful apprehensions they have for these that it may be convenient for the governor to take a

several years felt. journey to Conostogo, (he not having been among the

The seventh was to entreat cessation from murdering Indians since his arrival,) to inform himself of the truth and taking them, that by the assurance thereof they of this report, and for the keeping up a good under may not be afraid of a mouse or any other thing that ruf

fles the leaves. standing and correspondence between us and the Indians; and also that some of the council do wait upon him strangers to this place they now came as people blind,

The eighth was sent to declare that as being hitherto thither. laws of this province under the privy scal, done at the hand and lead them, and then they will lift up their heads The governor laid before the board the repeal of six --no path nor communication being betwixt us and

them, -but now they hope we will take thein by the court at Windsor the 24th of Oct. 1709, by the Queen in the woods without danger or any fear. in council, which are ordered to be publickly proclaimed or read by the sheriff in full market.

These belts, they say, are only sent as an introduction

and in order to break off hostilities till next spring, for At a council held at Philadelphia, 29th May 1710. then their king will come and suc for the peace they so Present,

much desire. The hon. Charles Gookin, Lt. Gov'r.

We acquainted them that as most of this continent Edward Shippen George Roch

were the subjects of the crown of Britain, tho' divided Wm. Trent Samuel Preston

into several governments, so it is expected that their in. Isaac Norris

Anthony Palmer. tentions are not only peaceable towards us, but also to all The governor acquainted the board, that upon his ar- the subjects of the crown, and that if they intend to setrival at Conostogo, he found the Indians very well in- tle and live amicably here they need not doubt the proclined to the English and to the proprietor, and this go- tection of this government in all things honest and good; vernment in particular, but that they had complained to but to confirm the sincerity of their past carriage tohim that several persons made it their business to waylay wards the English, and to raise in us a good opinion of their young men returning from hunting, making them them it would be very necessary to procure a certificate drunk with rum, and then cheat them of their skins, from the government they leave, and of their good beand that if some method be not taken to prevent it, they haviour, then they might be assured of a favourable remust be forced to remove themselves or starve, their de- ception." pendance being entirely on their peltry, whereupon it is The Senequas return their hearty thanks to this gothought proper that such Indian traders as are foreigners vernment for their trouble in sending to them; and acbeing admitted and licensed by the governor, shall come quainted us, that by advice of a council amongst themunder such regulations as the governor and council from selves, it was determined to send these belts, brought time to time shall direct and appoint.

by the Tuscarorows to the Five Nations.

1828)

INDIAN AFFAIRS.

191

May it please your honour

to them last year to live peaceably one with another, Pursuant to your honour's and the council's orders, which they will always endeavour. we went to Conostogo, where the fore-written contents Upon presenting the fourth, they said that was in rewere by the chief of the Tuscarorows to us delivered.* membrance of the advice heretofore given them not to The sincerity of their intentions we can in no wise doubt, be too credulous of reports, they being generally false, since they are of the same race and language with our and spread abroad by ill men; for their parts they would Senequois, who have always proved trusty, and have al- believe no reports against us, and hoped we would be so for these many years been neighbours to a government lieve no ill reports of them. jealous of Indians, and yet not displeased with them. Whereupon the governor replied, that he was very Wishing your honour all happiness, we remain your glad to see them, and thanked them for their kind prehonour's most humble and obliged servants;

sents; and cautioned them not to believe lies and stories JOHN FRENCH, that were too currently spread abroad for mischief by ill

HENRY WORLEY. men; and that if any thing happened extraordinary, they Journey to Conestogo

Dr. should have notice by a messenger on purpose, and he To Bread,

£0 4 2

desired the like from them; for that the proprietor, Mr. To Meat

0 120

Penn, as also himself, owned, and loved them as their To Rum

1 10 0 brethren. And being desired to attend to-morrow in the To Sugar

0 15 0 afternoon, they withdrew. To two men's hire for baggage 4 0 0

Ordered, that Mr. Hill, Mr. Norris, and Mr. Preston, To John

1 4 0 dispose of the presents to the best advantage, and pro

vide a suitable return against to-morrow.

8 5 2 At a council at Philadelphia, 21st July, 1710.

CAPE HENLOPEN LIGHT-HOUSE. Present. The hon. Charles Gookin, Esq. Lieut. Governor On the 5th of September 1762, a patent for 200 acres Griffith Owen

Isaac Norris

of land, in the county of Sussex, was granted by the Thomas Story

Samuel Preston late proprietaries of Pennsylvania to the Board of WarRich. Hill.

dens, for the purpose of erecting a Light-house on cape The governor laid before the board an express he re. Henlopen. In the course of the ensuing year, the maceived last night from Col. French, purporting that in terials for the building were purchased, but it was not 3 days the chiefs of the Sacques would be at Conestogo, begun until the year 1765. In the years 1766, and and with them the chiefs of the Indians of most part of 1767, it was completed, and lighted, and in those years, the continent: as also some of the gentlemen of Mary and the succeeding year, the buoys were placed in the land, and that the governor's presence there was ex. bay, &c. when the following estimate of the expences pected:-what the design of the congress might be was of this work, was made. not certain; but he was told it was of very great conse Cost of the Light-House

£.7,674 3 2 quence to the crown, and would tend much to the pre- First set of buoys, &c.

664 2 1 servation of the subject. The board having taken the Second set of do.

478 12 10 premises into consideration, are of opinion, that 'tis ab. The expence of oil from the year, 1765 802 00 solutely necessary that the governor, with as many as The wages of the keeper

329 11 0 can be got to attend him, go to Conestigo to meet the Interest paid on money borrowed to go on Indians, and inform himself of the cause of their meet with the work

1036 16 0 ing In the copy of the council book there is no report of

10,985 51 the issue of this meeting.

James Logan, secretary of the council, and afterwards the money thus expended, was raised in the following one of the members, was charged particularly with the

2,259 16 g affairs of ye Indians by William Penn-he was at this The proceeds of a lottery time in England.

A sum taken up on loan

5,910 0 0 At a court held at Philadelphia, 21st Sept. 1710.

The proceeds of the duty on tonnage 2,791 14 6
Amount of sundry articles sold

254 5 4
Present.
The hon. Charles Gookin, Esq. Lt. Gov.
Edward Shippen

11,395 16 7
Richard Hill
Samuel Carpenter
George Roch

The Light-House was, in a great measure, burnt
Griffith Owen

Samuel Pr ton down, by the British, in the year 1777; but on the return Thomas Story.

of peace, in the year 1783, the wardens immediately proThe queen of the Conostogo Indians, Ojunchio, and ceeded to repair the damages, and in 1784, it was lighttwo chiefs more, and some of the Connoise Indians, laid ed. The annual expense of maintaining this building down before the council four bundles of skins and furs; has been estimated at £.623—that is and at the delivery of the first bundle they said, as was For 2000 gallons of oil, 1 cwt, of cotton interpreted by that they had given the government wick

£ 393 notice of their intention of coming hither, the last time for the keeper's wages, (who is appointhe was at Conostogo. That they were now come; and ed by the wardens, and gives security in do present him with that bundle to make him a cover for £.500 for the faithful discharge of his his table, to be used in the same manner as the carpet trust)

130 then spread upon the council table.

For contingent repairs, &c. •

100 Upon their presenting the second bundle, they said it was in remembrance, and as an acknowledgement for

623 the gunpowder they had presented to them here, the last year; for which they were very thankful.

Of such utility has this Light-House been considered, Upon presenting the third bundle, they said it was a that the wardens, I am informed, have determined, as token of their good will and friendship; and that they soon as their funds will allow of the appropriation of shall ever remember and observe the governor's advice £.500 to erect a beacon, or land-mark, on the opposite

shore of Cape May. The land for this purpose has been • It seems probable that the Indian war which had already purchased, and a plan estimated at the cost of about this time raged in Carolina, occasioned this appli- £.500, submitted to the consideration of the board. cation of the Tuscarora Tribes.

The plan consists of

manner:

192

MISCELLANEOUS.

(MARCH

10 do. cage

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COMMUNICATION.

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12 feet base

CITY SINKING FUND. 48 do. superstructure

Schedule of the Stock belonging to the Sinking Fund

of the Mayor, Aldermen and citizens of Philad. 16 mill loan of 1813

38,300 00 70 feet total height.

25 do 1814

20,127 45
18
do

18,500 00
Chevaux de Frize.

45 per ct. U. S. debts

76,531 19 It will not be inapplicable to close this detail, with a

-153,458 64 6

per memorandum respecting the removal of the chevaux de

ct. stock, city debt

2,900 00 5 do

do frize, which were sunk in the channel of the Delaware

169,300 00 during the late war. This work was undertaken and

-172,200 00 executed by Mr. Arthur Donnaldson and Mr. Levi Hol- Schuylkill Navigation Stock 25,000 00 fingsworth, in the summer of 1784. The number of Schuylkill Permanent Bridg Stock 3,940 00 these obstructions were about 60 or 70, and in dimen

28,940 00 ssions about 60 by 30 feet. The cost, including the expence of sweeping the river, amounted nearly to 7000

354,598 64

E. E. pounds.--Columb. Mag. 1788.

City Treasurer's Office, March 7, 1828.

JOIN BACON, City Treasurer.
ACCOUNTS OF THE BOARD OF HEALTH.

Pittsburgh, March 14.
It appears by the accounts just published, that the ter 11 o'clock, a very distinct shock of an Earthquake

Earthquake-On Sabbath night last a few minutes afreceipts during the year 1827, were(including $1293 53 was felt by several persons in this city. We have not balance in hand Jan. 1, 1827,) $23,198 75, of which heard that the concussion was felt on the high grounds there accrued from

remote from the river; it was probably confined to the

alluvial formations near its shores. Fees on vessels from foreign ports

$3,568 25

Shocks were also experienced at about the same hour
Do do coastwise

1,527 00 at Baltimore, at Fredericksburg, Va. Raleigh, N. C. and
Head-money on foreign passengers 2,728 50 Wheeling, Va. and Gettysburg in this state.

7,823 75

[From the Pennsylvania Gazetle.] In property sold

1,500 00 Borrowed

9,871 35

The Winter of 1827–28, is past, and such a one preStock sold

2,342 63

cisely has never occurred during sixty years of my ob13,713 98 servations. There were two events in it differing from

any mild winters I ever remember-viz. so much absence EXPENDED during the year 22,555 29. of the sun-but one day in December clear all day— Purchase of a lot for deposit of nuisance 3,052 00 January 20th and 21st clear all day-February 8th sun Salaries, removing nuisances, incidental ex

arose clear and continued so all day as mild as the month

4,175 68 of May-12th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 17th, 19th, 220, 23– Loans and interest

8,149 15 all these days were clear, the sun shining all day-in Lazaretto establishment, &c.

5,722 23 one or two days the sun made its appearance nearly all City Hospital

821 08 day, and a number of days one, two or three hoursContingent expenses

101 61 add these to the whole days and it would scarcely Digging pits and fencing

633 54 amount to seventeen days clear sun—this is one singu

lar trait. There are taxes outstanding due from col.

The next is the uninterrupted state of the navigation
lectors for 1814 to 1822

2,196 04 of the river Delaware. I have known several soft winters
Due
1823

265 58 in the course of my life, but I do not recollect any but
Balance in Treasurer's hands

643 46 what was more or less interrupted and obstructed with

ice. The winter of 1777-8, when the British army lay

in Philadelphia, and the American at Valley Forge, was The Board of Health, at a meeting held on the 12th an open one-much rain and excessive båd travelling, inst, clected their officers for the year, as follows: but there was at one time much ice in the river. The President-Cornelius Comegys.

following winter, '78-9, was a mild pleasant one; yet Secretary-Dr. R. Eglesfield Griffith.

there was ice sufficient to obstruct the navigation-this Treasurer-James Kitchen.

winter was so mild that on the 22d March, the orchards Steward of Lazaretto-John Robbins.

of different kinds were all in blossom, and the meadows Clerk of the board—Joseph Pryor.

as green as in the month of June, in the neighbourhood Messengers—John Buckingham and A. J. Werthym. of Downingstown, Lancaster road; and the next morn

Superintendant of Blockley burying ground—John ing a storm at northeast, with nearly two feet of snow Marley.

on the ground which destroyed all the fruit of that year.

The coldest weather, to last any considerable time, The board of commissioners of the Northern Liber- for this many years, was in Feb. 7, 1817—it froze almost ties, on Thursday elected William Binder and George all the fire-plugs in the city, and the water in the main Gorgas, Esqrs, members of the Board of Health to serve pipe in South street. the ensuing year.

A NATIVE OF PAILADELPHIA.

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penses, &c.

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New Post Offices.

Printed every Saturday morning by WILLIAN F. GED

DES, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at A new post office has been established at Lengles- the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, Subscriptown, Dauphin county, and Dr. David Umberger, ap- tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per pointed post master.

annum-payable in six months after the commencement A new post office has bcen established at Point Plea- of publication—and annually thereafter, by Subscribers sant, in Bucks county, and Col. Joseph Hough, appoint- resident in or near the city-or where there is an agent. ed Post Master.

Other subscribers pay in advance.

THE

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA,

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OY EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

VOL. I.

PHILADELPHIA, MARCH 29, 1828.

NO. 13.

INVENTION OF THE QUADRANT, Nevertheless it often happens that the true author of
By T. Godfrey.

many an useful invention, either by accident or fraud,

loses the credit thereof, and from age to age, it passes Although the honor of inventing the quadrant, has by in the name of another. Thus it happened, heretofore, its bearing his name, been conferred upon Mr. Hadley, to Columbus and many others; and thus also it has hapyet it is well known to many, that the real inventor of it pened to a native of Philadelphia. was Thomas Godfrey, a native of Philadelphia. The here, was the real inventor of that very useful instrument

Mr. Thomas Godfrey, it is well known to many of us following letters and statements, extracted from the called Hadley's Quadrant or Octant. To him the merit is American Magazine, for July and August 1758, and due, and to his posterity the profit ought to belong: published from the originals, will exhibit the rise and This will fully appear from the three following genuing progress of the invention, and prove satisfactorily, we of being recorded in your Magazine, in order to restore,

letters, which I persuade myself, you will think worthy think, that the honour of it attaches to Mr. Godfrey, and as far as possible, the credit of that invention to our city, through him to this state and city.

and to the posterity of Mr. Godfrey. How he came to be

deprived of it may be made a question by some. I answer On the Invention of the Quadrant commonly called that Mr. Godfrey sent the instrument to be tried at sea HADLEY's.

by an acquaintance of his, an ingenious navigator, in a The great improvement which the art of navigation voyage to Jamaica, who showed it to a captain of a ship has received from the invention of this instrument, must

there just going for England, by which means it came erer place those concerned in it, among the highest class to the knowledge of Mr. Hadley, though, perhaps, withof names that will be remembered by posterity; Though fact is sufficiently known to many seamen and others

out his being told the name of the real inventor. This Mr. Hadley, (whose fame in the learned world can suffer no diminution by what we are now to publish) has yet alive in this city; and established beyond doubt by great merit in the improvement of this instrument which the following letters, written about that time. 'It is, bears his name, yet there is sufficient reason to conclude therefore, submitted to the world, whether, after perusthat he was not the first inventor.

ing the letters, they ought not, in justice, to call that In the philosophical transactions, No. 435, there is an instrument, for the future, Godfrey's, and not Hadley's “ Account of Mr. Thomas Godfrey's improvement of

Quadrant. Davis's Quadrant transferred to the Mariner's Bow, by

To Dr. Edmund Halley. the late Mr. Logan of this place, whose reputation in

Esteemed Friend,—The discovery of the Longitude mathematics was inferior to few in his day. In that ac- having, of late years, employed

the thoughts of many, count it appears that Mr. Godfrey, of this city, had be- and the world now expecting, from thy great sagacity gun to think of this matter as early as the year 1730. He and industry, some advances towards it, far exceeding was a glazier by trade, and a man of no education, but all former attempts, from the motion of the moon, to the perhaps the most singular phenomenon that ever ap- ascertaining of which thy labours have so long and hap: peared in the learned world, for a kind of natural or in- pily been directed; the following notice, I hope, will tnitive knowledge of the abstrusest parts of mathematics neither be thought unseasonable, nor prove unacceptaand astronomy.

ble. That the success of that method depends on findIn order, therefore, to show how far the honor of this ing the Moon's true place for one meridian by calculainvention is due to Mr. Godfrey and his patron Mr.Logan, tion, and for another by observation, I think is generally we propose to publish Mr. Logan's original account re- allowed; the first of which being depended on from ferred to in the above quoted number of the philosophi-thy great genius, what remains is some certain method cal transactions; together with two letters to the royal for observation, practicable on that unstable element, society written previous to that account, one by Mr. Lo the sea. In order to this, thy predecessor at Greenwich, gan and the other by Mr. Godfrey himself. These three if i mistake not, for some years, published his calculaletters will give a complete view of the whole affair in its tions for the moon's future appulse to the fixed stars, rise and progress. They were put into our hands by a which would save all observation, but that of a glass; sensible and candid citizen of Philadelphia, with the fol- but these not often happening, and the moon often havlowing pertinent introduction, and, therefore, their au- ing a considerable parallax when they did, that project thenticity, if it were doubted, may be easily vouched. dropt.

For finding her place by taking her greater distances To the Proprietor's, &c.

from stars, the fore-staff or cross-staff cannot be exact Gentlemen,-All civilized states have thought it their enough: and Quadrants, Sextants, &c. with two Telchonour to have men of great ingenuity born or bred scopes, are impracticable at sea. among them. Many cities of ancient Greece had long Dr. Biester's late proposal for taking the difference of and sharp contentions for the honour of Homer's birth- rad. ascension between the moon and a star, if that should place. And in later times volumes have been written in prove practicable with sufficient exactness, would unEurope, in disputing which city had the true claim to the doubtedly answer the intention of all that is to be exinvention of the art of printing. Nor is it to be wonder- pected from the moon, if her place were taken on or ed that mankind should be so generally eager in this re near the meridian. But to keep the arch of this insthespect, since nothing redounds more to the honour of any ment in the plane of the equator, and, at the same time, state than to have it said that some science of general view two objects of unequal altitudes, and considerable utility to mankind was invented or improved by them. I distance from each other, by the edges of two sights,

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