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This subject may be viewed as follows:

1st. The average cost of all the Pennsyvania canals. Last year the Board of Canal Commissioners recom 20. Mr. Sargeant's survey and estimate of the upper mended to the Legislature of Pennsylvania, a plan for Delaware section, compared with surveys lately made the improvement of the state, which embraced the Dela- on the Lehigh, and the north branch of the Susquehanna ware Canal from Philadelphia to Carpenter's Point. A above Wilkesbarre, and on the Delaware, by Mr.Canvas part only of this plan was acted on, and surveys were White, and Mr. Randal, and Judge Wright. directed to be made in various directions to ascertain the 3d. The magnitude of the Delaware trade, the sources practicability and cost of different routes.

from which it will be derived, and the facility with The Delaware was divided into three sections, and which the greater part may be secured to Philadelphia. Mr. Sargeant, the engineer appointed by the Board, has reported them as follows:

181. Average cost of the Pennsylvania Canals. 1. The upper section, from Carpenter's Point to Easton, 70 miles, cost $1,430,669 or $20,438 per mile.

The improvements projected by the Board of Cana! 2. Middle section, from Easton to Bristol, 60 miles, cost branching off in every direction, and intended for the

Commissioners should be regarded as one entire system $640,624, or $10,667 per mile. 3. Lower section, from Bristol to Kensington, 17} miles benefit of the whole community. It is composed of ma

cost $200,799, or $11,474 per mile. Total 1473 miles. ny parts intimately connected with each other; these It is believed by persons residing on or near the De: may be aptly compared to the arteries and veins which laware, and acquainted with river improvements, that direct the current of blaod to the heart, and distribute it

over the whole body. their estimates, particularly that of the upper section, are much too high.

It is unfair to take up any one canal, and make the To estimate with any precision the cost of a canal on whole should be combined and viewed as an effort of

cost of its construction, the criterion of its usefulness; the such a river as the Delaware, where bluff rocky moun the state to produce a certain beneficial result; and the tains come down close on it in many parts, and where strong walls are required to protect the canal from inun- aggregate expenditure only should be regarded. In dations and ice freshets, requires no ordinary talents and every great undertaking, some parts will always cost experience.

more than others After an elaborate survey, the engineer should take

Fortunately we have certain data that will enable us into consideration the facility of obtaining materials, the to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion, relative to the cost cost at which they can be delivered on the spot, and the

of the Pennsylvania canals. actual price of labour.

The report of the Committee on Internal ImproveIt is a well known fact, that by an impolitic law of last ment ably accounts why “the cost of the sections first sesssion, the Board lost the services of its chief engineers, plation.” It also states that 160 miles have been con

commenced, will exceed the sum originally in contemand others of an inferior grade in public estimation, tracted for, and partially completed, for less than 11,000 were obtained. This was a circumstance deeply re- dols. per mile. "It also remarks, “that part of the work gretted by every body; but was the unavoidable consequence of reducing the compensation below its proper the estimates, which are predicated on higher prices,

not yet under contract, may be executed for less than standard.

Mr. Sargeant is a gentleman of respectable talents and both for labour and materials, than those at which they character, who has seen some service as a sub-engineer

can now be procured.” on the New-York canals. He has never, we believe,

The opinion of the lamented Governor Clinton, exbeen employed in a superior capacity, and has no direct pressed in his last message, is pointedly referred to in experience in making estimates for a canal on the mar

the Report, and merits great consideration. The Gogin of a large river. That gentleman is a stranger to betweeen 20 and 30,000 dols. a mile, and this enormous

vernor said, “The Erie and Champlain Canals have cost Pennsylvania: he brought with him a preconceived idea of the value of materials and labour, founded on N. York expenditure will never occur again. . All the mysteries estimates, and totally irrelevant to our country.

of such operations are developed, and all the difficulties If we carefully weigh all these circumstances, we shall diminished, and it may be confidently presumed that the not be surprised at the extravagance of his estimates.

maximum expenses of any given Canal will not exceed With a knowledge of these facts, it is indeed truly tains, by locks, inclined planes, and deep cuttings, or

10,000 dollars a mile, unless it passes over high mounsurprising, that the canal committee of House of Repre under them by extensive tunnels.” sentatives, with Mr. Lehman at the head, should have received Mr.Sargeant's estimate as conclusive; and with nion coincides with the facts detailed by the committee.

It is remarkable, how nearly Governor Clinton's opiout inquiry or observation of any kind, have drawn the We have the experience of the ablest men in America, pen across the upper section of the Delaware, and expunged it with the most perfect indifference.

on subjects of internal improvement, tested and confirmThis betrays a lamentable want of knowledge of the engineers; not confining their attention to a single canal

ed by the elaborate researches and estimates of scientific value of the trade which may be secured to Philadelphia by extending the canal to Carpenter's Point; a trade, in route, but embracing the principal rivers of the state. the opinion of Judge Wright, the eminent engineer, canals will not cost more than ten or eleven thousand

We may then fairly conclude, that the Pennsylvania second only in importance to that of the Erie canal. dollars a mile. This is thrown with reprehensible levity into the lap of New York, to augment the resources of our gigantic ri- Second. Mr. Sargeant's survey and estimate of the upper val, and impoverish our metropolis. This too at a time

Delaware Section; compared with surveys lately when Baltimore is weaving a web to catch all our west

made on the Lehigh, on the North Branch of the Susern and Susquehanna trade, and turn our very canals

quehanna, above Wilkesbarre, and on the Delaware. against us, on which millions of our money will be expended; in order to make Baltimore "the great central The navigation of the Delaware between Bristol and city of the Union.”

Kensington, is now safe and excellent. The object of this essay, is to remove the film from Should it be an object with the state to save the prethe eyes of the citizens of Philadelphia, so that they may sent expenditure of 200,000 dollars, the canal on this see their true interests before it is too late. There is not section may be delayed, without much injury, until the a moment to lose: the canal bill is now under debate, treasury is replenished by resources drawn from the caand it may receive the sanction of the legislature in its nals themselves. present shape, unless vigorous measures are taken to According to Mr. Sargeant's estimates, a complete waprevent it.

tor communication may be made from Dunning's ferry,

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near Carpenter's Point, to the city of Philadelphia, for This wise policy which gave additional value to those $15,933 per mile

private works, rendered them subservient to the imMr. S. was directed to make his survey for a canal 4 provement of the State, and the general accommodation feet deep, 40 feet wide at the top water-line, with locks of the people. 14 by 90 feet clear in the chamber.

The Lehigh Canal and navigation will extend the beAs the upper section of the Delaware canal is intend- nefit of internal trade, 45 miles into a valuable coal reed to connect with the Delaware and Hudson canal, rea- gion, and give additional value to the Delaware Canal son and policy would dictate that it should have the below Easton. same dimensions; that canal is 32 feet wide on the water In the same manner, the Delaware and Hudson Canal line-depth of water 4 feet-locks 76 feet between the on the Delaware, and that canal and railroad in the state gates—9 feet wide, and suitable for boats carrying 25 to of Pennsylvania, will open another communication, 60 30 tons.

miles in length, into the Lackawanna coal valley; and If we estimate the difference between a broad and a the Lackawanna railroad, 25 miles long; will extend this narrow canal at one-fourth, then the cost will be only intercourse into Harmony on the Susquehanna river, 3 $11,613 per mile.

miles below the state line. We have heard from very respectable authority, that These railroads and canal, 85 miles long, may be made the upper section of the Delaware canal may be let out eminently useful to Philadelphia, if the Delaware canal on contract for $11,000 per mile.

is extended to Dunning's ferry: if this is not done, they To show how easy it is for respectable engineers to will purvey for the Delaware and Hudson Canal in the make extravagant estimates of the cost of canals on the state of New York, on which the trade will be carried to the margin of rivers, we shall give the substance of a part of Hudson. Mr. Treziulny's report to the Governor, made March 5, It may here be proper to remark, that from Dun1827.

ning's ferry to the Hudson, is nearly 70 miles; from That engineer estimated the cost of 129 miles of Canal thence by that river, to New York, 100 miles, making on the north branch of the Susquehanna above Wilkes- the total distance from the Delaware to New York, 170 barre, at 23,938 dols. per mile, whilst Mr. Randal's esti- miles. mate for 104 miles, from Wyoming to the State line, was The distance to Philadelphia, from the same point on only 12,941 dols. per mile. Judge Wright's estimate for the Delaware, is only 145 miles;-the lockage is also a canal on the Delaware, 66 miles in length, from the considerably less. Lackawaxen 'to Deposit, was $13,180 per mile. This The climate in the valleys of the Delaware and Suscountry is as rugged as any on the Delaware.

quehanna, is much more temperate than on the high According to a statement published by the Lehigh lands and on the Hudson: this will give another very imcompany, Feb. 12, 1828, Mr. Canvas White's estimate portant advantage to Philadelphia. for a canal and slack-water navigation on the Lehigh, Let it not be said, that with these manifest advanta45} miles in length, from Easton to Mauch Chunk, was ges, in distance-in lockage--and in climate, Philadel17,078 dols. per mile. This canal is to be 45 feet wide, phia may not contend, and contend victoriously for the with the embankments laid out so as to admit the canal Delaware trade: the larger it is, the better. Experience to be widened to 60 feet, to pass twin-boats of 67 tons, will prove that Philadelphia can control the Susquehanna 5 feet deep, with locks 22 feet wide and 100 feet long. trade, when brought to the Delaware, better than she can If we suppose such a canal would cost one-third more elsewhere. than a canal similar to that of the Hudson and Delaware, Various improvements are projected on the main N. the cost would be 11,386 dols. per mile.

E. branch of the Susquehanna-on the Chenango-on Thus we have obtained another result by comparing the Onondago, &c. in the state of New York. the Lehigh with the Delaware, and perhaps it would be An application was lately made to the Legislature of difficult to find any river in New York or Pennsylvania, New York, to authorise a joint stock company, to make where more "bluff rocky mountains come close on the a slack-water navigation on the Susquehanna, from river, making it necessary to raise embankments on the Cooperstown to the Pennsylvania line; from thence to river, which must be protected by walls.”

Harmony, the river requires no improvement. The disWe think we have made out the following positions, tance will be about 80 miles. Ample funds can be rais

ed for its completion. The company will also be em1. That a narrow canal between Dunning's ferry and powered to make a railroad from the head of Otsego Easton, and a broad canal between Easton and Bristol, Lake to Fort Plain on the Erie canal. which will open a complete water communication with Last year

the friends of the Chenango canal, made a Philadelphia, may be made for $11,613 per mile, accord-strenuous effort to have it constructed at the expense of ing to Mr. Sargeant's estimates.

the state.

The bill passed the lower house, and failed 2. That in all probability such canals between Dun- in the senate only by 4 votes. Another application has ning's ferry and Bristol, by which a complete water com- been made this session, with a fair prospect of success. munication may be opened with Philadelphia, may be This canal will be 90 miles in length, and will extend made for about 10,000 dols. per mile.

from Binghampton to Whitesboro', or Utica on the Erie 3. That the probable cost of a narrow canal from canal. The distance from Chenango Point to HarmoDunning's ferry to Easton, will not exceed 12,000 dols. ny, is 30 miles. per mile.

The Onondago, or Homer river flows into the CheThird. The magnitude of the Delaware Trade, the nango, about 13 miles above Binghampton, (or Chenan. sources from which it will be derived, and the facility with 80 Point:) which the greater part may be secured to Philadelphia.

This river is now navigable for rafts and arks, in fresh

ets, as high as Post Watson, which is about 30 miles In order fully to understand this subject, it will be above its confluence with the Chenango. A slack-waproper to show in what manner a canal and rail-road ter navigation may be made on it at a moderate expense. communication may be opened between Dunning's ferry Judge Geddes surveyed the route of a canal from thence on the Delaware, and Harmony on the Susquehanna. to Syracuse, on the Erie canal: he made the distance

It appears to have been a favourite object with the 30 miles; and reported a supply of water for the sumfriends of internal improvement, to connect the Penn-mit. sylvania canal with works belonging to private corpora

The celebrated salt-works of the state of New York tions. We allude to the Union and Schuylkih canals, are at, and in the immediate vicinity of Syracuse. The which were to become the medium by which the trade distance from thence by Homer river to Binghampton, of the north and west, was to be transported to Phila- is about 75 miles. This is the shortest practicable route delphia

from the salt villages to the Susquehanna river. No. 12.





The salt, gypsum, and coal trade alone, would remu. Blue Mountain, presents a larger supply of water, or nerate any company for the capital expended in this use- equal facilities as to distance and lockage. ful work.

The various canals projected between several points · A law has lately been passed in the state of New York, on the Susquehanna, and Pottsville on the Schuylkill, authorising a company to make a railroad from Ithaca to have been abandoned. The Lehigh Company alone Owego:—this will give another facility for trade, and holds out the idea of an uninterrupted canal communiopen another avenue to the Erie canal.

cation between Mauch Chunk and Berwick. This idea The main object of all these improvements is to sup. we believe to be delusive. That company in a late pamply the country drained by the Susquehanna and the phlet, states that a 4 ft. dam across the Lehigh, 14 miles Delaware, with salt, lime, and gypsum—to exchange above the mouth of Bear creek, would cause the water those valuable articles for Lackawanna coal, with which to flow into a feeder canal to the summit between to supply thc salt villages, and the interior of New York; Wright's creek and the Nescopeck. This may all be to carry the lumber and the agricultural products of this true, yet the scheme may be as utterly impracticable as extensive region, by the Delaware route, (the shortest the one to cause the Delaware to flow into a feeder capracticable) to the cities of New York and Philadelphia; nal on the deposit and Bettsburg summit. and to secure through the same medium, merchandise, Mr. Bolton the president, and Judge Wright, made both foreign and domestic, in all its variety, suited to the personal examinations along the valley of the Susquehanwants of an active, energetic population, augmenting na and Tioga rivers. The latter has given the result of with singular rapidity, and inhabiting one of the finest his reconnoisance in a letter addressed to the president and most productive districts in the United States. and managers.

By the simple extension of the Delaware canal to This project failed, as premature; but the state loaned Dunning's ferry, (or Bolton) we should render all the the company $500,000 on mortgage. New York canals and rail-roads projected between the Mr. Wright's report in the senate of New York, on the Erie canal and the Susquehanna, tributary to Philadel finances of that state, and on the unproductiveness of phia.

canals, had a bad effect, but the project though quietly But it is not this trade alone, extensive and valuable slumbering for the present, has not and will not be abanas it unquestionably is, that Philadelphia may secure;- doned; it is gaining ground every day, and in all proba. there is another, equal perhaps in importance to the one bility will finally succeed. Its uncommon facility ef esalready described.

ecution as far as the Allegheny ridge, is universally adWe shall endeavour to make it appear, that the mass mitted. of the export trade of the Susquehanna river and its As this is a new and interesting subject, we subjoin branches above Tioga Point, comprehending all the an extract from Judge Wright's letter of January 3, country at the sources of the Tioga, the Conhocton, ard 1827. “We obtained correct information of the counCanesteo, which rise on the eastern side of the Alleghe. try up the Tioga to near the western bounds of Steuben ny mountain, may find a shorter and easier route to the county; and this excursion satisfied me, that nature had Philadelphia market, by the Delaware, than by the main formed a valley, extending from the foot of Otsego Lake branch of the Susquehanna.

to the western part of Steuben, a distance of 220 miles, This, at the first blush, may appear paradoxical, but where a canal may be formed at a small expense, comonly to those who have never duly considered this sub- paratively, through its whole route, where many towns ject.

and flourishing villages are already seen, and where a In 1826, at attempt was made by the Delaware and few more years will show a dense population. The Hudson Canal Company, aided by their chief engineer, project which I now lay before the board, extending Judge Wright, to induce the state of New York to sub: from the Lackawaxen up the Delaware, thence over the scribe $500,000 to the stock of that company, to enable Susquehanna, and thence through the valley of the Susthe managers to extend it to Carbondale.

quehanna and Tioga rivers, is only second in importance It was urged with much plausibility, that the time was to the Erie canal, in opening facilities of transportation to rapidly approaching, when the Erie canal would be ut- a very large and fertile tract of country. . terly unable to accommodate the immense trade which It would be useless to attempt to calculate the magniwould fow towards the Hudson; that a new canal be- tude of a trade admitted to be great, extending in varitween Lake Erie and the North river would soon be ous directions over the fairest part of New-York. All come indispensable, and that the Hudson and Delaware great works that give the farmer cheap conveyances to canal lying in the projected line of communication, regular markets on the sea board, stimulate industry. would save the state the expenditure of more than a mil. Instead of the languor and sluggishness which pervades lion of dollars.

a country where the surplus produce cannot readily be To aid that negociation, elaborate surveys, at the ex- disposed of at a remunerating price, every person is anipense of that company were made from the mouth of the mated with the prospect of advancing his fortune by a Lackawaxen creek, up the Delaware to Deposit, and regular course of industry and economy. The farmer across the isthmus to Bettsburg, on the Susquehanna. improves his farm, and doubles or trebles its productive. Estimates were made of the whole route; but after the ness; every mineral is turned to some account and renmost careful research, it was ascertained to be impracti- dered subservient to commerce; manufacturing esta. cable to connect the Delaware and Susquehanna by a blishments rise in every direction; emigrants flock into Canal.

the country; and trade and population increase in an asAs the Delaware at Delhi, according to surveys exe- tonishing ratio. Under such powerful operating causes, cuted under the direction of the State Road Commission. it would not be surprising, if the population, spare at ers, was found to be higher than the summit level of this present, when compared with the extent of the country, caval, insuperable local obstacles arising from the nature should become quadruple in the next thirty years. of the country, must have rendered its use as a feeder, As the trade of the Tioga and its branches will take a either absolutely impossible, or too expensive. northern or southern destination from Tioga point, it

Mr. Mills, the engineer, estimated the length of this may be useful to state the distances by several routes to canal at "141 miles, and found the elevation from the Philadelphia, New-York, and Baltimore. Delaware river to the summit of the dividing land be- Distance from Philadelphia to Tioga Point, by the Delatween the two rivers to be 497feet, and the descent from ware and Hudson canal, and Lackawanna rail this point to the Susquehanna to be 527 feet at Betts road 302, miles. burg, making the Susquehanna 30 feet lower than the


Philadelphia to Bolton at Dunning's Delaware.”


1471 miles. It is believed that no other point on the dividing ridge Harmony on Susquehanna river 85 between the Delaware and Susquehanna, north of the

Chenango Point


1828. ]






gled with numerous difficulties, and been impoverished Tioga Point


by holding unproductive property, in many instances,

from a period anterior to the revolutionary war.

302 Distance from New York, by North River, Delaware and the debts already contracted will be secured, and the

These lands will soon become saleable at a fair pricei Hudson Canal, Lackawanna Rail-road, and Susque purchase money be remitted to Philadelphia to augment hanna river, to Tioga Point; 325 miles.

her capital, and be employed in productive industry. Kingston

100 miles. Delaware at Bolton

The Lackawanna coal trade is an object of great im

70 Tioga Point


portance to the city of Philadelphia. At present, the

Hudson and Delaware canal company completely mono325

polize it, and can turn such part as suits their interest, Distance from Philadelphia, by the Schuylkill Naviga- trade for erer, unless the Delaware Canal shall provide an

to the city of New York. Philadelphia will lose that tion, Union canal, and Susquehanna river, to Tioga outlet for the coal. Point, 361 2-3 miles. Berwick

The Lackawanna mines are nearer to Philadelphia

238 Tioga Point

123 2-3

than those of Wilkesbarre are either to that city or Baltimore: yet nobody doubts but that coal may be advan.

tageously carried to those markets. Baltimore relies on

361 2-3 Distance from Philadelphia, by Mauch Chunck, Ber- it as one principal source of her prosperity. wick, and Susquehanna, to Tioga Point 315 2-3 miles.

The Baltimore and Ohio railroad is projected at anex Berwick


pense of 6,000,000 dollars. One principal object is to Tioga Point

123 2-3

bring bituminous coal, more than 150 miles from the Al.

legheny mountain, where the toll and transportation 315 2-3

will at least amount to two and a half cents per ton per Distance from New-York, by Morris canal, Lehigh, Ber- mile. wick, and Susquehanna, to Tioga Point, 328 2-3

The inferiority of the bituminous to the anthracite va. miles.

riety, as an article of commerce, is well established. Easton


Anthracite has been sent to Richmond, and sold at a Mauch Chunk


fair profit. It threatens to supplant the coal in the vi. Berwick


cinity of that city. Susquehanna coal has already Tioga Point

123 2-3

been carried to Philadelphia by the Union canal, and a

company is said to be now preparing packets for its trans.

328 2-3 portation on the same canal. N. B. The Lockage on this route is much greater than

Last year, 61,669 tons were sent to Philadelphia from on the Northern route.

the Lehigh and Schuylkill. The estimate for this year Distance from Philadelphia, by Pottsville and Sunbury is 100,000 tons, of which 70,000 will probably be exrail-road, to Tioga Point, 305 miles.

ported. Sunbury


From statements made by the Lehigh company, it ap. Tioga Point


pears, that the use of Pennsylvania coal has increased in

the most astonishing manner. It will not only gradually 305

supersede all other fuel on the sea coast, but be carried Distance from Philadelphia, by rail-road to Columbia, far into the interior of the different states, by navigable

and Susquehanna river, to Tioga Point, is about 305 rivers, canals, and railroads. It will probably be shipmiles.

ped in large quantities to the West Indies and to Eu. From Baltimore, to York Haven by rail-road, and by rope.

Susquehanna to Tioga Point, is about 300 miles. In a few years, the demand will become so great, as

By these statements, drawn from the best authorities to render a constant abundant supply, at a cheap rate, that could be obtained, it will appear,

difficult if not impossible, unless every coal region in 1. That an uninterrupted canal communication cannot Pennsylvania shall be laid under contribution. be had on any of the routes from Tioga Point to Phila To attempt to confine the coal trade to one or two dis. delphia, Baltimore, or New-York.

tricts is preposterous: the effect would he, to cramp 2. That the distance from Tioga Point to either of this invaluable trade, and create an odious monopoly, those cities is very nearly the same;-the Northern Del. inconsistent with the dictates of benevolence and true aware route being rather the shortest.

policy. This route will have some peculiar advantages; it will It is manifestly the interest of Philadelphia, to have present the people on the Tioga and its branches, with every avenue to every coal mine in the state thrown a mode of transporting their agricultural and mineral wide open, and to encourage rivalry and competition to productions to the Hudson, shorter than any other; at the fullest extent. the same time, it will give them the choice of two of the Beneficial effects will soon be perceived-coal will be best American markets, on the best possible terms.-reduced to its minimum price, and time, the detector The Lackawanna coal region, when brought into active of all fallacies, will show what individuals or corporations operation, will afford a good permanent market for a will be successful. Much more will depend on the taportion of their surplus produce of the Susquehanna and lent, industry, and economy displayed at the several Tioga. The surrounding beech woods will soon feel the coal establishments, than on the mere circumstance of beneficial effects of these improvements, will rapidly in- distance. crease in population and wealth, and from its being ra Nature and art have conspired to make Philadelphia ther a grass than a grain country, will be unable to meet a great manufacturing city—the first, perhaps, on the this augmented demand. So good a market cannot be continent of America; but the main pillar of her great. had at the coal mines on the Susquehanna, the Lehigh, ness will be the coal trade. or the Schuylkill. The rich river lands adjacent to these It will require 14,300 vessels of 70 tons each to export mines will amply supply them.

100,000 tons of coal. It must be obvious to every reflecting mind, that the Smith, in his wealth of nations, say's “the coal trade Delaware Canal will accelerate the improvement and fron New-Castle to London, employs more shipping settlement of the north-eastern section of Pennsylvania. than all the carrying trade of England, though the ports The wild lands of this hitherto neglected country, be are at no great distance.” London is said to consume long principally to Philadelphians. They have strug- 1,000,000 tons of coal per annum.

It would employ




10,000 vessels of 100 tons each, to transport this coal facilities for transportation. Lumber in this section from the mines to that city.

country may be carried cheaper to market, whenever The Lackawanna coal is very similar to that of the the canals are navigable, than by the usual river navigaLehigh and Schuylkill. It burns freely, and with more tion, which is generally confined to the spring flame than either. The mines are inexhaustible. We The Susquehanna hills in the state of New York, subjoin an extract from a letter of Judge Scott to the above Harmony, are in many places covered with pine board of canal commissioners of Pennsylvania, dated timber of the first quality. The lumbering country exFeb. 2, 1827, on this subject.

tends above Meadville village, and many miles up the The anthracite coal formation extends from the sources Unadilla branch. of the Lackawanna, along the valley of that stream to the The money received in Philadelphia, for lumber, is Wyoming valley; thence through the Wyoming valley to brought and distributed among the country merchants, the hills near Berwick, making together a distance of eigh- who purchase their supplies in the city of New York. ty miles. This coal tract is from half a mile to five miles This is invariably the case, and cannot be avoided until wide, and is estimated at an average width of two miles; a water communication is provided. The Delaware cathroughout the whole of which coal is found in strata nal will reverse this order of things, so injurious to the from five to forty feet thick. Estimating the average interests of our metropolis. It will create and secure to thickness of the stratum of coal at twelve feet, (which is Philadelphia, an active, valuable, and increasing trade in below the fact, this region contains one thousand three foreign fabrics and domestic manufactures. hundred and ninety-five millions eight hundred and se New York will never consent to lose the trade of an venty thousand tons of coal, which, with all the capital extensive and flourishing country within her own borwhich could advantageously be invested in the business, ders, without making a powerful effort to retain it.and with all the facilities of canal navigation, could not The Upper Delaware route is the only one that will suit be exhausted in ten thousand years."

her interests. The principal part of the lumber which descends the The Susquehanna, above Tioga Point, is within her Delaware to Philadelphia, grows and is manufactured on southern boundary for more than fifty miles, and comthe waters of the Susquehanna, and is brought over to municates with the projected lateral canals and railroads. Walton and Deposit, on the Delaware, in sleighs or The Hudson and Delaware canal also passes through wagons. The distance varies from 15 to 22 miles; the her territory for seventy miles, and she must feel a lively cost of transportation is said to be $3 per thousand feet, interest in its prosperity. and cost of running to Philadelphia, with insurance, $3 It would be unwise in our Legislature to lull itself and more. There is scarcely any valuable pine timber on the people into security, by the idea, that New York the margin of the Delaware, nor much within ten miles will not see, and pursue her true interest. of it. The principal lumbering establishments in Penn Want of intellect and vigour, are by no means chasylvania, above Milford, are on or near the Lackawaxen, racteristic of that powerful state. Her plans are laid or on the waters of Stanucca creek. The Delaware and with consummate wisdom, and carried into effect with Hudson canal, and the Susquehanna and Lackawanna a rapidity and perseverence worthy of imitation. —Pen. railroad, will pass through them, and afford uncommon Gaz.

STATEMENT OF SUNDRY BANKS IN THE STATE OF PENNSYLVANIA, On the Sixth of November, 1827, as reported to the Legislature on the Eighth of January 1828, by the Auditor-General.


CapitalStock/Notes in Cir. Deposit.


Bills Dis-

Specie. Dividends.

10 p.c.

Bank of the Northern Liberties 200,000
Schuylkill Bank

500,000 Commercial Bank

1,000,000 Mechanics Bank

529,330 Farmers and Mechanics Bank 1,250,000 Southwark Bank

249,390 Bank of North America

1,000,000 Philadelphia Bank

1,800,000 Kensington Bank

87,490 Bank of Germantown

129,500 Bank of Delaware co.

77,510 Farmer's Bank of Bucks co.

60,090 Easton Bank .

181,140 Bank of Chester co.

90,000 Bank of Montgomery co.

133,250 Lancaster Bank

134,235 Bank of Brownsville

102,123 Farmer's Bank of Lancaster

450,000 Harrisburg Bank

158,525 Bank of Chambersburg

246,745 Westmoreland Bank of Pennsyl'a. 112,483 Bank of Pittsburg

346,155 Bank of Gettysburg

125,298 York Bank

168,720 Columbia Bridge Company

395,000 Northampton Bank

127,000 Carlisle Bank

164,694 Several banks not reported.

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5 8 61 8 3 10 10 51 4 3 4


7 5 6 7

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