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1928.)

EARLY SETTLEMENT.

179

paper. What he penned from the inspiration of the Sir Samuel Argal until 1612, nor Lord De la War himbrandy, was perfectly fit for the press without any alter- self until 1610. ation, or correction.*

But whatever may be the ground of those claims, it is GERMANTOWN.

at least certain, that, as early as 1609, Henry Hudson, an A public Journal was printed in the German lan- Englishman, but in the service of Holland, a few days guage, at Germantown, as early as the summer of 1739, before he discovered the noble stream that bears his by Christopher Sower. The title of it Englished, was name, remarked "the white sandy shore” of our capes.

The Pennsylvania German Recorder of Events. Fearful of the shoals that crowded the mouth of a bay, At first this paper was printed quarterly at three shil- to explore which be conceived it was necessary to have lings per annum; it was, afterward, published monthly, a small pinnasse,” and after actually striking ground and was continued till about the year 1744. This was, once, he bore away with his good ship the “Halfe Moone" undoubtedly, the first newspaper printed in the German which might have taken possession, if it did not, leaving language in America.

our nameless stream to receive its title perhaps from an

accident. Germantanner Zeitung. Nine years afterward, in 1618, Lord Delawar, on his Germantown Gazette.

voyage from Virginia to England, died, opposite the This Gazette was printed by Christopher Sower, jun. his name.

mouth of the river, which thence it is thought, received and, probably, as a substitute for the Germantown Recorder, which had been published by his father. It of Virginia, the French and Dutch were permitted to

In 1621, although the Delaware was considered a part was a weekly paper, and commenced about 1744. As trade with the natives, but no Europcan settlements an appendage to it, Sower for some time published, eve.

were made on its shore. ry fortnight, a small Magazine of eight 8vo. pages, containing, chiefly, moral and religious essays; with which, by the Holland West India company under the sanction

In 1623, Captain Kornelis Jacobse Mey, despatched it is said, he supplied his newspaper customers gratis of the States General, who founded their claim to the The Zeitung was, I believe, continued until the trou- sovereignty of the soil upon the discovery of Hudson, bles occasioned by the war obliged the publisher to drop landed at the entrance of our bay, selected as the fairest it. It had an extensive circulation among the Germans and most fruitful part of the New-Netherlands. The settled in Pennsylvania.

Dutch commander gave the name of Kornelis to the LANCASTER.

southern, and Mey to the northern cape, and, sailing up A newspaper in the English and German languages known with certainty to have taken place on our river:

the virgin stream, made the first settlement of Europeans was published in Lancaster by Miller and Holland, in this was at Fort Nassau, erected

on the Sasackan at a January 1751. What the title of it was, I cannot learn, point on the eastern

bank of the Delaware, a few miles nor the time at which it was discontinued. Lahn, Albright and Stumer published a newspaper in called by the natives Techaacho, and is in the vicinity of

below Coaquenak, now Philadelphia: the place was English and German, before the revolutionary war, and the town of Gloucester. for a short time after its commencement. Francis Bailey published a paper in English soon after Delaware as early at least as 1627, but it is not thought

It has been said that the Swedes and Fins visited the the beginning of the war. He, afterward, removed to they made any permanent settlements there until 1629. Philadelphia, and published the Freeman's Journal.

In 1628, while the Dutch yet held Fort Nassau, a litAitken was a man of truth, and of an irreproachable covered on the opposite side of the Delaware, and named

tle fresh water river, according to Stuyvesant, was dis. character. This anecdote came from him some years by them Schuylkil, that is hidden-creek; at the mouth of before his death.

which the Swedes subsequently erected a fort bearing EARLY SETTLEMENT.

one of the Indian names of the river, Manaiiung.

In 1629, the Heer Godyn made purchases of land, from The following extracts are made from an inte the natives, at their village on the southwest corner of resting discourse delivered before the Penn Society on the bay, extending "from Cape Hinloop to the mouth of the 24th October last, entitled "Sketches of the Primi- the river,” and in the following year being joined with tive Settlements on the River Delaware."

Bloemart, purchased an additional tract from the Narati

con chiefs at Cape Mey, extending sixteen miles along By James N. Barker, esq.

the opposite shore. Being now associated with the paThe history of our river commences at a much earlier troon Vanrenselaer and others, an effort was made to codate than is generally imagined. “There was of very lonise the South River by Godyn, who had already given early and ancient times (the beginning whereof is not his name to the bay. At the creek on which Lewes now known) a settlement and plantations on the Delaware, stands, called Hoerne Kill, and extending perhaps to made and planted and inhabited by christians of the Boompjees Hoek, a settlement was effected; and the Swedish nation; and afterwards held and inhabited, in place heretofore called Cannaresse by the natives, and the

year 1609, and for many years after, by christians by the Dutch by names scarcely to be pronounced, re, under the dominion of the States General of Holland,” ceived from the proprietor the poetical title of Swansays one of high authority. “The said river, was in the endael, or Valley of Swans. Under the direction of the primitive tyme likewise possessed and a colony planted; company, in the same year, 1630, the gallant and enterand after this, in the year 1623, the fforte Nassaw was prising Pieterz de Vries, artillery master, sailed from the built,” observes another of exalted station. A third claim Texel with the colonists, and arriving safely in Godyn's is made by an English author, who distinctly asserts, that bay, built Fort Opland, to protect

the valley of the about the year 1588, Sir Walter Raleigh seated and left, swans. Authorities differ as to the precise situation at the creek near the southern cape, thirty men and four of this fort; whether it occupied the spot where pieces of ordnance; and that, in the year 1608, the Ba. Lewes stands, or was fixed at Boompjee's Hoek, which in ron De la War, governor of Virginia, by Sir Thomas the opinion of some is the same with Swanendacl; or Dale and Sir Samuel Argal, took possession and atturn- whether indeed it was not built in the following year, ment of the land and its Indian kings. Unfortunately, 1631, to protect his contemplated whale fishery. The however, for this pretension to antiquity, it does not ap- fort, however, was built, and is described as a house surpear from any historical evidence, that Sir Walter Ra. rounded with palisadoes, but without parapet, and as at leigh ever was in America; and Stith, the historian of once their fortress, house of commerce, and place of renVirginia, is of opinion he was not. Besides, Sir Tho- dezvous. The fate of this little colony has given a memas Dale did not come to the new world until 1611, nor lancholy celebrity to the spot. De Vries having sailed

180

EARLY SETTLEMENT.

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for Europe, the commander of the place, with a ridicu- peared from the face of the earth, and circumstances
lous ostentation, erected a pillar near the fort bearing the alone lead us to guess that it once fiourished on the bank
arms of their High Mightinesses emblazoned on a plate of Salem creek!
of tin, as the sign of Dutch sovereignty over the land. The planting of this colony did not commence until
One of the natives, not understanding the sacredness of about 1640. The Dutch of New-Netherland, although
the symbol, converted the metal to his own use. This Holland had formally yielded her pretensions to Eng-
indignity could not be borne with patience by the com- land, taking advantage of the internal commotions then
mander, the silly Gillis Osset, who imprudently urged commencing in the British kingdom, tenaciously held
his complaints and demands with such vehemence and on to their possessions, and, being occasionally aided by
importunity, that the harassed and perplexed tribe their new rivals the Swedes against a common enemy,
brought him the head of the dilinquent. It is hoped gave the English colonists much trouble. Some Swe-
that the commander repented his folly; but for this he dish soldiers had even dared to take possession of the
had but brief time. The relatives and friends of the de- abandoned fort and mine of Eriwomec, in order, as Plan-
ceased chief, effected, soon after, a surprise of the gar- tagenet writes, “ to cross the Dutch of Manhatoes and
rison, and in one hour the Dutch ceased to exist on the undersell them.” “Since my return,” observes Master
South river.

Evelyn in an epistle to the Countess Palatine in Eng-
De Vries, on his return from Holland, in December land—“eighteen Swedes are settled in the province, and
1632, in answer to his joyous salute to the fort, met only sometimes six Dutch doe in a boat trade without fear."
a mournful silence, which too truly informed him of the Against a confederacy so powerful what could stand!
fate of his countrymen. He passed up the river, now a The gallant and accomplished Ployden was despoiled
cheerless solitude, fort Nassau opposite Coaquenaku and of his dominion—the Empire of New-Albion, with its
the island Aquekanasua, having been for some time aban- wholesome government and laws, fell—at what particu-
doned. Above Nassau, at the mouth of the Timmerkil, lar period history has not deigned to tell, and has scarce-
now Cooper's Creek, was seated a tribe of Indians, who ly left a name behind, even in a brief note on the page
invited him to enter the stream. He might have com- of a provincial record.
plied, and doubtless would have fallen a victim to their After the catastrophe at Swanendael, the Dutch had
treachery, (for they were of the sanguinary race of the again gradually obtained footing on the shores of Zuydi
Sankhicans,) but for the timely warning, humanely given riviere, and, as early as 1638, we are informed by the
him by one of the tribe. Need it be added that the Swedish historian of New-Sweden, Acrelius, had erect-
generous individual was of that sex bounteously bestowed a fort at Hoerne-kil.
ed upon the wayfarer man, in city or in desert, to be his In the year 1638, the first appearance of the Swedes
solace and his safeguard-Woman! whom even her na- is said to have taken place, when, in pious fulfilment of
tive wilderness cannot always render wild, nor a life of the design of Gustavus Adolphus, his illustrious daught-
savage association deprive of her innate softness!—The cr, aided by the counsels of her chancellor, the excellent
fame of the amiable princess of the Powhatan is deserv. Oxenstierna, determined to attempt the establishing a
edly dear to us; shall we not gratefully cherish the me- colony on our river. Landing at Cape Inloop, from the
mory of our own, though nameless heroine of the Le- beauty and fertility of the place, the Swedes named the
nape
Wihittuc.?

spot on which they first set their feet, Paradiset. De Vries, after proceeding to Virginia for provisions, From this period the history of the Swedes and returned to Europe, and the Indians were left once Dutch on our bay and river, becomes so blended, that more, sole monarchs of the country. Not a trace re- it will be necessary hereafter to view them as they promained of the Dutch settlements during this their first ceed in their settlements, together. era; and so completely was even their name obliterated, The town of Christina Harbour, and Christina Fort, that, in the map of Novum Belgium by De Lact, publish- were the first places erected by the Swedes, and in the ed in his Novus ORBIS, 1633, but for the names of the year of their arrival, 1638. They stood at a place called capes, and the river, it could not be inferred that a Hol. by the natives Hopohaccan, on the north of the stream lander had ever been in the land of the Minquas and Minquaas, sometimes called Suspecough, and not far Naraticons.

from its mouth. The stream also received the name of The crown of England, it is well known, from the Christina, which it still retains, and a village of some anyear 1498, when Cabot sailed along the coast from New- tiquity, further up the creek, is yet called Christina.“ foundland as far south as the 38th degree of north lati- But the fort and the primitive town of Christina Harbour tude, had claimed the country by right of discovery; and have disappeared: happily, however, for the antiquary, the first James or Charles granted a commission to Sir an accurate draught of both, by the engineer Lindstrom, Edmund Ployden, to plant and possess an extensive ter- is preserved in the Nya Swerige of Campanius, who furritory including the North and South rivers. SirEdmund, nishes besides a minute account of its capture in 1655 by who was created Earl Palatine of Nova Albion, formed the Dutch under Stuyvesant, after a siege of fourteen a company of viscounts, barons, baronets, knights, gen- days, and which completed the subjugation of the countlemen and adventurers; and this goodly band, or a part try. The Swedish traveller Kalm, who visited this spot of them, under the style of "the Albion knights of the in 1748, had presented to him by the reverend Mr. Tranconversion of (the) twenty-three kings (of Charles ri- berg, minister of the Swedish church at Wilmington, an ver,)” actually commenced their settlements, here in old Swedish silver coin of Christina, found among axes, our very neighbourhood. A fort was begun at Eriwo- shovels, and other things, at the depth of about three feet mec, or Pensouken in New-Jersey, of which no more trace under ground, by some workmen, who in the preceding remains, than of the gold mine it was to protect. Even summer were throwing up a redoubt to protect the place the sites of the majority of those places can only be con- from an expected attack by the French and Spaniards. jectured: Roymount was the present Lewes, and Rich- The new fortification, as Mr. Tranberg informed Kalm, neck lay probably somewhere between Salem and Al- was on the same spot which the old one had occupied; loway's creeks in Jersey. Of other spots settled or in- Kalm adds, that it is nearly three miles from that point, tended to be, as little is now remembered; such as Kild by the course of the stream, to its mouth. dorpy, near the falls of Charles' river; or Belville, the On the island of Tenna Kong once stood the town of seat of a descendant of kings, Beauchamp Plantagenet, New Gothenberg, the metropolis of the Swedish Amerione of the Knights companions, who was “admitted as can Empire, as it has been pleasantly denominated by a the familiar of the Earl Palatine, and had “cabined" learned member of our society. Nya Gotheborg had its with him for seven years among the Indians. Nay, the church, consecrated by Dr. Campanius in 1646; its fort, very chosen residence of the Earl himself, the metropo- and its palace. Upon this island all the principal freelis of his empire-Watcessi~where seventy Albion sub. men had their dwellings and plantations. It was in the jects were once seated, has for ever, like Troy, disap- splendid Palace of Printzhoff, the first governor Printz

1828.)

EARLY SETTLEMENT.

181

had concluded treaties with the native lords of the soil, ment at Rypert Landet or Manathaan, near Christina which, under his successor Risingh, were revived with Creek, below which, some miles, between two nameless the assembled Sakimen in 1654—the very year before streams, lies the town of Straws Wijk. Nya Gotheborg, with all its glories, was demolished by Nieu Causland, by its appearance a place of considerthe Dutch. According to Campanius, New Gotheborg able importance, on the old map of 1655, covers the was totally "destroyed.". It is gratifying, however, to site of the present Newcastle. Du Simitiere places a learn from William Penn himself, that on his arrival, the town of Nicu Castel above Christina; and another Nicu Swedes had a church, perhaps the ancient edifice, yet Castle al Sand hoek, at the very mouth of the Delaware; standing at Tinicum.

and at the same time gives fort Kasimir its proper loca"At Mocoponaca," says Campanius, (on the stream of tion, which is making three New Castles out of one, for that name) “there were some houses built, and after-fort Kasimer was unquestionably the Nieu Causland wards a fort.” This became the old Upland of the of Lindstrom and the Nieu Castel of Campanius and Swedes, called subsequently by Penn, from the birth others. place of his friend Pearson, Chester.

The place at which the Dutch erected Fort Kasimer, Korsholm Fort, abandoned, and burned by the Indians, says Campanius, was called (by the Indians, it is presumafter Governor Printz returned to Sweden, stood in Pas- ed,) Sand hocken, and was on the south, as Christina fort saiung, the domain of the commander Sven, perhaps at was on the north of the Minquaas or Mingoes creek, call Wicacoa. It was from the sons of Sven (Sven Soner) ed by the Swedes Christina. It was in 1651, that the William Penn purchased the ground on which Philadel- Dutch were suffered by the Swedish governor Printz, phia is now built.

who contented himself with timidly protesting against Manaiung fortilen, was a handsome little fort built of the measure, to possess themselves of this key to New hickory logs, with sand and stones filled in between, and Sweden. In 1654, the successor of Printz, governor palisadoes cut very sharp at the top; and, like the other Risingh, obtained possession of the fort, either by treachforts, was mounted with cannon. It was placed near the ery or by storm, for the historians disagree on this point, mouth of the river called by the natives Manuiung, or when it received the new title of The Fort of the Holy, Menajakse, and perhaps Mitabacong or Matinacong; by Trinity, and was placed under the command of Sven, the Dutch Schuylkil

, and by the Swedes Skiarkilen and schute, lord of Passaiung. In the following year it was Lindskilen.

the first place of strength obliged to yield to the conNya Wasa and Gripsholm are laid down on some of queror Stuyvesant, and was afterwards called Fort Nieu the old maps as fortified places. Ebeling supposes they Amstel. The account by Campanius of these transacwere on the Schuylkill, but Du Siinitiere places them on tions is interesting, and his book contains besides an enthe Delaware, between Nya Gothenborg and the Schuyl- graved view of the fort itself under its Swedish title of kill, Campanius, however, assigns them a station be. Trefalldigheets Forte. tween the Schuylkill, and a stream north of Tinicum, To regain the command of the Delaware, after the Gripsholm near the Delaware, and Nya Wasa some dis- erection by the Dutch of fort Kasimir, the Swedes chose tance up the Schuylkil, probably about the point a little a point further down and on the opposite side of the ribelow Bartram's Botanic Garden. It is difficult to fix ver, a little below the present Salem Creek, on which the latter with any certainty, for but a single stream to build a fort. The place is mentioned in the old maps above Tinicum is laid down on the maps, called by and books as Oitsessing, Asamahoning, and Varchens kil. Lindstrom, the only one who gives it a name, Tenna The fort was called Elfsborg, or Elsenburg, after a town Kongz Kilen. Nya Wasa may therefore have been situ- of that name in Sweden. But the garrison met here ated even below the present Cobb's Creek.

with an enemy, not quite so unexpected, perhaps, as it Chincessing, or Kinsessing, Campanius informs us, was proved irresistible; and were actually driven out by a called the New fort, and its title sufficiently indicates its | foe which history will blush to introduce except by a location. But, in the words of the Swedish writer, periphrasis, in which the world may be informed that “This was no fort, but good strong log houses, built of the discomfited soldiers left to the abandoned fortress hard hickory; two stories high; which was a fort good the opprobrious title of musquetoesborg: and strong enough to secure themselves from the In. This may be considered the last of this series, unless dians.” He adds that the governor had settled five free. we include the intrenchments, which we are informed, men there, who derived a comfortable living from til were thrown up by the Europeans, at Point-no-point, in lage: this was then the population of the township of the vicinity of this city, near Trenton in Jersey, and at Kingsessing.

other places along the river, as defences against the rovMany other settlements were made, and the old maps ing war parties of the Five nations. of Campanius and Lindstrom are crowded with Dutch

[To be continued.] and Swedish names of places on both sides of the Delaware. Du Simitiere places Schonberg immediately north We observe by the Brownsville Galaxy, that Messrs. of the Schuylkill, and Molwehl next above, about the Johnson, Smith and Snowden, have just finished at that site of Philadelphia.

place a new Steam Boat, called the Monongahela. She Finlandt, called by the natives Chama:sung, inhabited is intended to ply between Pittsburg and Brownsville, by Fins, was situated, says Campanius, two and a half when the state of water will admit. She is of light draft miles north of Christina fort. Meulendael, according to andwill most probably run regularly throughout the year. Du Simitiere and Ogibly, was between Uplandt and The first trip was to be made on the 27th. We wish the New Gothenberg. Lapananel was next below Finlandt. proprietors success. There was besides a Swedish settlement at Olof Stilles Easton, Pa. March 7.-

A boat, containing 400 barrels place, called Techoherassi, in the neighbourhood of Tini- of whiskey, equal in weight to 600 bbls. of flour, under cum; another at Karakung, where they had a water- the command of capt. James Connor was safely landed mill, but the situation of which is unknown; and a third at Philadelphia, last week. We believe this is the largest at Mechacanzia in New Jersey, near the falls, and next load of whiskey which ever descended the Delaware below the place called Sankicans.

from this place. -Sent. There was a Swedish village, as Ebeling remarks from Died, on Friday, 8th ult. at his late residence in WestCampanius, at Wicacoa, where they had a church with moreland county, Pa. John Scull, Esq. in the 63d year its loop holes for defence, as early as 1669; and from an of his age. More than 40 years since Mr. 'Scull became expression of the latter it might be inferred that Wica- a citizen of Pittsburg, then an inconsiderable military con and Passaiung were the same. In Lindstrom's map, | post of the Western frontier. Immediately after his rethe two places are laid down as exclusively occupying sidence here, he published the Pittsburg Gazette, the a much greater extent than the entire ground plot of first newspaper issued west of the Allegheny moun. Philadelphia and its liberties. The Dutch had a settle- / tains.

AUDITOR GENERAL's REPORT.

182

(MARCH

AUDITOR GENERAL's REPORT.-READ FEB. 23, 1828. Statement of the Quantity of Bark, Flour, Salted Provisions, Domestic Distilled Spirits and Butter and Lard Inspected annually by the Inspectors of the Port of Philadelphia, from 1821 to 1827, inclusive.

BARK.

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Thomas Ennis. 1821 5339

16374 1822

3351 16878 1823 4369

11676 George Ingles. 1824 11383 19694 From Feb. 10, to Dec. 31,

1826 8122 17988 1824 Joshua Reynolds. 1827

40732 O No report on file of Butter and Lard inspected in 1825. • 40,732 is the whole number of Butter and Lard. The report does not designate number of each.

183

METEOROLOGICAL REGISTER, KEPT BY THOMAS SMITH, LABYRINTH GARDEN.

14 Weather. Clear 43 obs. Cloudy 44 Rain

REMARKS.

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40 181 00

38 19

36 201

34 21 7

36 22

Firstar 40 23

40 24 75

36 25

34 26

28 27 15

34 28

30 29

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42
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59
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29 5 29 51 29 4 E.byn. N. E. N. E.
294 29 4| 29 4N. E. N. E. N. E.
29 60 29 60 29 601S. E. S. W. S. W.
29 80 29 901 29 90 S. S. S.
29 801 29 801 29 8s. E. S. E. iS. E.
29 90 29 25 29 25 8. E. E. E.
29 18 29 181 29 30

S. W.S. W.
30 0 30 0 30 ON. W.N. W.N. W.
29 801 29 80) 29 70 8. E. s. E. S.
29 60 29 60 29 60$. W. S. W.Js. W.
29 70 29 70 29 75 N. W. W. S. W.
30 10 30 10 30 10N. W.N. W. W.
30 30 30 30 30 30 N. W./S. W. Js. W.
30 20 30 20 30 20s. W. N. E. N. E.
30 0 30 0 30 ON. E. N. E. N. E.
29 80 29 801 29 80N. W.N. W. W.
29 901 29 80 29 60 N. W.Js. W. S. W.
29 0 29 0 29 ON. E. N. E. N. E.
29 20 30 0 30 Os. W. W. W.
29 30 29 30 29 301 W. W. S. W.
29 30 29 30 29 301 E. N. E. N. E.
29 80 29 801 29 70 N. W. W. W.
29 901 29 901 29 90 W. N. N. W.
29 20 29 20 29 30 E. N. E. N. E.
29 801 29 801 29 85 N. E. N. W.N. W.
30 0 30 0 30 ON. W.N. W. N. W.
300 30 0 30 ON. E. N. E. N.
30 10 30 10 30 10 N. W.N. W. W.
30 201 30 151 30 10N. W.'N. W.IN. W.

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Clear,
Clear
Clear
Clear

Cloudy 6. R.
Cloudy S. R.
Cloudy S. R.
Clear Thick fog
Cloudy
Cloudy
Clear
Clear Shad bought in Philadelphia
Cloudy market.
Clear
Clear
Clear
Clear
Cloudy
Cloudy Snow, bail and rain.
Clear
Clear
Cloudy Apricot and Peach Trees
Clear

now in blossom.
Clear
Clear
Cloudy
Cloudy
Cloudy Small rain for 12 hours.
Clear Hail.
Clear
Clear A variety of Shrubbery all
Clear out in foliage.
Clear

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Highest
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1828. ]

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