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1828.)

MANUFACTURES.

169

castings. He estimates the sum total of iron annually

Mr. Jackson 800 bushels to make one ton of bar iron manufactured in Pennsylvania at

from the ore-costs 5 cents per bushel. Coal from oak, 21,800 tons of bar iron,

chesnut, &c. 47,075 tons of cast metal, of which 37,200 tons are used in making bar iron, and 14365 tons castings ; a

The product of each Fire? part in air and a part in blast furnaces. One hundred Mr. Mitchell-generally 100 tons to each finery fire. tons of iron;are converted into nails.

Mr. Jackson-25 to 35 tons each forge fire. Also, that there were as many forges built in 1820 as there are now, but were not all in operation; there were

Market and Prices of Iron. 450 tons more manufactured in 1827, than in 1820 (of Mitchell-Pittsburg is the best market for that which bar iron). Thinks the business will not increase, owing goes west, say 2-3. Sometimes the iron masters go down to scarcity of timber. There may perhaps be an increase the river with it. It costs from 25 to 30 dollars per ton of 600 tons per annum.

to take it to Pittsburg ; the price there is from 100 to Mr. Keese states, there are manufactured in the neigh. 115 dollars. A small part is sent to Baltimore and Philabourhood of Lake Champlain about 3000 tons of bar delphia, where it sells at from 85 to 95 per ton. Carriage iron.

to the former 10 dollars, to the latter 12. Mfr. Jackson, of Rockaway, Morris county, N. Y. has Jackson-sends to N. York : costs 3 75 per ton: sells & rolling mill

, in which he rolls iron into rods from three on average at 80 dols.- rolled iron 100 to 110 dolls. eighths to three inches diameter, and squares from threeeighths to an inch spikenail rods, slit band iron, iron

Price of Iron at the Works. scrolls, &c. There is another large establishment of the Mr. Keese-bar iron hammered from blooms 80 to 85 same kind said to roll 1000 tons annually; here also are dollars per ton-small bars to order 5 dollars more. made chain cables. Within a circle of thirty miles dia Mitchell--bar iron fixed price in barter or exchange meter, there are 81 forge fires now in use. Each forge | 100 dollars. Pig metal 26 67, when bar is at 100. has two fires and one hammer. In the same circle there Jackson-bar iron from bloomery, worth in 1825, are also thirty forge fires abandoned, prior to 1918, ow- 75 dollars; 1826, 80 dollars; 1827, 75 dollars. ing to low price of iron at that time. The quantity made in Morris, Bergen, and Sussex counties is estimated at

Supply of Ore. 2050 tons: capital invested in 110 forge fires now in ope

Inexhaustible in the neighbourhoods spoken of. ration $1,210,000; number of hands, 5720; each fire capable of making 25 to 35 tons per annum.

Manufactory of Wood Screws.
Expenses of making Iron.

Dr. Mitchell says there is one in Centre which can

make 150 groce in 24 hours, but only makes enough to Mr. Keese exhibits a statement in detail of making 75 keep the hands together. It completes the screw, taking tons : viz. 225 tons Rock ore at 6 dls. per ton; casting 2. the iron in the pig; are sent to the sea-ports for sale, at 37,500 bushels coal at 4) cents. Bloomer's wages $18 the same price as foreign, and are then probably returnper ton.

Laborer $1 per day. Mechanics $3 per ton. ed again to the country. Insurance 1} per cent. on 2000 dols. Carting to Lake 2 dols. per ton. Expenses to N. Y. 6 dols. per ton. Com

Duty required. missions 516, (un sales of 75 tons, at 90 dols. 6750 dols.) No protection is required, for hoop-boiler, rolled and Total 6330 dols. Exclusive of proprietor's time and slit nail and spike rods : with this last a species of iron attention, interest on capital; requires forty hands. W. from Russia interferes and requires to be placed on the Mitchell estimates the expense of making a ton of bar same footing as nail rods. Hammered bar iron requires iron from the pigs at 75 dols. including the value of the protection of about 5 dols. per ton. A duty is proposed pigs 26.67. all the bar iron is made from pigs in his sec on some kinds of rolled and slit iron and sheet iron. tion. Mr. Jackson pays the bloomers for making a ton

STEEL. of bar iron $16 50, finding themselves. The coal costs $42 50, and the three tons of ore 12 dols. The petition

There are no facts stated respecting this article. The from three counties of Jersey estimates the cost of a ton opinions entertained respecting the duty are various. and getting it to N. York at 79 25.

Mr. Keesc thinks it should be increased; Mr. Mitchell Mr. Jackson estimates the expense of rolling a ton of believes it would be injudicious until it is ascertained bar iron into iron one inch square, at 14 87 ; and it will whether the quality necessary for use can be made here; lose in weight by the operation 3 per cent. on 80 dolls., and Mr. Jackson conceives the duty is at present suffimaking $2 40; total 17 27. Two tons a day will con- cient. stitute the average work, which yields a profit on rolling

HEMP. of 2 73 per ton, equal to 5 46 per day on an establishment worth 20,000 dols: The expenses have not since The growing of hemp is an important business in the increased.

counties of Bourbon, Jessamine, and Scott, of Kentucky. Quantity of Iron to one ton Bar Iron.

The market price for it, cleaned and ready for market,

for 1825 and 1826, was 4 dollars for every 112 lbs.; last Mr. Mitchell states that 6000 tons of pigs will make year about 5 dollars. It is manufactured extensively in 4000 tons of bar iron, and it is sometimes a part of the Fayette, Clark, and Woodford counties into cotton bagcontract with the workmen that they shall make it yield ging, yarns, and cordage. Neither the grower nor manuthat quantity–15 tons.

facturer are supposed to receive a fair compensation for Quantity and cost of Ore to one ton of Iron.

the labour and capital employed. It is believed to be

important that the duty be increased. More was given Mr. Jackson, 3 tons of ore at $4 at forge. in 1827 than in 1826. It is also grown in Ohio, PennsylKeese, 3

6

vania, and New York. Mitchell, 21 to 3 5

SAIL DUCK AND FLAX. Quantity and Cost of Coal to one ton of Iron.

There are three factories in the United States in opeMr. Keese, 500 hushels for converting the ore directly ration for sail cloth and other articles from hemp, and into bar iron'at the forge without the intervention of a Aax; six others bave been suspended. The spindles in furnace, at four and a half cents.

operation are capable of making 19,132 bolts or 765,280 Mr. Mitchell

, in making a ton of pigs, 220 bushels, and yards of heavy duck. in making a ton of bar iron from pigs, 175 bushels. Forge The Phænix Manufacturing Company, at Patterson, coal worth 6 cents at forge, and furnace coal 5 cents. N. J. has a capital of 170,000 dollars, employs 265 hands;

No. 11.

170

MANUFACTURES.

(MARCH

viz. 109 men, at an average of 65 cents per day, 42 boys tory in Baltimore, which makes about the same quantity. 8 to 14 years of age at 1 371 per week, 61 women 2 37 The cloth costs rather less than that made from hemp or per week, and 53 girls 8 to 12 ycars of age at 1 375 per Nax; the demand for it is better. 1100 bolts from Patweek; all pay their own board. The president receives terson were last year sold in Philadelphia, and 200 in N. a salary of 1500 dollars per annum, and is superintendant; York. Consumption of it must increase, and Mr. Traa clerk at 400 dollars.

vers thinks it will soon be exclusively used by all river Raw material used and quantity manufactured.—Flax craft and coasting vessels. If all the craft employed in exclusively. During 1827 employed 960 spindles and the North River were to be refitted with sails, it would 200 twisting spindles. Flax wrought 382,478 pounds, require 828,000 yds. It is preferred on board fore-andall imported. The crown fax from Poland, in largest aft rigged vessels, because they can sail from } to i of a proportion, remainder from Ireland and Russia. From point nearer to the wind than with hemp or flas sails, the gross amount of flax above, there were 237,093 lbs. nor does it stretch or shrink so much as flax canvas, and of clean or hatchled flax, and 145,385 lbs of tow; the first it is better and cheaper than sails made of American dew. is used for the warp, the tow for filling.

rotted fax or hemp, and is more simple in manufacturing

than cotton shirting. Cost of raw material. Irish flax costs about 13 cents per pound ; Russian,

Comparative weight and prices of Duck. called “12 head St. Petersburgh,” which is the best No. 1 to 8 weighs 20 to 374 lbs. prices per yard of quality, about 11 cents. Polish “crown,” which is cotton 31 to 41 cts. of fax 30 to 387, Russia 21, weighs better than Russian, but not so good as Irish, about 12 47 lbs. price about 56 cts. Ravens do. 16 lbs. do. 16cts. cents; these are the New York prices. American flax cach bolt is supposed 40 yds. cotton and fax duck not sells at 8 cents, which Mr. Travers ascertained from an starched; Russia and English are; cotton duck is 24 in. experiment in 1822, would not answer, owing to its be- wide, flax 20, Russia 30. ing prepared by dew rotting.

Duty required.
Time of pulling Flax.

An higher one on raw hemp would not benefit the In this country it is suffered to grow too long, with a grower nor increase the consumption, but should be laid view of raising seed, whilst the foreign is pulled when on the manufactured articles-proposed, on all sail duck the bloom falls, and before the bole is formed. Mr. Tra- 9 cts. per square yard, to increase scent annually for 4 vers considers the difference between American flax, years; on osnaburgs, ticklenburgs and furlaps 5 cts. per pulled when the blossom falls, and water rotted and that yard, and increase $ cent annually for 4 years. No which is pulled after it has seeded, and dew rotted, drawback to be allowed on less than 50 or 100 bolts, and would be fifty per cent. better to the farmer and manu- duty on sails made up on board vessels abroad. facturer; estimated from present prices. The one gains that much by the quantity and quality of the article, and

Miscellaneous. the latter can afford to give that much more for it than

Coarse goods cannot be manufactured from flax to any it is now worth to him. Flax pulled at this time will profit under present duties on foreign fabrics. weigh 33 1-3 per cent, more than when suffered to go It is frequently the case that vessels clcar out with old to seed.

and worn sails, and supply themselves in foreign ports, Kinds of fabric manufactured.

to avoid the duty,'

Samples of American duck have been sent to foreign Made last year 7,010 bolts or pieces of 40 yds. each, countries, and been imitated in Russia and England; the viz. about 5800 of canvass, 1000 of hammock cloth and Russian and English imitations are starched. 210 of bagging. The cotton bagging is made of the By a comparison made by Capt. Porter, and a certifimost inferior of the tow. The canvass is 20 inches wide, cate from Com. Rogers, it appears that the American hammock cloth about 44 in. and the bagging 42 in. canvass is more durable than the imported. Cost of manufacturing a bolt of Duck, exclusive of raw

If the American flax were pulled at a proper season material.

and water-rotted, there would now be a demand, if all Of one kind of duck made by Mr. Travers, each bolt the factories were in operation, for 950,000 lbs. flax and requires 65 pounds of Hax, the cost of manufacturing 5000 tons of hemp at 50 per cent. better price than is from the flax and preparing for markets this bolt will be now paid for dew-rotted American. on an average $5 05; the value of the Alax at 13 cents, The largest flax Mr. Travers ever saw was raised on $8 45, and the asking price for it is $15 50; but sales rice lands in S.Carolina, a sample was sent to him 5 feet difficult at this price. Nothing included for commissions, 11 inches in the stock. interest, &c.

Spirits from Grain.
Market.

The distillation of whiskey is considered very imporPrincipal market furnished by contracts with Navy tant to the agriculturist, as finding him a market for his Department; maile some sales in N. Y. Boston and Phi- grain; it converts it into less bulk and diminishes cost of ladelphia, also in N. Orleans in 1826; sold in New York transportation. The price in Ohio 16 to 20 cts. The $12,036 96.

price of grain regulates the price of whiskey, Difference between use of Flax and Hemp in Duck.

The western states are supposed capable of supplying

the United States. They grow corn for distillation into Hemp costs as much as flax, but does not make so du- whiskey. rable an article, and the waste is 25 per cent. greater

The quantity distilled is believed to be increasing.– than from flax; cannot weave hemp without starching or Average product of one bushel of corn is two gallons of sizing, which causes the cloth to mildew more rapidly; whiskey. flax duck is not starched or sized at all. There is the A farmer receives as his share of whiskey balf the prosame difference between dew-rotted and water-rotted duct, which is usually one gallon per bushel. hemp, as between faxcured in that way; it exists not in One half corn and one half rye produces more whiskey strength but in the durability of the article; these from than corn or rye alone. dew-rotted hemp certainly decompose, when exposed Hon. N. Garrow distilled in last 12 months 80,000 gals. to weather, much sooner than those made from water and expects to make the same this year. rotted hemp or flag.

The opinion is that the diminution in the price of Suil Cloth made from Cotton.

whiskey does not increase the consumption of it. There are about 1500 bolts of sail cloth manufactured

Spirits from Molasses. annually in Patterson, from cotton. There is also a fac One gallon of good molasses will produce a gallon of

1828.]

CRIMINAL BUSINESS

171

spirits hygrometer proof; inferior molasses produces less The average weight of 100 gallons of molasses, such by 5 to 7 per cent.

as is used in distilling rum, is about 950 to 1050 lbs The difference in value between a gallon of rum made

Glass. from molasses and the gallon of molasses is 12 cents; a distiller can well afford to carry on business, if he re Mr. Bakewell uses in manufacturing glass about 50 to ceive 8 to 10 cts. per gallon more for spirits than he gave 60,000 lbs. of Missouri lead, and two-thirds that quantity for molasses.

of potash. Employs about 60 hands, of whom 20 or 25 The distilleries in the neighbourhood, at Hudson and are boys. at Albany, distil about 350,000 gallons per annum. Mr. A. Way, at Washington, makes about 3000 boxes

Quantity of spirits now distilled is supposed to be one window glass per annum. half less than in 1822, owing to the preference given to Window glass in Pittsburg per box 100 square feet 8 whiskey.

by 10-$3 80 to $4; in Washington $6 50 to 8. Large quantities of whiskey are used in the distilla No protection required on glass and none on paper. tion of rum from molasses.

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Published by order of the Acting Committee of the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons.

JAMES J. BARCLAY, Secretary. NEWSPAPERS

ladelphia : Printed by Andrew Bradford, and Sold by Published in Pennsylvania prior to the Revolution. him and John Copson. May 25, 1721,* Copson's name

was omitted in the imprint, which was altered thusExtracted from Thomas' History of Printing, 1810. “Philadelphia: Printed and Sold by Andrew Bradford,

at the BIBLE in Second Street; and also by William PHILADELPHIA.

Bradford in New York, where Advertisements are taken Fifty years ago there were only three newspapers pub- in." William Bradford's name as a vender of the Merlished in this city, viz. two in English, and one in the cury in New York was omitted in December, 1725. In German language. In 1762, two English and two Ger- January, 1730, an addition was made to the imprint, viz. man papers existed, one of the latter was afterward dis- “Price 10 s. per Annum. All sorts of Printing Work continued. and from that time untıl the year 1773, only done cheap, and old Books neatly bound.” In 1738, it three papers, two English and one German, were print- was printed in "Front-Street,” to which he transferred ed at Philadelphia.

his sign of the Bible. The first newspaper in Pennsylvania was entitled The Mercury occasionally appeared on a whole sheet

No. 1.

of pot, from types of various sizes, as small pica, pica, The AMERICAN

and English. It was published weekly, generally on Weekly Mercury.

Tuesday, but the day of publication was varied. In Janu.

ary, 1742-3, the day of the week is omitted; and it is TUESDAY, December 22, 1719, It was printed on a half shcet of pot. Imprint—"Phi-1 in Philadelphia.

Copson at this time opened the first insurance office

172

NEWSPAPERS.

(MARCI

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dated from January 18, to January 27; after this time it Meredith and Franklin separated in May 1732. Frank. was conducted with more stability.

lin continued the Gazette, but published it only once a In No. 22, two cuts, coarsely engraven, were intro- week. In 1733, he printed it on a crown half sheet in duced, one on the right, the other on the left of the ti- quarto.—Imprint, “Philadelphia: Printed by B. Franktle ; the one on the left was a small figure of Mercury, lin, Post-Master, at the New Printing-Office near the bearing his caduceus ; he is represented walking, with Market. Price 10 s. a year. Where Advertisements extended wings; the other is a postman riding full speed. are taken in, and Book-Binding is done reasonably in the The cuts were sometimes shifted, and Mercury and the best manner.” In 1741, he enlarged the size to a demy, postman exchanged places.

quarto half sheet, and added a cut of the Pennsylvania The Mercury of December 13, 1739, was "Printed by arms in the title. In 1745, he reverted to foolscap folio. Andrew and 'William Bradford,” and September 11, In 1747 the Gazette was published By B. Franklin 1740, it had a new head, with three figures, well execu- Postmaster, and D. Hall ;' it was enlarged to a whole ted; on the left was Mercury; in the centre a town, in- sheet, crown, folio ; and afterward, by a great increase tended, as I suppose, to represent Philadelphia; and, on of advertisements to a sheet, and often to a sheet and a the right, the postman on horseback; the whole formed half demy. On the 9th of May, 1754, the device of a a parallelogram, and extended across the page from mar- snake, divided into parts, with the motto-"Join or die,” gin to margin. This partnership continued only eleven I believe, first appeared in this paper. It accompanied months, when the Mercury was again printed by Andrew an account of the French and Indians having killed and Bradford alone. The typography of the Mercury was scalped many of the inhabitants in the frontier counties equal to that of Franklin's Gazette.

of Virginia and Pennsylvania. The account was pubAndrew Bradford died November 23, 1742; and the lished with this device, with a view to rouse the British next Mercury, dated December 2; appeared in mourn- colonies, and cause them to unite in effectual measures ing. The paper was suspended one week, on account for their defence and security, against the common eneof the death of Bradford; therefore the first paper “pub- my. The snake was divided into eight parts, to reprelished by the widow Bradford,”* contained an extra half sent, first, New England; second, New York; third, New sheet. "The tokens of mourning were continued six Jersey; fourth, Pennsylvania; fifth, Maryland; sixth, Vir. weeks.

ginia; seventh, North Carolina; and eighth, South CaroThe widow entered into partnership with Isaiah War- lina. The account and the figures appeared in several ner, and the Mercury of March1, 1742 bears this imprint other papers, and had a good effect.

_“Printed by Isaiah Warner and Cornelia Bradford.” The Gazette was put into mourning October 31, 1765, Waumer, in an introductory advertisement, informed the on account of the stamp act, passed by the British parpublic that the paper would be conducted by him. liament, which was to take effect the next day. From

Cornelia Bradford resumed the publication, October that time until the 21st of November following, the pub18, 1744, and carried it on in her own name till the end lication of it was suspended. In the interim, large handof 1746. It was, I believe, soon after discontinued. The bills, as substitutes, were published, headed "RemarkMercury was well printed, on a good type, during the able Occurrences.”—“No Stamped Paper to be had,” whole time she had the management of it.

&c. When revived, it was published without an imprint

until February 6, 1766; it then appeared with the name The Universal Instructor in all Arts and Sciences : And

of David Hall only, who now became the proprietor and

the printer of it. "In May following, it was published by Pennsylvania Gazette.

Hall and Sellers, who continued it until 1777; but, on This was the second newspaper established in the the approach of the British army, the publishers retired province ; it has been continued under the title of the from Philadelphia, and the publication was suspended Pennsylvania Gazette to the present time, and is now the while the British possessed the city. On the evacuation oldest newspaper in the United States.

of Philadelphia, the Gazette was again revived, and pubNo. 1, was published December 24, 1728, by Samuel lished once a week until the death of Sellers in 1804. Keimer, on a small sheet, pot size, folio. In No. 2, the After this event, it was printed by William and Darid publisher adopted the style of the Quakers, and dated it Hall, and is now published by Hall and Pierrie every * The 2d of the 11th mos 1728.The first and second Wednesday., Hall the present partner is grandson of pages of each sheet were generally occupied with ex- David, and the son of William Hall. tracts from Chamber's Dictionary; this practice was continued until the 25th of the 7th mo. 1729, in which the article Air concludes the extracts.

The Pennsylvania Journal and the Weekly Advertiser. When the paper had been published nine months, This paper was first published on Tuesday, December the printer had not procured one hundred subscribers. 2, 1742. It was printed on a folscap sheet. The day of

Franklin, soon after he began husiness, formed the publication was changed to Wednesday. Imprintdesign of publishing a newspaper, but was prevented · Philadelphia: Printed by William Bradford, on the by the sudden appearance of this Gazette : he was great. West side of Second Street, between Market and Chesly disappointed; and, as he ohserves, used his endea- nut Streets.” But soon after “at the Corner of Black vours to bring it into contempt. He was successful, and Horse Alley.;' the publisher, being obliged to relinquish it, for a trifling About the year 1766, the imprint was, “Philadelphia: consideration resigned it to Franklin. At this time Frank- Printed and sold by William and Thomas Bradford, at lin was in partnership with Hugh Meredith; they began the corner of Front and Market-Streets, where all per* printing this paper with No. 40, and published it a few sons may be supplied with this paper at Ten Shillings a weeks on Mondays and Thursdays, on a whole or half year. ---And where Advertisements are taken in." In sheet pot, as occasion required. The price “ten shil- | 1774, it had in the title a large cut, the device, an open lings per annum. The first part of the title they ex- volume, on which the word “ JOURNAL” is very conspi. punged, and called their paper “ The Pennsylvania Ga- cuous; underneath the volume appears a ship under zette. Containing the freshest Advices Foreign and sail, enclosed in an ornamented border ; the volume is Domestick.” The Gazette, under their management, supported by two large figures; the one on the right regained reputation, but until Franklin obtained the ap- presents Fame, that on the left one of the aborigines pointment of postmaster, Bradford's Mercury had the properly equipped. This device remained as long as largest circulation; after this event, the Gazette had a the Journal was published, excepting from July 1774 to full proportion of subscribers and of advertising custom, October 1775, during which time the device of the diviand it became very profitable.

ded snake, with the motto-UNITE OR DIE” was substi

tuted in its room. * Andrew Bradford's widow, Cornelia.

This paper was devoted to the cause of the country;

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1828.)

NEWSPAPERS.

1773

but it was suspended during the period that the British | The Pennsylvania Ledger ; or, The Virginia, Maryland army was in possession of Philadelphia.

Pennsylvania, and New Jerscy Weekly Advertiser. William Bradford died in 1791 ; the Journal was continued by the surviving partner subsequent to 1800; it

This Ledger was first published January 28, 1775. It was finally discontinued, and the True American, a daily had a cut of the king's arms in the title. It was printed paper, was published in its stead.

on a demy sheet, folio, with new types: the workmanship was neat and correct, and it appeared on Saturdays.

Imprint—"Philadelphia: Printed by James HumThe Pennsylvania Chronicle, and Universal Advertiser. phreys, Jun. in Front-Street, at the Corner of Black

horse Alley;—where Subscriptions are taken in for this Containing the freshest Advices both Foreign and Do- Paper at Ten Shillings per Year.”

mestick; with a Variety of other matters, useful, in The publisher announced his intention to conduct his structive and entertaining.

paper with political impartiality; and, perhaps, in times

more tranquil than those in which it appeared, he might Rara Temporum Felicitas, ubi sentire quæ velis, et quæ have succeeded in his plan. He had, as has been stated, sentias dicere licet!'-'Tacitus.

taken the oath of allegiance to the king of England; he

pleaded the obligations of his oath, and refused to bear In the middle of the title was placed a handsome cut arms against the British government; in consequence of of the king's arms.

which he was deemed a tory, and his paper denounced The Chronicle was published weekly, on Monday.- as being under corrupt influence, The impartiality of The first number appeared January 6, 1767, well print- the Ledger did not comport with the temper of the ed from a new bourgeois type, on a large medium sheet, times; and, in November, 1776, Humphreys was obliged folio. Imprint—" Philadelphia: Printed by William to discontinue it, and leave the city. Goddard, at the New Printing Office, in Market-Street,

A few weeks before the British troops took possession near the Post-Office. Price Ten Shilling per Annum." of Philadelphia, in September, 1777, Humphreys re

This was the fourth newspaper in the English lan- turned, remained in the city whilst it was in their posguage established at Philadelphia, and the first with four session, and renewed the publication of the Ledger; but, columns to a page, printed in the colonies. The second when the royal army evacuated the place, it was again and third years, the Chronicle was printed in quarto, and discontinued, and never afterward revived. Whilst the the fourth year again in folio, but on a smaller sheet. It British remained in Philadelphia, the Ledger was pubwas ably edited; in all respects well executed; and it lished twice a week, on Wednesday and Saturday The soon gained an extensive circulation. Joseph Galloway last number was published May 23, 1778, and the Bria celebrated character at the commencement of the Ame- tish army quitted the city about the middle of the follow, rican revolution, and a delegate to the continental con- ing month. gress from Pennsylvania, before the declaration of independence, and Thomas Wharton, a wealthy merchant,

The Pennsylvania Evening Post. but neither of them in the whig interest, were silent partners with Goddard. The Chronicle was established

Was first published January 24, 1775, by Benjamin under their influence, and subjected to their control, Towne. It was well printed on half a sheet of crownuntil 1770. Benjamin Towne, afterward printer of the paper, in quarto, and published three times in a week, Pennsylvania Evening-Post, was also, for a short time, a viz. on Tuesday, Thursday, and Saturday evening's ; partner in the Chronicle establishment; he was intro- “price two pennies each paper, or three Shilling's the duced to this concern by Galloway and Wharton, who quarter.” This was the third evening paper which sold him their right in it

. In 1770, Goddar.1 separated made its appearance in the colonies; the first was the from his partners, and the politics of the Chronicle be- Boston Evening Post, and the second The New York came more decided in favour of the country. A portion Evening Post. The reverend Dr. Witherspoon, memof it was, however, for a long time, devoted by Goddard ber of Congress, and some other distinguished characters to the management of a literary warfare which took of that day, it has been said, furnished the Evening Post place between him and his late partners.

occasionally with intelligence and essays. Although the The Chronicle was published until February, 1773. printer of this paper had been the agent of Galloway and It was then discontinued, and the publisher of it removed Wharton, he was on the side of the country until the to Baltimore,

British army entered the city in 1777. He remained in
Philadelphia after this event, and continued the Even-

ing Post under the auspices of the British general until The Pennsylvania Packet, or the General Advertiser.

the city was evacuated. Towne was proscribed by a The Packet was first issued from the press in Novem- leave Philadelphia, but again changed his ground; and,

law of the state of Pennsylvania; he did not, however, ber, 1771. It was well printed on a sheet of demy, by without molestation continued his paper until 1782, John Dunlap, in Market street, Philadelphia. The day about which time the publication of it terminated. of publication was Monday. A well executed cut of a ship divided the title.

From September 1777, to July 1778, when the Bri- Story and Humphreys's Pennsylvania Mercury, and tish army was in possession of Philadelphia, the Packet

Universal Advertiser. was printed at Lancaster. On the return of the propri The Mercury first came before the public in April tor to this city, it was published twice a week. For some 1775; and was published weekly, on Friday, printed on time it was printed three times a week; but it was again a demy sheet, folio, with types said to be manufactured reduced to twice a week in 1780. In 1783, Dunlap, in the country. A large cut decorated the title; Britain for a very valuable consideration, sold this establishment and America were represented by two figures, facing to D. C. Claypoole, who had previously been a partner. each other, and in the act of shaking hands; underneath Claypoole again printed the Packet three times a week; the figures was this motto—"Affection and Interest dic. and, about 1784, he published it daily. This was the tate the Union.” Imprint—"Philadelphia; Printed by first daily paper printed in the United States. Several Story and Humphreys, in Norris's alley, near Front str. years elapsed after Claypoole became the proprietor of where Subscriptions, (at Ten Shillings per Annum) the Packet, before the city was crowded with newspa- Advertisements, Articles and Letters of Intelligence, pers which gained permanent establishments. He soon &c. are gratefully received." acquired a competence, sold his right in the Packet to The Mercury was short lived. The printing house Zachariah Poulson, and retired from business. Poulson whence it was issued, with all the printing materials continues the publication of this paper.

therein contained, were destroyed by fire in December

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