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1828.)

WOOLLEN MANUFACTURES.

150

against dyes, except blues, by good judges other dges the change it has effected in the habits and mode of life as good as English.

during summer, of a large class of our citizens, who in. Mr. Marland-In cities they do; owing to prejudice stead of Aying to the country, as formerly, for fresh air excited by foreigners. Country people make no com- and recreation, or for the preservation of the health of plaint against the dyes.

their children, are now compelled, as the lesser evil, to

endure the heated and oppressive air of the city, it apCan the English manufacture cheaper than we can? pears somewhat singular that this subject has not reIt is the general opinion that we can manufacture as ceived more attention. I am fully aware of the difficulty cheaply as they can in England; wool being of the same of obtaining accurate information as to the number of quality and price in both countries. Mr. Peirce says we deaths in the country; as no offices for the registering substitute more female labor, which is cheaper. And of these exist here, as they do in many parts of Europe Mr. Dupont, that we use more labour saving machinery. every attempt to acquire statistical knowledge of this

kind, must of course be attended with much trouble. What proportion of woolens consumed in the U. S. are Many good reasons might, I think, be adduced for creatAmerican and foreign?

ing such an office in every township, and among other Mr. Tufts thinks 4-5ths are American, 1-5th foreign; salutary effects which would arise from such an instituand the whole quantity consumed will amount 50,000,000 tion, might be reckoned the tendency which the informadollars. And that the relative values and quantities of tion there to be gained would have in dispelling the padomestic woollen goods, and those imported, will not nics and unreasonable alarms which are excited, when. vary materially from each other.

ever any district of country happens to be afflicted with small establishments, and medium capital, succeeded more than an usual share of sickness. In the hope that best under their sole proprietors, and better than incor- my example may induce persons living in other sections porated companies do; though there are sometimes ad. of the country to bestow some attention on this subject, vantages attending large capital.

and under the impression that correct information may Manufacturing is believed to be favourable to morals, be instrumental in counteracting the effect of the many as most large establishments attend to the education of exaggerated reports which have been circulated with children and particulary in Sunday schools.

regard to the deaths produced by the "country fever.”

I have been induced to make a comparison between the Value of materials, (Domestic and Foreign) consumed in mortality of the city and incorporated districts during the manufacturing

last year and that which has occurred in one of the situPeirce-Imported raw materials

33,612 | ations which it is generally supposed, has been most Do manufactured articles

391 obnoxious to the autumnal epidemy—the village of MaDomestic products

28,525 nayunk on the Schuylkill.

My first step was to ascertain the exact number of 62,528 the inhabitants of Manayunk-a census taken with much

care in March, last year, by a gentleman of great accuConsumed by persons employed at factory. racy, and which he allowed me to avail myself of, saved Domestic products

19,500 me much trouble the result of this census, in which Foreign do

5,500 are included the persons attached to the Flat Rock

factory, is as follows:
25,000
148 Families, consisting of males

519 females

580

-1099 Mr. Shepherd in manufacturing 46,084 yds. of broad cloth uses 31,740 lbs. foreign and 70,419 lbs. American

Of these there were above 15 years

550 wool, 2,056 galls. olive oil, 8,050lbs. castile soap,58,450

under

549 lbs. dye wood, copperas, vitriol, &c. 4,7054 lbs. Bengal indigo, 9,1634 lbs. of woad, value including wool, is

Or in other words, of men

246 17,796 30.

women

304 boys

275 Opinions relative to tariff 1824 and duty now required.

girls

274 That in consequence of it manufacturers have been

-1099 placed in a worse situation than before it; that no one

Since the time at which this census was taken there has done a profitable business since, and that although have moved into the village, as nearly us can be ascerthe repeal of the British duties may have had some effect, tained, 25 new families; admitting each of these, on an it is by some thought that had this event not taken place, average to consist of the same number as the 148 above the tariff did not afford sufficient protection. It is gene- mentioned, they would amount to 202 individuals, which rally the opinion of the witnesses, that the duty must be number added to the 1099, makes the whole population changed from advalorem to a specific one on the square equal to 1301 souls very nearly all of whom were exyard, and a proportionate protection be extended to posed to the epidemic of last fall. It is worthy of rewool.

mark that one half of this whole population consists of

persons under 15—the reason of this is obvious; the emSTATISTICS OF MANAYUNK.

ployment offered to children in the manufacturing es

tablishments, is an inducement for families in which they Pallida mors equc pulsat pede pauperum tabernas are numerous to settle in this village. But it must be Regumque turres.--Horace.

remembered that far more deaths occur amongst perMuch has been said of the insalubrity of the country sons in this stage of life than amongst adults.' In around Philadelphia during the autumnal months of the one of the very valuable statistical tables, lately publast five or six years, and great alarm has naturally been lished by Dr. Emerson, it appears that in 1824, the numexcited by this cause, in the minds of those whose avo- ber of persons under 16 in the city of Philadelphia and cations oblige them to frequent excursions out of town, liberties, was 46,702 in a population of 121,980, that is, or whose friends reside in the country; but I am not not much more than one third. aware that any attempt has been made to ascertain the The following is a list of the deaths in the village of extent to which the epidemy has prevailed, or the in- Manayunk-including the Flat Rock establishment: crease of mortality fairly chargeable to it. Yet when we Consumption

2 reflect on the very injurious effects produced by the un Bowels

8 healthiness of the country, the great depreciation in the Debility

1 value of property to which it has given rise, and even Drowning in the locks

1

160

MISCELLANEOUS.

(March

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1 fing of a steam boat. From the utmost quietness, the Fevers, various kinds

15 town was immediately in a buzz-all looked out to catch Liver

1 a glimpse of the water-walker as she came round the Pleurisy

1 bend below town. Presently the bright glow of the Violence

1 furnaces burst upon the sight; the report of their swivel Unknown

3 resounded among the hills, and the boat rushed through

the yielding current amid cheers of the people, and was 34 safely moored alongside the wharf. She proved to be

the Pittsburg and Wheeling Packet of 100 tons, owned Of these 14 were under 10 years of age, and had not by the society of Harmonists at Economy, a beautiful vesbeen employed in the factories. It may be incidentally sel, very handsomely finished, with two decks mor as remarked that neither of the persons who died of the some would say, two stories high. A number of ladies consumption had worked in these establishments: the and gentlemen from Pittsburg and Freeport came as proportion of deaths to the number of inhabitants was passengers. Next morning a large party was got up in therefore, last year 2 61-100ths per cent in Manayunk. town who took an excursion of six or seven miles up the The mortality of the city of Philadelphia and incorpo- river, for the double purpose of the pleasure of the trip, rated districts within the precints of the Board of Health and a small remuneration to the worthy captain for the during 1827, amounts to 3945, a number which is ad- visit. It stemmed the current at the rate of 5 or 6 miles mitted to be unusually small. Estimating at present the an hour, and came down at about 15. The trip was de. population (which in 1820 was 121,980) at 150,000, the lightful-all were highly pleased; the accommodation proportion is 2 63-100ths

per
cent.

was excellent—the company equally so; and no aceident From the above facts it appears that on the whole, occurred to mar the pleasure of the party; but what was the mortality has been by a small fraction less in Manay. most particularly gratifying was to see so noble a vessel unk than in the city and liberties. Another deduction stemming this beautiful river with such speed, and such which can also be made is, that the work in the manu- apparent ease. We returned about 11 o'clock, and in a facturing establishments has not that injurious effect on few minutes the boat left the wharf for Pittsburg, amid the health of the “operatives” which it is by some sup- the united cheers of the people on the shore and on the posed to have.

boat. We could not much regret her departure, as we U.S. Gaz,

STATISTICUS confidently expected her return on Friday, for the pur

pose of ascending the river as far as Franklin or War. SHAD.

ren. Passengers to the amount of $200 are to go frona We find the following notices of the appearance of this place alone. The people are very anxious that this shad in our rivers in some former years.

important experiment be made.1802, February 17—first shad brought to market.

Last night the steam boat Wm.Duncan arrived on her 1816, 28, do

ditto.

way to Franklin and Warren. She started this morning 1819, April 9-shad fishery commenced at Trenton. at 9 o'clock. 1827, March 17—shad in Reading, sold at 75 cents. 1828, February 9-shad taken near Bombay Hook, sold

Marietta, Pa. Feb. 29. in Philadelphia, to Mr. Head, at 1 Arks, &c. are occasionally seen passing down our river, dollar.

which has been in good order all winter, but the spring 23—Two shad taken at Marcus Hook, business has not yet commenced in earnest, though we

by Caleb Perkins, jr. being the first have no doubt it will soon.
caught in that vicinity, (this year,)
sold for 1 dollar.

We have on our table a slip of paper, manufactured 23—A shad weighing between 8 and 9 from straw, at the mill of Col. Magaw, near Meadville.

pounds, was caught at Slack's Isl. The specimen before us, though without sizing, may be and, about 5 miles above Trenton. written upon without the ink spreading in the least; it is

somewhat rough, but being the first that was made, great Steam Boat Navigation on the Allegheny River.—Early improvement may be expected to be made upon itlast week, the steam boat Pittsburg and Wheeling Pack- Harrisburg Argus. et, Capt ascended the Alleghany to Kittanning. A number of our citizens were on board, who represent. A new post office has been established at Millersburg, ed the trip as having been a very pleasant one. The Bethel township, Berks co. styled “Bethel Post Office," Canal Aqueduct across the Alleghany, above the mouth and Abraham K. Clark appointed post master. of the Kiskeminitas, is in a state of great forwardness, all the piers being completed except one; and the frame To the Publishers of Papers and Periodical Works of the superstructure covered in, so as to be used for a

throughout the United States. workshop: It presents a beautiful appearance.

It is intended before, or certainly by the 1st of May On Friday last, the steam boat Wm. D. Duncan Capt. next, in a pamphlet, with other statistical matters, to Crook, set out for Franklin, 140 miles up the river, and notice all the Newspapers and Periodicals in the United reached that place in fifty two hours running time. De- States and the city or town where published, by whom legates from Rittanning, to a canal convention held at and the conditions of publication, &c. A copy contain. Franklin, went up in the Duncan. A party of citizens of ing the above shall be faithfully forwarded to each of Franklin were taken in the boat to Oil Creek Furnace, you, who will insert this notice once and and forward a about 8 miles beyond Franklin. It it not doubted that paper, or a copy of the work you publish to Philadelthe voyage might have been prosecuted to Warren, phia, directed to.

“THE TRAVELLER." without serious obstruction. The captain represents the Philadelphia, Feb. 22, 1828. current as stronger than any he had previously navigated, but says that at good stages of the water, if some little improvement were made in the channel, the navi. Printed every Saturday morning by WILLIAM F. GEDgation would be perfectly practicable.--Pittsburg des, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at, Gazette.

the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, Subscrip

tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per Kittanning, Armstrong Co. Pa. Feb. 23. annum-payable in siX MONTHS after the commencement On Wednesday evening last, some time after dark, a of publication—and annually thereafter, by Subscribers sound was heard down the river, 'an unco sugh,' as resident in or near the city or where there is an agent. Burns says-which was soon recognised to be the puf. I other Subscribers pay in advance.

THE

REGISTER OF PENNSYLVANIA.

PENNSYLVANIA.

DEVOTED TO THE PRESERVATION OF EVERY KIND OF USEFUL INFORMATION RESPECTING THE STATE.

EDITED BY SAMUEL HAZARD, NO. 51, FILBERT STREET.

PHILADELPHIA, MARCH 15, 1828.

VOL. I.

NO. 11.

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CANAL DOCUMENTS.

connected with some point already known, as to enable

you to ascertain its positive elevation above tide-water. West Branch and Allegheny.

Wherever it is possible to obtain information from the No. 2.

inhabitants of the neighborhood, you will take care to do INSTRUCTIONS TO Messrs. WILSON AND MITCHELL.

so, and you will omit no examinations or inquiry calcu

lated to satisfy their minds, or test the accuracy of their Philadelphia, May 15, 1827.

opinions. It is wished also that general invitations may Messrs. William Wilson and John Mitchell,

be extended to the most respectable and intelligent citi. Gentlemen,-In compliance with a written applica- zens, to be present at the surveys in which they feel an tion to the canal commissioners, a copy of which is interest. You will keep accurate notes of all your prohereto annexed, you have been appointed to make fur- ceedings, and as soon as possible, after your return, will ther examinations in order to ascertain the practicability report them in detail to the board, accompanied by proof a continued water communication between the Alle per drafts and maps of the country explored. gheny and Susquehanna rivers. It is the wish of the

In the written application, of which a copy is furnishcommissioners that this request may be gratified to the ed you, it is proposed that in the course of the season, a utmost possible extent, and that no means of determin. competent engineer may be sent to review the surveys ing so interesting a question may be left untried.

and furnish his opinion as to the practicability of any For the complete accomplishment of this object, exa

routes which you may have fixed apon. With this prominations will be necessary on the east and Bennett's position, the board will make every effort to comply. In branches of Sinnemahoning, and along the whole divid- order to enable them so to do, you are requested, at least ing ridge, commencing at the head of the latter stream, once in two weeks, to apprize me of your situation and and extending in a southerly and southwesterly direc- prospects, and of the point at which you may most contion to the heads of Blacklick, a branch of Connemaugh. veniently be reached by letter or otherwise. Towards As this embraces a wide extent of country, abounding the latter end of August when the waters are lowest, is with difficulties, and where the progress of the surveyor the time at which an engineer will probably be desmust necessarily be retarded, it is desirable that some patched. It is hoped that by that time you will have arrangement may be made between you, which will en-collected the necessary materials for a professional opinsure the utmost expedition and prevent interference one

ion. with the other. It is proposed, therefore, that you meet

Your obedient servant, as early as possible, and divide the country to be exa

Signed,

JOSEPH M'ILVAINE. mined equally between you. Having done this, you will each organise a party of the same strength as have

No. 3. heretofore been employed for similar purposes, and pro

William Wilson's Report. ceed to the active execution of the duty assigned you. It would be difficult for the board, with their imper

Jos. M'Ilvaine, Secretary of the Board of Canal Comfect knowledge of the country, to define with precision

missioners of Pennsylvania.' the points to be examined, and they are disposed rather SirYour instructions of the sixth of June were reto leave you a general authority, to examine every point ceived on the eleventh, and on the same day I proceed. where the waters of the two great rivers approach each ed with a party of hands, provisions, &c. to the portage other, which you may suppose to afford a reasonable summit to the Sinnemahoning, and Allegheny river. We prospect of success, or which are thought to do so by commenced our operations on the 18th and descended on the people of that country. These examinations, how- the Sinnemahoning side of the ridge 103 feet in a disever, will be confined to the single object of ascertain- tance of 177 perches. Returned to the summit and de. ing the possibility of a water communication across the scended 102 feet on the Allegheny side in a distance of dividing ridge, and the course of proceeding will be as 179 perches. Having thus ascertained the form of the follows:

top of the ridge separating those streams, assumed a Having ascertained the summit between any two level 100 feet below its summit as the most suitable exwaters which appears most favorable, you will proceed perimental elevation, and continued rounding the difto ascertain the quantity of water on that level, by mea- ferent streams and hills which intervened betwixt that surements, such as you have fonnerly made. If the and the mouth of the portage. quantity appears sufficient to warrant any further inqui The reason which induced the adoption of this course ry, you will then proceed to ascertain by actual sur was, that should any depression in the ridge, permit us vey, the practicability of introducing it upon the sum- to pass it, the distance to the Allegheny would be much mit

proposed, through a feeder—the length of such shortened and we would then adapt our level of the feeder; the facility with which it may be made, the quali- feeder to such pass, either by elevating or depressing it; ty of the soil through which it passes; and all other parti- but no such opening presenting, we continued our level cılars which tend to elucidate the main subject of inqui- to the rounding near its mouth found the distance 21 and

y. It is left optional with you either to commence your one-fourth miles and the depression to the surface of a line of levels at some known point already examined mill pond at the confluence of the portage and Alleand continue it without intermission through the rest of gheny to be 334.58

feet. We then continued our level your examinations, or to assume new points more con- up the Allegheny to ascertain at what point its waters venient, from which to begin your calculations. You would be available upon the summit, the distance by will remember however that if any summit appears to the valley was 224 miles (terminating about five miles you favorable for a water communication, it must be so above Couders port) to which may fairly be added 18

162

CANAL DOCUMENTS.

MARCK

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rules for the rounding of hills, streams, &c. presenting bet vixt the dam and the dividing ridge, come in aboro
an aggregate of 614 miles, viz: 214 on the portage and the level of the proposed canal.
401 along the river. It was suggested, that a more prac Sandy - near the dividing ridge is a sluggish stream
ticable route might exist betwixt the heads of the first winding its serpentine course through extensive flats
of the Sinnemahoning and Allegheny. This seemed composed principally of clay, scarce a stone to be seen,
plausible, as the heads of that stream make a nearer ap- Beaver dams are frequent, covered with grass, small
proach to the main river, than any other east of the bushes, or timber of small size; the remainder of the
mountain, being about 2 miles. We went to what was Aats are heavily timbered with white pine, white cak
considered the lowest place in the ridge, decended brush, sugar, &c. The Sinnemahoning is favourable for
516.45 feet in a distance of 678 perches; three-fourths canalling for about seven miles from the dividing ridge
of a mile still remained to the river, and the stream we (excepting a heavy growth of timber) and may

be conwere descending falling rapidly, we were fully convinc- tinued on the north side, for that distance. Below that ed, that the fall could not be less than 600 feet, therefore the hills are alternately washed by the stream and in seconsidered it totally impracticable, as no supply of veral places present rocky and precipitous fronts, which water could be available at so high a level, or any reason- may be avoided by eleven crossings. The cost of this able depression which might be made, either by a deep section would about equal that above Coleman's on the cut or tunnel.

Driftwood.
The succession of wet weather which preceded the The dividing ridge is unusually free from stone upon
completion of our survey upon the Allegheny, rendered its surface, covered with a growth of white pine, white
a guage of its available waters totally impracticable; but oak, hickory, &c. composed of argillacious and
judging from the size of the different streams, at the slate so far as the washes upon its side disclosed.
places which our level would cross them, the length of It was conjectured that an additional supply of water
feeder necessary to conduct them to the summit and could be obtained from Anderson's creek, and a level
the declivity of the hills along which it would have to was extended up Birch run and along the Kersey road,
pass, I considered this route less favorable than the to what had been pointed out to Mr. Mitchell, two years

A day or two before we completed the survey of the ago, by the inhabitants of that quarter as the lowest
Allegheny, a deputation called upon us, from some of the place in the ridge, we found its elevation above the level
inhabitants of the Driftwood branch of Sinnemahoning, of the proposed pass, to be 315.99 feet; this project was
presenting a letter from an intelligent gentleman in that therefore abandoned, believing, that little if any, of the
quarter, in which he suggests from the best information waters of Anderson's creek, could be found above its
which he can obtain, that a route favorable for a canal level in dry seasons. We then proceeded to little Toby
existed betwixt the of the Driftwood and Clarion and upon examination found, that four streams which
river; we then proceeded to that place and viewed the have their sources in Bonne's mountain, (Elk mo untain
summit, found the ascent on the Sinnemahoning side of on the map) can be conveyed to the summit of Sandy,
the river to be great, the ridge wide and fat, and the by the channel of Fall's creek.
streams which could be commanded, small. Under these From Bear to 14 mile run, is

3 m. 52 perch circumstances, it was not considered necessary to use

to Whetstone

1 290 - any level upon it, being fully satisfied, that a sufficiency

to Rattlesnake

7 190 of water could not be obtained at so high a level.

to pass of divide to end of We then proceeded to the ridge dividing Bennet's

Fall's creek

1 198 branch of the Sinnemahoning from Sandy carried a level a considerable distance along its top, and like

In all

14 90 wise along the different streams, skirting its base on both sides, so as to ascertain the form of the ridge and Should the experiment of supplying a summit by the streams which have their sources in it. This induced us application of steam power be found practicable, and in the first instance to drop 165 feet on each side below that used to elevate the waters of the three first streams its lowest summit; but a continuation of our level down about 90 feet, the distance might be much lessened froin Sandy about eight miles, satisfied me, that sink. Whetstone to Rattlesnake. From Bear to 14 miles run ing 22 feet lower, would be advantageous, as such addi- the ground is not very favourable, being intersected in tional depression would enable us to command Fall's several places by deep ravines, and from Whetstone to creek, near its lower fork, which is bent about one and Rattlesnake, similar difficulties present themselves; as three fourth miles from its mouth, and three-fourths of a also, steep hill-sides, which do not show rocks upon mile above saw mill.

their surface but their slopes indicate a rocky formation. From a view of the face of the country around this Coal abounds on those waters, as also on Sandy and Sinsummit and its streams, as delineated by our levellings, nemahoning: I beg leave to suggest what would appear to me the A succession of showers rendered impracticable a best mode for its improvement.

guage of the waters of Sandy, during the time we were A tunnel through the ridge of about 224 perches in employed upon it, and when we had descended Bennet's length, a little more than 200 feet below its summit; al- branch for some distance, I returned as far as the divid. though I do not think any shaft necessary for excavation ing ridge for that purpose but was prevented by a show, would much exceed 100 feet. A cut in the Sinnema- er, and returned to levelling. The weather continued honing side 40 feet at the end of the tunnel and terminat- dry until we reached the junction of Bennet's and Drifting at the minimum depth of cutting in 200 perches. A wood branches. We found the distance from the procut on the Sandy side 35 feet at the end of the tunnel, posed pass, to be 627.37 feet, wich is 179.68 feet lower and terminating at the minimum depth at 600 perches. than

creek and 1397.69 above tide water. A dam and embankment at Shaffer's 80 perches in length A guage having been prepared upon Smeaton's plan, and 12 feet in height, forming a reservoir which will co- J. J. Wallis, esq. returned with one of the hands to Sanver about 250 acres, the surface to be four feet higher dy, and gives the following as the result of his measurethan the surface of the canal, making an extra embankment. ment from the minimum depth to Shaffers.

Summit creek 7 inches through and 12 in Fall's creek feeder would be6f to 64 m. in length, the opening

89 p. min. ground generally good excepting the ends of two hills, Fall's creek 84 do.

115 which are steep, and three fourths of a mile next to Fall's Southeast or Luther's 54 do.

64 creek, which is rocky. The feeder necessary to conduct the south-east branch at Luther's creek to the dam at

268 Shaffers would be 14 to 14 miles in length, the ground favourable and of gentle declivity; the rest of he streams I cannot say this measurement wag taken at the low.

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1828.)

CANAL DOCUMENTS.

163

58

208

est state of the waters, but am authorised to say upon ty, as to any particular pass they might desire to have the authority of Mr. Wallis, that the waters were lower explored with a view to a connection of the eastern and at the time the guage was taken than they had been at western waters. Their consultations on this subject reany time prior to it, this season.

saulted in giving me no positive directions as to any parThe guages of the streams issuing from Boone's moun. ticular point in that county, but requested that a correct tain, had been taken when we were employed upon examination might be made from my former summit beLittle Toby, and are as follows:

tween the Cushing and Two-lick. Immediately on my Rattlesnake

58 cubit ft. p. minute arrival at this summit, I dispatched a messenger to the 14 miles

25

town of Indianna, requesting the citizens of that county Whetstone

67

to meet me at the summit as early as possible, with a view Bear run, say

of instructing as to the plan they might wish me to pursue in relation to the object for which I had been ap

pointed. They promptly attended and their views corDeduct I equal to low water,

52

responding with my own, we determined on the follow

ing plan. First. That my survey should be made with 156

a view to iron pipes, to convey the water to the summit Waters of Sandy

268

| level. Second. That I should proceed from the summit

to the Black Licks, and also ascertain the practicability Total 424

of bringing in the Conemaugh; and Third. To carry my

levelling to the Chest and Big Mahoning creeks. In the From this it would appear that the streams of Toby execution of this plan, the following are the results. would have to be conducted over the dividing ridge in I first ascertained the practicability of passing the Masuch manner as to avoid leakage and evaporation, and honing over the divide necessary to be passed, to bring that a similar plan would have to be pursued with Fall's it to the summit. This was effected by a cut of 12.67 creek feeder.' That from the S. E. branch or Luther's feet in the centre, terminating at the surface, both ways; branch, should be an open cut, emptying itself into the whole distance 55 perches; and which is represented on reservoir.

my draft at the connexion of the Cushing and Little MaFrom a line of level which we ran round the ground honing. I then proceeded from the summit towards which would be inundated by the reservoir, it cannot the Black Lick, carefully preserving the height of my. contain less than 250 acres, which I have reason to be summit and examining every pass on the intervening lieve would be filled by those streams at the summit and divides, that presented a prospect of shortening the disLuther's creek.

tance between the two extreme points. A view of my From an assumed level we descended a small stream draft will shew that in this, I was not very successful, as on the Sinnemahoning side for two and a half miles, (fall my route turned out to be a very circuitous one. In my 127.69 feet) which is then joined by another of larger passage from the waters of Brush creek to that of the size from the south. On the Sandy' side no additional Laurel run, and for the purpose of saving in distance, I supply of water of any consequence comes in for about have presented a cut of seventy-one feet in the centre, three miles, at which place a stream nearly equal to S. terminating both ways at the surface,-the bare line as E. branch enters the creek.

represented on the profile, is eighty perches. This perI do not know that any series of observations have been haps could be more advantageously effected by a tunmade upon the highlands which separate the eastern nel, in part the ground is entirely clear, and soil of slate; and western waters, but judging from the drainage, which from here I passed down the Laurel run, to the white is in reality but the difference betwixt the quantity of oak marked at Black Lick, being then three hundred moisture which descends and that which ascends, in- and fifteen feet 10-100ths below the summit. The disduces a belief, that the descent of moisture is greater tance saved by the above cut is between three and four and the ascent less in high than low regions, and would miles. From the white oak, I continued my levelling a

- the difference in the weight of the atmosphere be distance of two miles and one hundred and five perches, likely to produce such an effect. I have endeavoured to a benched cherry on the divide, between Black Lick to communicate all the facts connected with each of the and the Conemaugh river, at the east end of the town of routes, upon which I have been employed, and the Armaugh ; this bench is seventy-eight feet 68-100 below schemes upon

which the examinations have been found the summit. From here I returned to the white oak at ed, as no survey of a summit can be made, unless the Black Lick, and continued my levelling up that stream a person employed has some plan; as to practicability that distance of ten miles and two hundred and fifty-four is not for me to determine.

perches, to a benched Buttonwood at the mouth of the I am gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient Beaula branch, being two hundred and thirty feet 17-100 servant,

below the summit. From thence up the Beaula Branch,

WM. WILSON. a distance of four miles and one hundred and fifty-three. N. B. From the best information I could obtain, the perches to a benched birch, on the west side of the creek distance from the West branch, at the mouth of Sinne- being the height of the summit. Returned to the butmahoning to Allegheny at the mouth of Sandy, is about tonwood and proceeded up the north branch a distance 100 miles.

of four miles and thirty-four perches, to a benched sugar Adding our distances from the end of the tunnel, to tree at the mouth of the Elk branch, being 54 feet be. the mouth of Bennet's branch, produces 40 miles 561 low the summit ; continued up the north branch one Add to, mouth of Sinnemahoning, about 15

mile 174 perches, and benched on a birch tree the

height of the summit; returned to the sugar bench at 55 561 the Elk branch, and ascended the same one mile and

thirty-four perches, benched on a birch, being the height No. 4.

of the summit. These waters were so much swollen by To the Pennsylvania Canal Commissioners.

the late rains, as to prevent, at this time, any correct

measurement being taken ; I therefore determined on Gentlemen, -In pursuance of your joint instructions to returning for that purpose. From here I directed my William Wilson and myself, dated the 6th of June last, course to the Chest creek, and commenced my levelling directing further explorations of the Sinnemahoning and on that stream, at my former bench made in 1825; being of the West Branch of Susquehanna, I proceeded to the one hundred and fifty-three feet 71-100ths, above the Susquehanna, it being the part allotted to me by a pri- summit; from this bench I continued down the creek vate arrangement witń Wm. Wilson. My first effort was eight miles and two hundred and sixty-five perches, and to ascertain the wishes of the citizens of Clearfield coun-1 benched on a hcmlock, being the height of the summit.

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