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on joyful occasions, to add to the general expression of mented with a peal of the new sett of eight bells in public feeling; and the governor even could not ap- Christ Church Steeple. This musical pead was cast by proach the city, without this public notice of it to the Lester and Pack, who are at present the most noted and

ingenious artists of that kind in England. They were citizens. The bells were brought over by Captain Bud. hung by Nicholas Nicholson, a native of Yorkshire, in a den, who charged no freight upon them; and they usu manner the most convenient, and entirely new. And ally announced his arrival at subsequent periods. We when a clock for the Chimes is added, which he seems observe that a committee of Councils has been appoint- very desirous of, they will be the compleatest sett in

America. ed to cause a survey to be made on the base of the state

They were likewise saluted with a round of twentyhouse steeple, for the purpose of erecting a clock and one Brass Guns.-Ib. Ap. 24, 1755. bell—we trust the occasion will be improved, to add a

* It is stated in the Gazettes of 1824, that the tenor steeple to it, as high as the foundation will safely sup weighs 1800 lbs. and the whole weigh 8000 lbs. port. On the approach of the enemy during the revolution,

MAİL ESTABLISHMENTS. the bells of the city were all removed by the Commissary Few circumstances tend more to exhibit the improve General of military stores; and it appears by a notice in ing condition of a country than the progressive changes the Pennsylvania Evening Post, Aug, 22, .1778, that made in the conveyance of the mail. The following adthey were “all returned safe and again hung,” which vertisements show how little intercourse was maintained was shortly after the evacuation.

with the eastern states in 1755, when an answer could “As considerable sums of money have lately been rais- not be received to a letter in less than six weeks, which ed in this city, by subscription and two lotteries for the is now accomplished in six days. At the present day, a finishing the steeple, and purchasing a ring of bells, the letter can be sent from one extremity of the U. States to vestry have thought proper to examine the treasurer's the other and a reply be received, in less time than was accounts, and after carefully inspecting the same, find the state of them to be as follows, which they think pro- then required for the distance of only about three hunper to publish for the satisfaction of the public.

dred miles.
By order of the vestry,

GEORGÉ OXELL, and Wardens.

Philadelphia, Feb. 11, 1755.

It having been found very inconvenient to persons The Steeple and Bells of Christ Church Dr.

concerned in trade, that the mail from Philadelphia to To Sundry disbursements from May 10, 1751 to Nov. New England sets out once a fortnight during the winter 1754, viz:

season: This is to give notice, that the New England Boards, timber, copper, ropes, lead, £ d mail will henceforth go once a week, the year round, shingles, &c.

425 4 04 whereby correspondence may be carried on and answers Laborer's wages, fatting, carting, &c. 343 13 53

obtained to letters between Philad. and Boston in three Sundry small articles

59 1 0 weeks, which used in the winter, to require six weeks Lime

111 09 By command of the D. Post Master General. Stoncs 138 3 8

WILLIAM FRANKLIN, Masons and bricklayers 303 1 2 (Penn. Gaz. 1755. ]

Comptroller. Sand

19 7 6

GENERAL POST OFFICE. Bricks 141 17 1

Philadelphia, Mar. 25, 1755. Carpenters

426 19 11 This is to give notice that for the future the Posts will Smith

130 2 10 go twice a week between Philad. and New York, and for Painter (in part)

50 1 6 that purpose will set out from both those places precisely Loss on gold

3 4 3 at ten a clock in the morning on every Monday and Do on bar iron

2 0 0

Thursday, and will come in on every Wednesday and To £450 stg. sent home to purchase the

Saturday noon, throughout the year. By order of the Bells in part at 624 per ct

731 5 0 Post Master General. To £110 10s. stg. more advanced by the

WILLIAM FRANKLIN, vestry to balance the first cost of


Comptroller. the bells 183 16 9

May 15, 1755. The new post between Philadelphia and Winchester, £3068 18 11 Virg'a. set out from the Post Office this morning, to con

tinue his weekly stages, setting out every Thursday Sept. 20, 1752.


morning during the suinmer.-Ibid.
By subscriptions received to this date 921 0 0
nett proceeds of first Lottery 1000 6 9

Freedom of Speech.
second do

944 17 7 “We hear from Chester, that at the Court of Quarter sundry subscriptions rec'd since the

Sessions held there last week, an indictment was presentabove

75 17 17 ed to the Grand Jury, and found by them against one

James Castello, for speaking the following seditious

2942 1 11 words, viz: ‘King George has no more right to the crown Bal. now due vestry

126 17 0 of Great Britain than I, and if he had his deserts, he

would have his neck cut off.-I have a sum of money Total £3068 18 11 with me and will give half a crown a day to each man [Penn. Gaz. Jan. 7, 1755. that will go with me and join the French King and the

Pretender.' To which he pleaded guilty, and begged

the mercy of the Court. Whereupon he received senOn Sunday last the honorable James D. Lancey, Esq. tence as follows: "That he should stand one hour in the Gov, of N. York, and on Monday his excellency Wm. pillory on Thursday, and the same time on Friday; with Shirley, Esq. Gov. of Boston, and his honor, our Gover- these words fixed on his back--I stand here for speaknour, returned here from the general Congress at Alex. ing seditious words against the best of Kings. Which andria.

At their entering thc City, they were compli- sentence was accordingly put in Execution.—16.


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penalty of the forfeiture of three shillings for every of From the recovered minutes of the Common Council, fence,) absented themselves, & not giving their duc froin 1704 to 1776; extracted for the Pennsylvania attendance, yet this Councill, for reasons not offerd,

have remitted to the persons delinquent their respective Gazette.

forfeitures before this day. And do now order that 1st Jan’y. 1704.

henceforward the said order shall be duly and strictly Some disputes having heretofore arisen concerning put in execusion. the city seal in whose hands it ought to lodge, and it Alderman Masters, Alderman Jones, Tho’s. Pascall, being now put to the vote, whether it ought to be kept &c. &c. not appearing at this Councill, are fined 38. by the mayor or town clerk, it pass'd that it ought to be

apiece. kept by the mayor, but that he might intrust it in-the

It is ordered that Alderman Carter & John Parsons clo clerk's hands if he thought fitt.

oversee the Repairs of the Old Cage, to be converted 2nd Feb’y. 1704.--{first division of the city into into a Watch house for present occasion. wards.]--Aldermen Willcox, Carter, &c. who were ap

14th Auzt. 1705.-It is ordered that the treasurer do pointed by an order of the last Common Councill to di- out of the Public Stock, Provide Books for the keeping vide the city into wards, and to report the same to this of his Accounts and that he provide the same with all Councill, report that they have divided this city into expedition. wards, and have returned the same under their hands as

21st Sept. 1705.— Alderman Carter is continued to follows. 1. Dock Ward-All the inhabitants between Dela ed to take care of the building a pair of Stocks, with :

see the Repairs of the Watchhouse, and is also appointware river and the 7th street, to the southward of Wall whipping post and pillory with all expedition, which nut street, including the south side of Wallnut st.

shall be paid for out of the treasury: 2. Wallnut Ward-All the inhabitants between Wall

It is ordered, that the Mayor, Recorder, and Aldernut and Chesnutt streets, from the West side of the man Wilcox, (taking with them such persons of the reFront to the cast side of the 2nd st. (inclusive.)

spective Religious persuasions of this city as they shall 3. Chesnutt Ward-All the inhabitants between think proper.) apply themselves to the Commissioners Chesnutt and High streets, from the Front to the 2d st. 4. Lower Delaware Ward-All the inhabitants be for a burying place for strangers dying in this city:

of property for a publick piece of ground in this city, tween the front Street and Delaware River, from the

29 Sepr. 1705. end of Wallout to the end of High Street, both upon It is ordered that the Beadle and Constables of this and under the Bank.

City Give Notice to the freemen of the same, to appear 5. Upper Delaware Ward-- All the inhabitants be. tween the front street and Delaware River from High of their priviledges as to Elections of their Representa

on Monday Morning at the hour of eight, to be informed street to the north end of the city.

tives that day, to serve in Generall assembly for this city 6. High Street Ward-All the inhabitants between for the Year Ensuing. 8 Oct. 1705. Joseph Wilcox, IIigh street and Mulberry street, from the front to the Mayor. 2d st.

29 Decr. 1705. 7. Mulbury Ward-All the inhabitants on the north

Richard Roberts having worked at Raising the ground side of Mulbury street to the extent of the city from the in the Market place, for which there is due to him

Three front to the 7th street, 8. North Ward-All the Inhabitants between Mul- the same & take a Receipt for the same.

Shillings & six pence, the Treasurer is ordered to pay bury and Iligh streets from the 2d to the 7th street.

A petition from Joh. Cropp, for an Ordinance to en9. Middle Ward! - All the Inhabitants between Iligh courage him for setting up a publick Slaughter Mousestreet and Chesnutt street, from ve 24 to the 7th street. and settling the rate for killing Cattle, &c. therein was

10. South Ward-All the Inbabitants between Ches. read. nutt and Wallnut street, from the 2d to the 7th street.

Ordered, that the Treasurer pay to Solomon Cresson Which Wards, as they now are named and set out, 10s. for the making of 12 Watchmen’s Staves & 2 Conare approved by this Council.

stables staves; & Also 33 to Enoch Story for the paintIt being moved in this councill that that part of the ing of three Constables Staves. city between Broad street and Delaware be grub'd and

29 April, 1706--Joseph Wilcox, Mayor. clean'd from all its rubish, in order to produce English

Alderman Griffith Jones, John Jones & Sam). Richgrass, which would be a great use and advantage to the ardson, having bought several brass weights, being 112 inhabitants keeping cattle therein. It is ordered that Ib. of Humfry Murray for the use of the Corporation, and some proper method be thought upon for the doing baving given their Bill or note for the Money to the sd. thereof by Alderman Shippen, &c.

Murray, being in the whole Twelve pounds, Twelve It is ordered that the cryer take an account of all the shillings, or tlicreabouts. It is therefore ordered that the inhabitants of this city, keeping cows, and give an ac- said Grithth Jones, John Jones & Saml. Richardson, be count of their names, and number of cows they keep up-repaid out of the publick stock of this Corporation, & wards of two years old.

this Corporation will Indemnifie them & every of them 9 April, 1705.

for all costs and damages that may come upon them by James Bingham is this day admitted a freeman, pay. reason of their being obliged as aforesaid, & that they ing for the saine £3. 28. 6d. which he accepted and have the Corporation's obligations for the same. signed.

Ordered, that the Beadle collect from the Inhabitants Samuel Savage is admitted a freeman, and paid for of this city, the sum of 6d for every Milch Cow by them the same £1. 2s. 60.

kept, & pay the same to the Treasurer. Matthew Robinson is admitted a freeman at 28. 60. (Similar notices are of constant occurrence.)

The following extract exhibits as lively a picture of pri

1st June, 1705. primitive Philadelphia, as can any where be found. It is ordered that Thomas Bowden, collector of the 15 May, 1706. cow money, pay into the hands of Edward Shippen, all Whereas, the Governor having received an express such money as he has already collected for the same, from the Governor of Maryland of several vessels latcly who shall pay the same unto Henry Badcock and John seen some few leagues off the Capes of Virginia, and two Budd, in part of their payment.

of them clasing and firing several shots at an Euglish 13th July, 1705. -Several of the Members of this vessel bourd to Virginia or livryland, which are supposCorporation having, notwithstanding an order of Comon ed to be French vessels, and probably may have a de. Councill

, (enjoining that every member shali come at sign upon some of the Queen's colonies. It is therefore the time appointed, or within one hour after, on the ordered that the watch of this city be carefwly and duly


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kept; and that the constables, at their peril, take care of think fit, to raise by way of loan, such sums of money as the same: and in case there appear any show or danger they may find expedient, for the completion of the of the enemy, that they give the alarm by ringing the canal upon the credits of the capital stock, inciuding the market bell; and that every night one of the Aldermen neat proceeds and avails of the lotteries thereby authersee the watch, and see that two constables be set there ised, and to mortgage any part or the whole of their on, till further order.

property, tolls, profits or estates whatsoever. And by 1st October, 1706.

the 28th section of the same act, authority was given to Alderman Story, refusing to accept of the office of said company to raise the residue of the original sum Mayor, therefore, he is fined by this Common Council, equal to 340,000 dollars, by lottery and to sell and the sum of Twenty pounds.

assign the right to raise the said residue or any pait This Council p'ceeded to another Vote for the Elec- thereof, and that such assignments shall vest for the term tion of the Mayor, and Alderman Nathan Stansbury was they shall so acquire, with the same rigits and privik ges elected by a Majority of Votes, who accepted thereof. as the said corporation and the profits arising from said 13, Jany, 1707.

lotteries, shall not form capital stock upon which diviWm. Carter, Thos. Masters, Joseph Yard, & John dends shall be made but shall be considered as a bounty Redman, are appointed to view the Hollow in the head to enable them to make the tolls as low as possible. of Chesnutt st. Crossing the fifth street, & take the best By the 3d section of the act of 29th March, 1819, the methods for making good the same, and giving the water avails and neat proceeds of lottery granted by the 28th a free passage.

section of the act of 1811, were pledged as a fund for 11, Feby. 1708. T. Masters, Mayor.

the payment of an annual interest of six per cent, upon Ordered, that this Corporation do treat the Govr. as sums subscribed under this act. The shares not forfeited usual upon the Arrival of ye sd. Govenour, and that the in the old companies were placed on the same footing: Treasurer defray the charge out of the publick money. By the 8th section of the same act all right and title Penn. Gaz.

to any and cvery kind of property which belonged to

the late Delaware and Schuylkill, and Schuylkill anci UNION CANAL LOTTERY.

Susquchanna canal companies, which is now held or

may hereafter be acquired by the said Union canal comReport of the Committee of Ilays and Means. pany, by lottery or otherwise, shall be held in common Read in the House of Representatives, Feb. 9, 1823.

by the old and new subscribers, and the said property

was thereby vested in the two classes of stockholders, The committee on ways and means to whom were re- and a full and entire participation in every advantage to ferred a resolution instructing the committee to inquire be derived therefrom. into the expediency of repealing the several acts of as And by the 9th section of the saine act, whenever sembly, which authorise the Union canal company to the arails or neat proceeds of the lotiery shall exceed raise by way of lottery a certain sum of money, and also the amount of the sum required by said act to pay the into the expediency of making further provision for pre-interest as is directed by the 3d section, such excess venting the sale of foreign lottery tickets within this shall go into the capital stock and to be invested, if not commonwealth,

wanted to complete the works in the United States or REPORT:

other safe funds, and it was made lawful to make diyiThat with a view to a full investigation of the subjects dends on the interest arising therefrom. of inquiry embraced in the aforesaid resolution, and in The act of 1824, guarantees interest on 2,250 share3, order to afford the Union canal company and Messrs. amounting to 450,000 dollars for 25 years, if the proceeds Yeats & MʻIntyre, the managers of the lotteries connect of the lottery granted to the Union canal company, and ed therewith, an opportunity to be heard in a matter that tolls shall not yield a sum sufficient; and in order to so materially interested them, the committee named a avoid as far as possible all disability to pay such interest, day for a hearing and gave them notice accordingly. At so much of the 3d section of the act of 1819 as pledges which time James C. Biddle, Esq. of Philadelphia, ap- any part of the avails or neat procecds of the lottery aforepeared on behalf of the Union canal company and of said to the payment of interest to the holders of old Messrs. Yeats & M*Intyre, before the committee, and shares, is thereby suspended until the canal shall be comstated very fully the objections of the said Union canal pleted, and the sail company are authorised to continue company and the said Yeats & M'Intyre, to the repeal during the said term of 25 years; to ia'se by way of lotof the laws authorising the said company to raise money tery any sims that may be wanted for the purpose of by way of lottery, which they alledge would operate paving to the holders of the said stock the six per cent. unjustly on the parties concerned, viz.: The stockhol- aforesaid. Provided, that whenever the ncat proceeds ders of the old and new stock, the holders of the loan of the tolls shall amount to said six per cent. the priviand the lottery managers.

lege thereby granted of raising money by lottery shall In order to a correct understanding of the subjects, during such time be suspended, except so far as is aưit will be necessary to refer to the several acts of assem- thorised by existing laws, and it shall in no event be law. bly relating to the lottery grants.

ful to divide any suum uising from said lottery over and By the act of the 17th April, 1795, the president and above six per cent. upon the stock of said company, it managers of the Schuylkill and Susquehanna navigation being the intent and meaning of the act that all such and the president and managers of the Delaware and excess shall be reserved to meet any deficiency thereof Schuylkill canal navigation, were authorised to raise that may at any time occur in the toils as aforesaid. If by way of lottery, a sum of $400,000 for the purpose of any pavinent of interest be made by the commonwealth completing the works in their acts of incorporation cquivalent to a share or shares the commonwealth should mentioned, under a prolaibition, that neither of them be entitled to a certificate of stock therefor. should form the same into capital stock, upon which to The guarantee of interest to cease if the navigation be declare a dividend of profits.' And hy the act of fourth not completed in ten years afier interest shalí first acMarch, 1807, the said companies were authorised to crue. raise their respective sums separately, subject to the From the foregoing extracts of the scrcral acts of aslike prohibition as to dividends thereupon, but the same sembly, it appears that the lottery stants were given in to be considered as a bounty to said corporations, to the first instance, to the two companies and afterwards enable them to make the tolls as low as possible. continued to the Union Canal Campany, to aid and en

The two companies by the act of second April, 1811, courage the construction and completion of a canal and Were consolidated and incorporated by the naine of the lock navigation, uniting the waters of the Susquehanna Union Canal Company of Pennsylvania; and were au- and Schuylkill, and that in consequence of those grants, thorised on such terms and conditions as they might lindividuals were induced to invest their funds in the fur.




therance of the work, and loans to the amount of 830,400 rised as aforesaid, such person or persons on conviction dollars were made under the authority given by the act , shall forfeit and pay a fine at the discretion of the court, of 2d April 1811, upon the credit of the capital stock, not exceeding $2,000, to the president and treasurer of including the neat proceeds and avails of lotteries and the Union Canal Company, to be by them applied to the property tolls, and profits of the company, which stands sinking fund. pledged therefor, and that a resumption of the lottery Notwithstanding the prohibition and penalties imposgrants or a repeal of the laws authorising them woulded by existing laws, the practice of selling foreign lotmaterjally interfere with vested rights and operate un tery tickets, notoriously prevails to a great extent, and justly upon three distinct classes of persons baving vest- it may be presumed, that whilst the lottery privileges ed rights in said company, viz. the stockholders of the granted to the Union canal company exist, it will be old and new stock, the holders of the loan, and the ma- difficult to suppress effectually the sale of foreign lotnagers of the lottery. The committee will not enlarge tery tickets in this state, as it must be evident that faciliupon the nature and extent of the injury that these deties are thereby afforded to evade the laws, superadded scription of persons might be subjected to, nor will they by the temptation to do so. say to what extent it would impair confidence in the faith The evil tendency of lotteries are very much to be of the legislative enactments, and to the injury of the deprecated, and a desire is very prevalent to eradicate character of the commonwealth.

them, and the period of the expiration of the contract The act of 1811, (28th section) authorises the com- between the lottery managers and the Union canal company to sell and assign the right to raise money, by way pany, may be confidently looked to, when the legislaof lottery, and vests the right of the company in the as ture will interpose their authority in such a manner as signee, during the continuance of the contract. In pur- will ensure a total suppression of them. suance of the authority thus granted, the company en Whether it is owing to the inadequacy of the existing tered into a written contract, dated the 6th of October, laws, or from reluctance in the citizens to appear in the 1824, with Archibald MʻIntyre, by which the right to character of informers, or whatever may be the cause, it raise money, by way of lottery in Pensylvania, was trans- is not easy to determine, but it may be inferred, that seferred to the said Archibald MʻIntyre, for the sum of vere penalties would, under existing circumstances be $150,000-$64,000 of which romains to be raised, in alike unavailing. order to complete the contract, which will expire on the The committee, from these causes are constrained to 31st of December 1829, when the whole amount autho recommend the adoption of measures that would tend to rized to be raised by lottery will have been completed, restrain and lessen existing evils, by permitting persons such being the actual situation of the case, a resumption of fair character, under security and payment of a sum of the lottery grants cannot at this time be made without of money to the commonwealth therefor, to sell lottery an infringement of the constitutional provision in relation tickets, the permission only to extend to the sale of to contracts.

tickets in lotteries authorised by the laws of this state Messrs. Yates and M'Intyre, the present lottery ma. and for one year only, and prohibiting under suitable nagers, are citizens of another state, and nothing is al penalties, hawking and pedling lottery tickets of every leged, or appears against their conduct, in the manage description. ment of that concern, but on the contrary, it appears A measure of this description it is presumed, would that they have acted fairly and honourably in the fulfil greatly lessen the number of lottery offices, and prevent ment of their engagements, neither has it appeared that gross impositions practised by pedlars of tickets. the stockholders, nor the president and managers have The objection to this measure is that it gives the sana done any thing to require the interposition of the legis. tion of law to lotteries, but it may be observed that the lature; and the committee think it but justice to say, ¡ sanction of the law already exists and must continue to that the president and managers of the Union Canal exist at least until 31st December, 1829, when it is to be Company have performed their duty with fidelity, the hoped measures will be taken for the total eradication of great work committed to their charge has been brought them. to a completion and their labours bid fair to be crowned The committec, therefore, submit the following resowith merited success. It is a work in which the com- lutions for the consideration of the house. monwealth at large have a deep interest, and as a stock Resolved, That it is inexpedient to resume the lottery holder to the amount of $50,000. It is now confidently grants to the Union canal company at this time. believed that the canal will be brought into operation Resolved, That the committee be instructed to bring early in the next spring, and it may be fairly presumed, in a bill to regulate lottery brokers, and to restrain the that the receipt of tolls will yield a profit sufficient to sale of lottery tickets within this commonwealth. pay the interest on the whole cost of the work, and that the succeeding ycar will probably give an increased

IXPORT OF GRAIN 1793. amount of profits over and above the interest.

Return of Grain ght into the Port of Philadelphia. And a confident hope may be indulged, that at the expiration of the lottery contract with Messrs. Yates and Wheat 460,053} bushels. Barley 16,5391

Corn 252,4287

be MʻIntyre, the company will be enabled, and it

Peas and Beans 1,193 may

Rye presumed they will be perfectly willing, to relinquish

2,277) Oats 10,180

742,672 altogether the lottery privileges granted them. If this reasonable expectation should not be acceded

Bexs. Davis, Head Measurer. to on their part, it would then be a proper time for the legislature to take such measures to put an end to the

In the county of Washington, Pennsylvania, there are lottery grants to said company, as might be consistent 7,466 full blooded sheep, 64,319 mixed merino, and with justice, propriety and expediency.

62,294 common sheep-total 134,079-increase last year There are several acts of assembly in force for the 23,628. This laudable attention to wool-growing is suppressing and preventing louteries, one of a date so worthy of imitation. early as the year 1762, and by the act incorporating the Union Canal Company, passed the second day of April Printed every Saturday morning hy Willian F. Ger1811, it is provided that any person or persons who shall DES, No. 59 Locust street, Philadelphia; where, and at sell or expose to sale, or shall advertise or cause to be ad- the Editor's residence, No. 51 Filbert street, Subscripvertised for sale any lottery tickets, not authorised by tions will be thankfully received. Price five dollars per the laws of this commonwealth, and shall be aiding and annum-pavable in six months after the commencement assisting, or in any wise concerned in the sale of such of publication--and annually thereafter, by Subscribers tickets, or in the managing, conducting or carrying on resident in or near tlie city-or where there is an agent. any lottery or devise in the nature of a lottery not autho- Other Subscribers pay in advance.







NO. 8.


along on our bellies, and the buttons of my coat were Sir, I was detained from proceeding on my journey torn off by the rocks above, this passage evidently was by the lameness of my horse, in Uniontown, Pennsyl- formed by the foundation of the nether rock being washvania, the seat of justice of Fayette county, and having ed by the veins of water beneath which caused it to heard of a large cave in .the neighbourhood, which separate from the upper rock, and formed the route to had never been thoroughly explored, my curiosity was the perpendicular descent; which we found to be 22 feet. raised, and I determined to penetrate it fully. I made I descended by a rope, but my companions found their my wish known and immediately the following gentle way down by clinging to the rocks—we now found our. men, of Uniontown, agreed to accompany me, namely, selves in a very uneven, rocky passage, which ascended William Gregg, John Owings, James M. Johnson, John about twenty degrees for two hundred and thirty four Gallagher, and Ephraim Douglass. We entered into a feet, but as we could not find an outlet from this, after determination not to turn back, whilst one of the party the most particular search, we returned and descended was willing to proceed in the examination. We provid- the perpendicular precipice, and to the right of it dised ourselves with refreshments, candles, tinder box, covered a passage which had a great descent, was very matches, lantern, compass, chalk, and a line to measure rocky, uneven and so contracted, for about 80ft. that it with: we set out on Wednesday, September 11, 1816, was with the greatest difficulty we made our way through ascended the Laurel Hill Mountain, and left our horses, it; this led to a second perpendicular descent, of thirty at the farm of Mr. Delany, on the top, within half a feet, over rocks, which we with great difficulty got down: mile of the cave, and requested him if we did not come we now found ourselves in a large avenue or Little Mill out early next morning to have the country apprised of Stream Hall (as I called it) with a very high roof and our situation, as we had heard that two young men, to about twenty-five feet wide: it had a sandy Hoor with a wit, Crain and Merrifield, were lost in the cave for near- stream of water running throughout it sufficiently large ly two days, having burnt out all their candles; and to turn a grist mill; on the sides of this stream were when found by the farmers were lying in each other's some large rocks which had fallen from the roof;--this arms, resigned, as they thought, to their premature and avenue is about 600 feet in length, with a considerable deplorable fate. After making all necessary prepara- descent to where the water loses itself through a small tions we started for the mouth of the cave; but before I aperture in the rocks. On returning from the bottom enter into detail of our discoveries I will point out its of the avenue, we discovered a passage leading horizonsituation.

tally and at right angles from the right side of this ave. Laurel Hill Cave, which I have taken the liberty to nue the entrance of which is elevated about eight feet name, it being in want of one, is situated in Pennsyl- above the floor, we found this a very pleasant passage vania, Fayette county, George Township, on the top of in comparison to the rest; the roof, sides and foor were Laurel Hill Mountain; nine miles south easterly of Union- quite smooth, and we could walk upright; it is one town, three miles easterly of Fairfield furnace, and half a hundred and twenty feet long, and leads into the last mile north-easterly of Delany's farm house. At 4 o'clock, and largest avenue, or Great Mill Stream Hall; this we P. M. we commenced our operations; we first descend- found to be very spacious, being about from twenty to ed into a small pit, on the side of which, we found the thirty feet wide, from thirty to eighty feet from the foor mouth, about three feet by four, which we entered and to the roof, and twelve hundred feet in length, with a immediately found ourselves in a passage about 20 feet stream sufficient to turn a grist mill running its whole wide, and descending about 50 degrees, for 40 feet, in length; from the source of the stream where there is a a N. W. course, when we found a less declivity and considerable collection of white spar formed by the consmoother floor; here we left our great coats and things stant dripping of water, the avenue has a descent of we had no immediate use for and proceeded, in the about thirty degrees to where the stream disembogues same course, a short distance, when we found that the itself through a small aperture in the rocks; before we passage forked into two avenues more contracted, both arrived at this aperture the avenue became so contracted leading, by a considerable descent into the first room; that Mr. Gregg and myself had to creep on our hands this is about 24 feet diameter, with a roof of rock about and knees through the water for about fifty feet; here 20 feet high-a large descending passage leads from in the sand we found the name of "Crain” written which this room, the same course, with a very high roof, and is we considered a mortifying discovery, as we thought we about twelve feet wide for some distance, when it be- were the first persons who had penetrated so far in this comes more contracted and leads into the second room, direction; we wrote our names likewise in the sand, and which is 50 feet by 100, with a large body of rocks on then joined the rest of the party. In our search through the floor that have fallen from the roof, which is not this great avenue we had to climb over or creep under very high, at the end of the passage is a running spring a thousand craggy rocks, that lay scattered on the floor, of excellent water. In this room the person who had the and which had fallen from the sides and ceiling. I have tinderbox, unfortunately let it fall among the rocks, every reason to believe that no person except us, ever which opened it, and by this accident we fost nearly all visited the source of the stream and head of the avenue, our tinder. A very narrow, uneven and descending pas- as we found no sign of human invention within many sage leads from the second room, in a north-east direc- hundred feet of the spot, and which was very common tion, to the narrows, a passage 24 feet high, and about in every other part of the cave, as the sides of every fifty feet broad, leading, horizontally, between rocks, place that had been previously visited were covered with a small descent for about one hundred and fifty feet with names and marks, made with coal; and if any perto a perpendicular descent over rocks; through this son had penetrated this far, they certainly would have small passage, we had, in many places, to drag ourselves left some token of their perseverance. We now found

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