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buildings. The bureau furnished 66 buildings for educational purposes. The total expenditure reported for the six months has been $4,187 45.

Colored teachers.-Lieutenant Colonel Edwin Beecher, superintendent of education, remarks in his report:

“Will the colored race make good teachers? I can see no good reason why they should not. Not long since I met a young colored man teaching in Jackson County. Probably the whole time he had spent as a scholar would not exceed twelve months. His former instructor assured me he possessed the art of communicating what he knew better than any person he had ever seen. During the last months of his attending school he was placed in charge of a class, and for the last three months has had a school in Madison County. So general is the satisfaction given that the superintendent of the county is unwilling to allow him to go into another county the coming year, but insists on his remaining where he is. He assured me this was one of the best schools in the county, and that the statements made to me of the capacity of this young man were not overdrawn. I have not had an opportunity of visiting, personally, many of the schools taught by colored teachers, but the reports are all favorable, and I feel assured they are the ones we must look to for the future education of their race.”

Through the kindness of General 0. O. Howard we are furnished with the following later statistics of the freedmen's schools in Alabama, dated January 1, 1870:

FREEDMEN'S SCHOOLS REGULARLY AND IRREGULARLY REPORTED. Total enrollment in day and night schools.....

7, 110 Total number of pupils in regularly reported Sabbath schools.

1, 393 Number of pupils in industrial schools.

50 Total enrollment in all schools..

8,553 Number over sixteen years of age.

162 Number aged sixteen and under.

1, 948 Number in alphabet.

351 Number writing.

750 Number spelling and reading easy lessons.

847 Number of advanced readers.

901 Estimated number of pupils in day and night schools.

5,000 Table of statistical details of schools in Alabama, by counties, for 1869. Hon. N. B. CLOUD, superintendent of public instruction, Montgomery.

COUNTY SUPERINTENDENTS.

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60

5,705

Autauga.
Baker
Baldwin
Barbour
Bibb.
Blount
Bullock.
Butler
Calhoun
Chambers.
Cherokee
Choctaw
Clarke
Clay
Cleburne
Coffee
Conecuh
Coosa.
Covington
Crenshaw
Dale
Dallas
De Kalb
Elmore
Escambia

J.H. Booth...

Prattville
J. M. Corderie.

Randolph
Dr. S. Moore

Mobile
B. B. Fields

Eufaula
Dr. R. R. McPherson.. Centreville
T. W. White...

Blountsville
C. J. L. Cunningham Union Springs.
W. Seawell..

Greenville
John B. Williams. Jacksonville.
Benjamin L. Dyer Chambers
L. J. Sanford.

$1,000 00

800 00 1, 000 00

700 00 700 00 395 00 900 00 562 50 600 00 600 00 600 00 800 00 800 00 600 00 600 00 650 00

$174 00 48 4, 361 $6, 333 70 244 00 36

3,011 4, 699 90 249 00 14

3, 754 96 599 47 51

9, 976 13, 109 92 195 00

4,577 20 378 70 51

5, 426 60 280 00 50

8,954 11, 714 32 239 70

5, 945

4, 549

Centre W.J. Gilmore.

Butler. W. W. Wilson

Grove Hill
B. J. McCaine..

Coleta
James M. Wiggins.
Matthew Miller.

Elba
William P. Miller. Evergreen
J. W. McLenden Rockford.
J. McLaughlin.

Andalusia J. H. Howard

Rutledge'. G. M. T. Gibson

Haw Ridge. J. II. Sears ..

Selma J. K. Hoge

Portersville J. A. McCutcheon. Wetumpka. J. T. B. Ford ..

Pollard

600 00
1, 000 00

437 50
733 33

675 00
2, 000 00

3C0 00
600 00
000 00

7, 480 50 249 50 62

5, 153 6, 945 97 405 50 50

7, 734 00 303 (0 68

5, 196 6,835 20 347 65 61

6,428 63 172 00 23

2, 612

4, 634 67 352 00 37 3,918 5, 301 00 283 00 37

3, 448

4, 737 CO 251 00 37

4,308 90 183 00 48 3, 190

4, 605 60 531 50 49

5, 417

7,500 40 48 00 35

3, 171 56 433 00 32

5, 658

7, 522 93 816 60 48

6, 007 7, 883 40 903 58 88 10,963 | 16,788 47 114 00 34

2, 7:36 3, 614 98 5:22 50 64

5, 2:27

hy, 5736) 134 75 | 16 1, 401 i 2, 301

3, 049

2, 273

Table of statistical details of schools in Alabama, by counties, for 1869—Continued.

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e Trustees’ salary.

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5, 490

Etowah.
Fayette.
Franklin.
Geneva.
Greene
Hale..
Henry
Jackson
Jefferson
Lauderdale
Lawrence.
Lee.
Limestone
Lowndes..
Macon.
Madison
Marengo
Marion
Marshall
Mobile.
Monroe
Montgomery
Morgan.
Perry.
Pickens
Pike
Razdolph.
Russel
Sanford.
Shelby
St. Clair.
Sumter
Talladega.
Tallapoosa
Tuscaloosa.
Walker ..
Washington
Wilcox
Winston

J.J. Brasher..

Gadsden..
James Middleton Fayette
Dr. F. H. Anderson. Russellville
E. R. Porter.

Geneva..
A. A. Smith.

Eutaw.
M. H. Yerby

Greensboro.
G. P. Kincey

Abbeville
Jesse W. Isbell Larkinsville.
J. N. Burkett

Oak Ridge
William R..Chisholm . Florence
E. S. Masterson

Moulton.
R. G. Jones

Opelika
J.B. Lentz..

Athens.
George W. Neeley Hayneville
J.S. Caldwell ..

Tuskegee
A. W. McCullough Huntsville
M. B. Mattingley Demopolis.
T. B. Nesmith

Pikeville
F. M. Proctor

Guntersville
G. L. Putnam

Mobile .....
Dr. J. W. Cotter

Monroeville
W.M. Loftin..

Montgomery
C.C. Nesmith

Somerville
J. H. Speed

Marion ..
E. F. Bouchelle.

Carrollton.
L. G. McLendon.

Troy
C.C. Enloe...

Weedoweo
T. T. Edmonds

Columbus, Ga
M. W. Morton..

Vernon..
J. W. Jones ..

Columbiana
W.P. Lovett.

Branchville
Robert Bradshaw. Livingston
J. G. Chaudron.

Talladega
C.Corprew.

Dadeville
H. S. Whitfield. Tuscaloosa
J. L. Gilder

Eldridge
T.J. King
C.C. Colton

Camden.
W. H. Hyde.

Houston.

$600 00

500 00 1,40 00

421 87
1, 500 03

500 CO
600 00
800 00
500 00
700 00
900 00
800 00

540 00
1, 500 00
1, 000 00
1, 500 00
1, 500 00

500 00

610 00 2, 000 CO

622 50 2, 000 00

600 00
1, 125 00
1, 000 00
1, 000 00

600 CO
920 00
400 00
800 00

600 00
1, 500 00
1, 000 00

610 00
800 00
400 00

500 00
1, 270 00

550 00

$224 05 44 3, 437 $4, 724 40 222 00 50

3,164 4,324 02 454 00 73

7, 691 10, 687 99 114 00 19

1, 050

1, 737 10 156 00 40

5, 233 9, 168 84 335 00 40

4, 327

6, 429 49 322 00 60

5, 913 7, 768 07 839 83 53 7, 635 10,459 89 394 40 58

7, 088 00 498 00 50

5,981 7, 877 20 C03 66 66

5, 817 9, 171 71 384 00 52

7,270

9, 524 00 511 10 42

4, 668

7, 822 95 388 50 59 8, 468 | 11, 339 24 312 00 43

5, 885 8, 444 56 498 00 88 9,935 15, 036 77 164 00 59 8, 488 | 13, 489 06 269 00 52

, 077

4, 192 40 370 00 43

4, 392

5, 880 40 425 54 4018, 877 24, 652 40 262 10 48

3, 498 5, 580 30 363 01 85 | 14,068 19, 396 36 395 13 72

4, 295 5, 996 40 375 00 62 9, 230 13,046 13 462 00 45 7, 092 10, 637 37 587 00 69

6,881

9, 259 20 367 Oi) 48

4,878 6, 453 60 244 00 40 7,084 10, 166 56 358 03 39

4, 686

6,023 20 286 00 62

4, 528 6, 233 60 228 00 37

3, 722

5, 066 40 397 00 51 5, 878 12, 409 17 255 00 68

6, 147 8,575 24 404 00

8, 224 | 10, 468 80 362 00 93 7, 569 | 10, 312 17 222 00 42

3,570 4, 684 00 76 00 12

1,895 60 447 50 70 8, 540 11, 947 27 426 80 29

1, 727 2, 622 40

63

1, 163

ARKANSAS.

The State board of education consists of the State superintendent and ten district superintendents.

The board of commissioners of the common school fund consists of the governor, secretary of state, and the State superintendent of public instruction.

The number of children of school age, as returned to the office of the superintendent, is 180,000, of whom 137,000 are white and 40,300 colored. About 100,000 have been connected with the schools during the past year.

There was apportioned to the several counties from the State treasury, for the payment of teachers, the sum of $377,919 94. The returns made to the superintendent do not show the amount raised by local taxation, but it is estimated at about $200,000.

From such information as can be obtained, it appears that a want of funds, general apathy in regard to education, and even hostility in some sections toward a free school system, have retarded very much the accomplishment of efficient work. The only official printed report received is that from the circuit superintendent of Little River and Sevier Counties, from which it appears that earnest efforts have been made by the friends of education in those counties to sustain free schools; and that thirty-seven were taught during the year 1869, four of which were colored, in Sevier County; and aine in Little River County, two of which were colored.

A new deaf-mute institute, located at Little Rock, is in successful operation, supported by the State. The building is a commodious brick, situated upon land donated by the State. Twenty-five pupils are now enjoying the advantages of the institute, which is governed by a board of directors, who appoint teachers and all subordinate officers. A matron has charge of the girls when not in school, their clothing, &c. A physician visits the school twice a week, regularly.

The Peabody fund has afforded aid to the free schools in fourteen towns of the State, amounting, in the aggregate, to $9,300. From the report of Dr. Sears it appears that the free school system is attracting notice and meeting with favor from the people. Every county town has now quite a good school, while before the efforts of the agent, many were without any school.

In a recent communication from the State superintendent, Hon. Thomas Smith, le says: "School prospects are brightening every day in Arkansas."

Hon. THOMAS SMITH, superintendent public instruction, Little Rock.

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CALIFORNIA. Hon. O. P. Fitzgerald, State superintendent of public instruction in California, reports the number of school districts in the State in 1869 as 1,144; number of schools, 1,268; number of teachers, 1,687; number of pupils enrolled, 73,754; average attendance of pupils, 56,715; value of school property, $2,706,304 46. The increase since 1867 is as follows: In number of districts, 163; number of schools, 157 ; number of pupils, 12,527 ; average number of pupils, 11,078; value of school property, $1,003,000 54. The following is a more detailed statement of the school statistics : In the State, between five and fifteen..

119, 743 Mongolian children under fifteen years of age ..

425 In public schools.

67,834 Mongolian in schools....

34 Number enrolled, all ages.

73, 754 Attending private schools.

16, 273 Not in any school...

25, 464 Average daily attendance.

49, 802 RECEIPTS. From State fund...

$290, 796 71 From county taxes.

397, 491 40 From city taxes...

449,738 43 From district taxes.

98, 868 40 From miscellaneous sources.

44, 841 07 From rate bills and subscription...

66,531 65

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VALUATION OF SCHOOL PROPERTY.
Lots, houses, furniture....
School libraries....
School apparatus..

$2,706, 304 56

57, 895 77 32,504 89

Total....

$2,796, 705 22

In 1849 a permanent school fund was established for the State of California, from the 500,000 acres of land granted by Congress to the new States, for the purpose of internal improvements. An attempt was made to introduce a proviso that the legislature appropriate the revenue to other purposes, should the exigencies of the State require it. One of the chief opposers of this proviso was Mr. Semple, of Sonoma. The proviso was defeated by a vote of 18 to 17.

The first free public school in the State was established in San Francisco, in 1849, by Mr. J. C. Pelton, and in 1850 was recognized by the city council, in the following terms:

Be it ordained by the common council of San Francisco, That from and after the passage of this act it shall be the duty of J. C. Pelton, who has been employed by the council as a public teacher, to open a school in the Baptist chapel."

Said school was to be free to all children whose parents should obtain an order for their attendance from the chairman of the committee on education.

In 1851 the bill concerning public schools passed the legislature, providing for the survey of school lands, the apportionment of the State fund, defining the duties of the superintendent of public instruction, providing for a superintending school committee, and also for the distribution of the school fund among religious and sectarian schools, in the same manner as provided for district schools. Under this law the city of San Francisco, in the same year of its passage, hastened to adopt her first school ordinance, made provision for a city board, elected superintendent, &c., and in the same year two schools were organized.

At the third session of the legislature, in 1852, the school law was revised and rendered more complete.

The first State report was issued in 1851, by Hon. John G. Marvin, the first superintendent of public instruction, Mr. Marvin donated to the school fund the sum of $1,456; the first and last bequest which the State school fund ever received.

The first State teachers' convention, called by Superintendent Hubbs, was held in San Francisco, 1854, and had an attendance of about one hundred teachers.

The first State institute, called by Superintendent Moulder, met in San Francisco, in 1861, an appropriation of $3,000 having been made the previous year for the purpose of aiding State institutes. At this institute a petition to the State legislature was prepared, praying for a levy of a special State tax for school purposes of half a mill on the dollar, which was subsequently signed by more than six thousand voters. Measures were also taken which resulted in establishing the California Teacher, a State educational journal, the first number of which was published in July following. The journal is under the immediate management of the guperintendent of public instruction, the principal of the State normal school being associate editor. Contributing editors are appointed by the board of education.

STATE SCHOOL LAW.

The constitution of the State provides for the election of a superintendent of public instruction, to hold his office for four years; requires the legislature to provide a system of common schools, by which a school shall be kept in each district for three months in the year; for neglect of which the district is to forfeit its proportion of the interest of the public fund.

The legislature has created a board of education, composed of the governor, the superintendent of public instruction, the principal of the State normal school, the city superintendent of San Francisco, and the county superintendents of the counties of Sacramento, Santa Clara, and San Joaquin, and two professional teachers to be nominated by the superintendent of public instruction, and approved by the board.

The superintendent visits and superintends the schools and educational institutions of the State, apportions the public money to the districts; cities, and counties, and makes to the legislature, biennially, a report upon the condition of the schools, and the administration of the school system.

There is a county superintendent elected for two years, who has the immediate supervision of the schools, and acts as the medium of communication between the board of education and State superintendent and the districts. He reports annually to the State superintendent. Each county, city, or incorporated town constitutes à school district; but the board of supervisors has power to make smaller districts.

Every district, by its clerk, or by a census marshal, is required to make an annual enumeration of all children under fifteen years of age, and to specify and report separately, white, negro, and Indian children, under the guardianship of white persons, between the ages of five and fifteen years, specifying the number and sex of such children, and naming their guardians.

Children of African, Indian, or Mongolian descent, whose education can be provided for in no other way, may be permitted, by a majority vote of the trustees, to attend schools for white children, in case a majority of the parents of such children make no objection.

Upon the written application of the parents or guardians of such colored, Indian, or Mongolian children to any board of trustees, or board of education, a separate school shall be established for their education.

The superintendent of public instruction is required to subscribe for, and be one of the editors of, a monthly journal, to be devoted to the interests of education, a copy of which is to be sent to every county and city superintendent, district clerk, and school library.

The granting of State certificates to teachers is intrusted to a State board of exami. nation, composed of the superintendent of public instruction, and four professional teachers, with power to grant certificates for one, two, four or six years, or for life.

At the meeting of the State teacher's institute, in September of this year, composed of about six hundred of the leading teachers of the State, it was unanimously resolved, “ That inasmuch as the various county boards of examination are composed of persons of many different degrees of qualification, or no degree, in some instances, and therefore form no standard, or data, from which the State board can judge of their work, the granting of State certificates on county examinations, or on no examinations, should be discontinued."

The schools are supported—1, by a State school tax of 8 cents, ad valorem, upon each $100 of valuation ; 2, by a county tax, which shall not exceed 35 cents on the dollar of valuation, nor be less than $3 for every child in the county, between five and fifteen years of age; 3, by a district tax, to be voted by the inhabitants, at an election called for such purpose, the amount not to exceed, annually, 35 cents on a dollar, for building purposes, and 15 cents for school purposes ; 4, by the annual distribution of the income of the common school fund. But no district can receive any portion of the school fund unless the teachers employed hold legal certificates, in full force, and unless, also, a free public school has been maintained during three months of the next preceding year.

The school fund is composed of the proceeds of all lands that may be granted by the United States for the support of schools, the congressional grant of 500,000 acres to all new States, all escheats, and all percentages on the sale of lands, together with the rents of unsold lands.

STATE NORMAL SCHOOL.

This institution is greatly in need of new buildings, the rooms furnished by the board of education being now entirely inadequate to meet its requirements. Twentyfive counties in the State are represented. The principal is Rev. W. T. Lucky, A. M. The time for completing the normal course is two years, each divided into two terms of five months. Board can be obtained at from $25 to $35 per month. Pupils must furnish their own text books. There is a normal training school under the control of Miss M. Lewis, with nearly 200 pupils. The number of pupils in the normal department from July, 1868, to January, 1870, was 188, of whom 166 were ladies and 22 gentlemen. The law provides that graduates of the normal school shall receive State certificates of a grade to be determined by the State board of examination. Under this provision certificates have been awarded to graduates according to ability and scholarship, some receiving diplomas, some first grade, and others second or third grade certificates. Five members of a graduating class, having taught previously, received State educational diplomas, which entitled them to teach as principals of grammar schools. Six members of the class, whose standing was 80 per cent., received first grade certificates. Eleven received second grade, and nine, whose standing was from 70 to 75 per cent., received only third grade certificates, which entitled them to teach only in primary schools.

The percentage of a member of the graduating class is determined by taking into consideration the standing in recitation records during the term, the report of success in the training school, and the result of the within examination at the close of the term.

The location of the State normal school was for a time a matter of much discussion, but it was at length fixed at San José, in accordance with the earnest recommendation of Hon. 0. P. Fitzgerald, State superintendent, and it is now nearly completed. The advantages of San José as the proper location of the school are its unsurpassed climate, its accessibility from all parts of the State, and the intelligence, morality, and hospitality of the citizens.

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