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benefaction which founded the Sheffield Scientific School at New Haven. This school, already an assured success, is under control of the corporation of Yale College.

The Empire State has been most fortunate of all. She not only received the largest share of the land grant, 990,000 acres, but Providence gave her Ezra Cornell, with his great wealth and still greater heart. Thanks to his unstinted liberality, the Cornell University stands already in the front rank of American colleges.

Pennsylvania and Michigan have successful schools on separate foundations in operation.

How imperfectly this entire field of educational effort is understood, none know better than those who have attempted it. A considerable number of States are, as yet, entirely unable to present results, while in others the course to be pursued is in doubt. Great and commendable as was this gift by Congress, the experience in its administration suggests that corresponding educational inquiry should have preceded and accompanied it. Had the valuable information, collected by my predecessor, Hon. Henry Barnard, LL. D., on technical schools, been promptly published and widely circulated, hundreds of thousands of dollars would have been saved in the management of this great trust aud unspeakably greater results secured.

COMMERCIAL COLLEGES.

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It will be noticed that 26 commercial colleges have been reported to the Bureau, with 154 professors and 5,824 students. These institutions, through many difficulties and imperfections, it is believed, are finding

way into a very useful field of labor. There will be special interest in noticing the extent to which they are preparing women for clerical positions.

THE MILITARY ACADEMY. Believing that good to education would be accomplished by an authentic statement of the grounds of failure in the examination for admission at the Military and Naval Academies, I addressed a letter of inquiry, approved by the President, to the respective superintendents, asking for a detailed statement extending over the last fifteen years, showing

, the number of these failures, and the subjects in which they occurred.

No reply has been received from the Naval Academy. The table received from General Pitcher, Superintendent of the Military Academy, will be found among the statistics appended to this report.

It will be observed that of the 1,459 appointees, 41, or nearly 25 per cent., were rejected for physical disability, and 285, or nearly 194 per cent., on account of literary incompetency. Of these 285 rejected, 76 were deficient in reading, 80 in geography, 81 in history, 98 in grammar, 133 in arithmetic, and 173 in writing and orthography.

It may be interesting to some to know that, during the period referred to, 138 of the appointees served as soldiers prior to their appointment; of these 5 were rejected on account of physical disability, and 20 on account of literary deficiencies, 5 of them being deficient in history, 5 in geography, 8 in grammar, 10 in writing and orthography, 10 in reading, and 12 in arithmetic.

In literary qualifications the appointees from Massachusetts were the most sucessful, only 1 out of 43 failing. Nevada lost 6 out of 7; Kan- . sas, 3 out of 6; Delaware, 5 out of 11; Texas, 3 out of 8; and Alabama, 11 out of 32, on this account.

In connection with the presentation of facts respecting the education of man in his normal condition, an attempt has been made to present tables and facts respecting the philanthropic and educational institutions existing in the United States to ameliorate, improve, instruct, or restrain the many forms of physical, mental, and moral distortion or deficiency which are comprehended under the terms deaf-mute, blind, idiot and imbecile, insane, and inebriate asylums, reform schools, and prisons.

EDUCATION OF THE DEAF, DUMB, AND BLIND. The disadvantages suffered by these classes in the struggles of life early attracted the attention of humane educators in America. The statistics of the institutions established in their interest appear in the accompanying tables. I regret that those relating to the blind, after all our endeavors, are so incomplete.

The Bureau is under special obligations to Dr. E. M. Gallaudet, president of the National Deaf-mute College, for assistance in perfecting the table in regard to institutions for the education of the deaf and dumb.

There is great satisfaction in knowing that so much is so well done for these classes. It was my purpose not only to present the facts with regard to their education in schools, but in reference to all associations and institutions designed to aid them, after leaving school, in discharging the duties of the various relations of life. What a contrast is here presented between Christian civilization and barbarism, the latter casting them out as waste humanity, the former devising for them instrumentalities and methods by which to overcome the disabilities resulting from the loss of sight, hearing, and speech! Barbarism destroyed them; Christian civilization builds for them churches. *

* St. Ann's Free Church for deaf-mutes and their friends, in the city of New York, has for eighteen years been trying to improve the temporal and spiritual condition of those deaf-mutes who have finished their education at the various institutions. It has been the means of providing employment for a large number. It maintains one service, conducted entirely in the sign-language, every Sunday afternoon. Its deaf-mute literary association holds Thursday evening meetings for the greater part of the year. In various other ways this church, under the rectorship of Rev. Thomas Gallaudet, D. D., seeks to educate deaf-mutes toward a high standard of personal character. This church has been instrumental in establishing weekly Sunday services under the pastoral care of Rev. Francis J.J. Clerc, D. D., in St. Stephen's Church, Philadelphia, and under the direction of Mr. Samuel A. Adams, deaf-mute, in Grace Church, Baltimore. It also provides monthly services for deaf-mutes in St. Paul's Church, Albany, and quarterly services in the Chapel of the Good Shepherd, Boston. Besides this, it offers occasional services to deaf-mutes in several other cities of our country. In these labors for the religious instruction of deaf-mutes, Rev. Dr. Gallaudet is assisted by the Rev. Stephen F. Holmes, to whom he has imparted a knowledge of the sign-language.

The schools for the deaf, dumb, and blind are fast passing out of the class known as charitable, and becoming part and parcel of the systems of public education. It is hoped that ere long every State will have made ample provision for the establishment and conduct of these schools, and that no one suffering either of these disabilities will fail to receive their benefits.

On the 26th of September, 1870, the subject of establishing an institution for the deaf and dumb in Oregon was introduced into the house of representatives of that State, and action had looking to the organization of such an institution. *

SCHOOLS FOR IDIOTS AND IMBECILES.

Seven of these, it will be observed, are enumerated. These illustrate some of the most striking triumphs of Christian education. They will answer the inquiries of those who have written to me desiring the location of these institutions. The work they do may well be studied by every philosophical educator. How wonderful, how nicely adapted, the process by which the child, dearly beloved by the parent, yet so devoid of reason as to be loathsome in its uncleanliness and senseless habits, is brought to a care of self and the observance of neatness, and often enabled to read and write, and to participate in various simple and useful idustries!

INSANE ASYLUMS.

I am indebted to Dr. Nichols, superintendent of the Government Insane Asylum, near this city, for the statistics of these institutions. Does any one ask what a report on education has to do with insanity? Considering the mistaken notions which prevail in regard to education, I should not be surprised at such an inquiry. I would recall, however, the motto, universally adopted as indicating the object of education, "A sound mind in a sound body.” Does any one presume that insanity is wholly the result of natural causes beyond the reach of the influences of home, of school, and of society? Rather, will not a careful investigation show a very considerable share of the cases of insanity traceable primarily to causes within the control of education, in its large sense? Whence comes dementia ? Why so few of our insane from the entirely

* Dr. Isaac Lewis Peet, principal of the New York Institution for the Instruction of the Deaf and Dumb, in a recent article very pertinently calls attention to the importance of educating deaf-mutes, as illustrated in a recent case of the trial of one of this

a class for murder. He thinks the question of the moral responsibility of an uneducated person, born deaf and dumb, is one of the subtlest in metaphysics. There are peculiar difficulties connected with the subject, growing out of the extremely limited communication possible through an interpreter, the utter ignorance on the part of the deaf-mute of language, and of either human or divine law. The natural resentments of an uneducated deaf-mute are peculiarly dangerous; and every one ought to see that such persons are sent to institutions where they may be taught their relations to God and man at least, and, if possible, as much more as shall render them in some measure capable of discharging the ordinary duties of good citizens.

ignorant class? Why did so few slaves become lunatics? Why are so many persons of higher intellectual attainments found among the insane? I admit that the connection between cause and effect in these cases has not been sufficiently brought out. But this is a reason for giving the subject immediate attention, rather than for delaying it. Those who are erecting school-houses, and regulating the school habits of the young, have need that these facts should be before them, and to consider whether the play-grounds, the character of the buildings, their comfort, ventilation, cheerfulness, the motives and tasks set before children, have or have not an adaptation to preserve the mind in its soundness, or if it has abnormal tendencies to overcome them, and save the family from the sad effect of the dethroned reason, and the State or family from the expense of the support of a lunatic. No educator has sufficiently apprehended and set forth the subtle connection between the mind and the body, and the effect of the one upon the condition of the other. If he would adjust the processes of education most correctly to man in his normal condition, he may wisely consult every abnormal development within his observation. Indeed, the recovering process, which brings the lost reason back to itself, throws the light of some most important suggestions upon the path of the teacher.

No attempt is made in this report at this investigation. I have sought simply to facilitate the efforts of educators at home and abroad, who are disposed to pursue these inquiries, by bringing together the list of institutions of this class, and a few leading facts connected with them.

ASYLUMS FOR INEBRIATES

are surprising their friends with the results they accomplish. The one at Binghamton, New York, is the most noted. Its report for the year 1869 showed 244 patients admitted during the year; discharged, 271; remaining on the 1st of January, 55. The officers observe in the last report, “Of our confidence in the success of the asylum as a curative institution, we have heretofore spoken. That confidence remains unshaken. As a pioneer in a great experiment—an experiment of deeper interest to the family, to society, and to the State than any other now awaiting the final judgment of the public—it is worthy of a full and fair trial."

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REFORMATORIES.

The statistics of these institutions are drawn from the able report of Dr. Wines, Secretary of the New York Prison Association, excepting where they have been modified by the reports received in this office. They point to the great sores that are forming on the body politic, which, so far, have been imperfectly dealt with or understood. They present a sad commentary on the results of parental neglect and city vagabondism. They are a standing argument to enforce the duty of education by the State. They tell how soon parental selfishness, neglect, vice, and crime would raise up a class destructive of life, property, and all socia) good. It is not sufficient to say that the general good requires this method of treating juvenile criminals; the good of every child demands it. They, moreover, point to the defects in our private and public school systems, and suggest important revisions calculated to make their benefits more universal. The success of reformatories already established would seem to overcome objections and enforce the economy and expediency of their establishment in connection with all large centralizations of population.

PRISONS.

It is not difficult for any one to see that the prison stands over against the school. Vice and crime are readily traced to youthful neglect or misconduct. The county or city receives very little admonition from its jail, and the State from its prison. To-day the child is at home or school; to-morrow the man in the dungeon; and the teacher and pupil have learned no lesson.

RELATION OF THE NATIONAL GOVERNMENT TO EDUCATION.

What is now presented as the annual report can be considered only as an initiative effort, either in respect to the body of the information or the tables included. The relation of the National Government to edu. cation with many is not recognized because their attention has not been directed to it. There are, however, certain things which the National Government may and should do in this relation, so palpable that their statement is sufficient to secure almost universal assent:

1. It may do all things required for education in the Territories. 2. It may do all things required for education in the District of Columbia. 3. It may also do all things required by its treaties with and its obligations to the Indians. 4. The National Government may also do all that its international relations require in regard to education. 5. The National Government may use either the public domain or the money received from its sale for the benefit of education. 6. The National Government may know all about education in the country, and may communicate of what it knows at the discretion of Congress and the Executive. 7. The Government should provide a national educational office and an officer, and furnish him clerks, and all means for the fulfillment of the national educational obligations.

RECOMMENDATIONS.

The present opportunities of this Bureau are utterly inadequate to the proper discharge of these duties. I, therefore, recommend

First. An increase of the clerical force of this Bureau, to enable it to extend, subdivide, and systematize its work, so that its correspondence,

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